Information

“Star of the West” is fired upon

“Star of the West” is fired upon


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

On January 9, 1861, a Union merchant ship, the Star of the West, is fired upon as it tries to deliver supplies to Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. This incident was the first time shots were exchanged between North and South, although it did not trigger the Civil War.

When South Carolinians seceded from the Union on December 20, 1860, they demanded the immediate withdrawal of the Federal garrison at Fort Sumter. President James Buchanan refused to comply with this demand but was also careful not to make any provocative move. Inside the fort, Major Robert Anderson and his 80 soldiers needed supplies. The Buchanan administration decided to dispatch a civilian ship, the Star of the West, instead of a military transport, in order to keep tensions from flaring.

The Star of the West left New York on January 5, 1861. After the ship was en route, Secretary of War Joseph Holt received a dispatch from Anderson saying that the garrison was safe and supplies were not needed immediately. Anderson added that the secessionists were building gun emplacements overlooking the main shipping channel into Charleston Harbor. Holt realized that the ship was in great danger and a war might erupt. He tried in vain to recall the Star of the West, and Anderson was not aware that the ship continued on its way.

On the morning of January 9,Star of the West captain John McGowan steered the ship into the channel near the fort. Two cannon shots roared from a South Carolina battery on Morris Island. They came from gunner George E. Haynsworth, a cadet at The Citadel in Charleston. The shots represented the opening salvo of the war. More shots were fired, and the ship suffered a minor hit. Anderson watched from Fort Sumter but did not respond in support of the ship. If he had, the war might have started on that day.

The incident resulted in strong talk on both sides, but stopped short of war. The standoff at Fort Sumter continued until the Confederates attacked in April, triggering the Civil War.


“Star of the West” is fired upon - HISTORY

Legacy Edit
The Star of the West Medal is awarded annually to the “best drilled cadet” at The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina.[6] In June 1893, The Citadel Superintendent, Colonel Asbury Coward, took the corps to Aiken, South Carolina, for their annual encampment and graduation exercises. The excellent military work of the cadets suggested to Dr. Benjamin H. Teague, a Confederate Veteran and a collector of Confederate relics, to present to the Citadel a medal for the winner of the Best Drilled Cadet competition. Among his many curios, Teague had a piece of oak from the Steam Ship Star of the West. He sawed a small piece of this wood into the shape of a star and had it mounted on a gold medal. The recipient would wear the medal for one year and then pass it to the next recipient. The winner’s names are inscribed on the “Star of the West” monument on the college grounds. However, the original medal with the wood has been lost to history.

Actually there were shots fired by Union soldiers at Fort Barrancas in Pensacola, Florida, at a group of Southerners approaching what they apparently thought was an empty fort the night before the shots at the Star of the West. Here is what I posted back in 2009:

Thanks. Good info. I guess NY Times didn’t have any correspondents there. Though maybe they did and it didn’t get big coverage. I note that there are many columns of correspondence on “disunion” or secession activity from all the southern states. I confess, I don’t read it all while getting ready to post it.

A lot of people are unaware that the Star of the West was actually carrying troops, and was therefore a valid military target.

A lot of people are also unaware that operational secrecy was breached, and the Confederates knew that ship was carrying arms and soldiers.

People just like to tell the parts of history that make their side look good, and completely leave out the parts of history that make their side look like evil bastards.

Anderson committed the first belligerent act of the war.

Anderson committed the first belligerent act of the war.

Strictly speaking, Anderson didn't grab the captain of the ship, it was Anderson's officer Hall and a sergeant that did that when the captain refused to take the ship to Fort Sumter. They threw the captain into the hold of the ship and went to Sumter. Anderson was already at Fort Sumter. See: Post 22.

The last sentence of my post 24 of another of Hommer_J_Simpson's threads [Link] quoted the Charleston Courier newspaper as saying:

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.


Star of the West fired upon. Mississippi secedes.

* The Star of the West Fired Into
* She is Obliged to Put to Sea
* A Flag of Truce from Fort Sumter
and more.

Includes a brief report headed: "The Mississippi State Convention" saying ". ordinance for immediate secession of the State has passed the Convention by a vote of 84 to 15. "

Another article headed: "The California Pony Express" and "The President's Message" plus much more.

Many believe that Star of the West incident was the actual start of the Civil War.

Other news of the day including pre war tension reporting.

Complete in 8 pages. This issue has a chunk missing from the edge on page 3/4 which does affect text. Also on page 3/4 there is a print-over which does affect text. (see photos).

Wikipedia notes: The first shots of the Civil War occurred January 9, 1861, when the Star of the West was fired upon by cadets from The Citadel, who were stationed at the Morris Island battery as the ship entered Charleston Harbor.[2] This prevented the Star of the West from resupplying Major Robert Anderson's garrison at Fort Sumter. The Star of the West was given a warning shot across the bow and turned about to leave the harbor mouth. She was then fired on from Fort Moultrie and hit twice. The mission was abandoned and the Star of the West headed for her home port of New York Harbor.


Star of the West

Morris Island, across the water directly in front of you, was the scene of the Civil War's first hostile cannon fire, preceding even the bombardment of Fort Sumter.

By January 1861, Union troops occupying For Sumter were surrounded by Southern defenses. To reinforce Sumter, President James Buchanan secretly sent the unarmed coastal steamer Star of the West to Charleston. But news of the mission arrived first, and when Star of the West appeared, a South Carolina battery opened fire from Morris Island. Their outdated guns did little damage, but when the powerful guns of Fort Moultrie fired, Star of the West retreated, abandoning the mission.

Star of the West carried two hundred men, provisions, small arms, and ammunition. Hoping to avoid arousing Southern anger, President Buchanan sent the sidewheelers instead of a warship.

Erected by Fort Sumter National Monument, South Carolina - National Park Service - U.S. Department of the Interior.

Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in this topic list: War, US Civil. In addition, it is included in the Former U.S. Presidents: #15 James Buchanan series list. A significant historical month for this entry is January 1861.

Location. 32° 45.12′ N, 79° 52.455′ W. Marker is

near Charleston, South Carolina, in Charleston County. Marker is located at Fort Sumter National Monument and only reached by boat. See links below for more information about access to the site. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Charleston SC 29412, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Night Attack (a few steps from this marker) Ironclads Attack (a few steps from this marker) Mountain Howitzer (a few steps from this marker) Blockade Runners (within shouting distance of this marker) Major Robert Anderson (within shouting distance of this marker) 8-inch (200 Pounder) Parrott (within shouting distance of this marker) Controlling the Harbor (within shouting distance of this marker) H.L. Hunley (within shouting distance of this marker). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Charleston.

More about this marker. At the bottom of the marker is a contemporary illustration depicting the action discussed on the marker. A South Carolina battery fires on Star of the West. Among those firing were Citadel cadets. To this day Citadel cadets proudly claim to have fired the "first shots" of the Civil War.

Also see . . . Star of the West. Wikipedia entry on the ship. After the aborted attempt to reinforce Fort Sumter, the Star of the West was active supplying other Federal garrisons. Captured in April 1861 at Galveston, Texas, the ship was used by the Confederates. She was scuttled in the Tallahatchie River, Mississippi, in April 1863. (Submitted on May 15, 2010, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.)


“Star of the West”

Then in early January of 1861, the War Department chartered the “Star of the West” to transport military supplies and reinforcements to the garrison of Fort Sumter.

Star of the West was a 1,172 ton civilian steamship built by Jeremiah Simonson, of New York for Cornelius Vanderbilt, and launched June 17, 1852. Her length was 228.3 feet with a beam of 32.7 feet, with wooden hullside paddle wheels and two masts.

The Star of the West started service between New York and San Juan de Nicaragua on October 20, 1852 and continued this service for Charles Morgan from July 1853 to March 1856.

In June 1857, Star of the West started the New York to Aspinwall service for the United States Mail Steamship Company until September 1859 when it went onto the New York, Havana, New Orleans service.

Star of the West approaching Fort Sumter. Illustration from Frank Leslie’s Weekly.

Then on January 9, 1861, Star of the West was fired on by South Carolina cadets stationed at the Morris Island Citadel as the ship entered Charleston Harbor.

Star of the West was given a warning shot across the bow and then hit three times by what were effectively the first shots of the American Civil War.

Although Star of the West did not suffer any major damage, her captain, John McGowan, considered it too dangerous to continue and turned about to leave the harbor.

With the mission abandoned, Star of the West was prevented from resupplying Major Robert Anderson’s garrison at Fort Sumter, and headed for her home port of New York Harbor.

Even before Abraham Lincoln took office, seven states had declared their secession from the Union.

They established a Southern government, the Confederate States of America on February 4, 1861.

They took control of federal forts and other properties within their boundaries with little resistance from outgoing President James Buchanan.

Inauguration of Abraham Lincoln at the Capitol on March 4, 1861

Then during his inaugural address March 4, 1861, President Lincoln declared his administration would not initiate civil war and argued that the Constitution was a more perfect union than the earlier Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, that it was a binding contract, and called any secession “legally void.” His speech closed with a plea for restoration of the bonds of union.

A peace conference failed to find a compromise, and both sides prepared for war.

The Star of the West was hired out of New York as a troop transport for $1,000 a day under its master, Elisha Howes.

Star of the West sailed for Texas to pick up seven companies of United States troops assembled at Indianola.

Then on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, a key fort held by Union troops in South Carolina, President Lincoln called for each state to provide troops to retake the fort and the American Civil War was officially underway.

On April 18, 1861, while anchored off Pass Caballo bar leading into Matagorda Bay, the Star of the West was captured by Colonel Earl Van Dorn and members of two Galveston militia units, the Wigfall Guards and the Island City Rifles.

Two days later the ship was taken to New Orleans where Louisiana’s Governor Moore changed its name to CSS St. Philip. The old name persisted, however, and Star of the West served as a naval station and hospital ship until Admiral David Farragut captured New Orleans.

Still under Confederate control, Star of the West escaped recapture by transporting millions in gold, silver, and paper currency to Vicksburg and continued to Yazoo City, Mississippi. When federal Lieutenant Commander Watson Smith tried to lead two ironclads and five smaller vessels through the Yazoo Pass into the Tallahatchie River to attack Vicksburg from the rear, Confederate defenders hurriedly constructed Fort Pemberton, and Major General William W. Loring had Star of the West sunk broadside in the Tallahatchie near Greenwood to block the passage of the Union flotilla.

Following the war, the owners of Star of the West collected $175,000 in damages from the United States government for their loss.


Civil War [ edit | edit source ]

On January 9, 1861, before the Confederacy was formed, the Star of the West was fired upon by cadets from The Citadel stationed at the Morris Island battery as the ship entered Charleston Harbor. ΐ] This prevented the Star of the West from resupplying Major Robert Anderson's garrison at Fort Sumter. The Star of the West was given a warning shot across the bow and turned about to leave the harbor mouth. She was then fired on from Fort Moultrie and hit twice. The mission was abandoned and the Star of the West headed for her home port of New York Harbor.

The ship was then hired out of New York as a troop transport for $1,000 a day under its master, Elisha Howes. The Star of the West sailed for Texas to pick up seven companies of United States troops assembled at Indianola. On April 18, 1861, while anchored off Pass Caballo bar leading into Matagorda Bay, the ship was captured by Colonel Earl Van Dorn and members of two Galveston militia units, the Wigfall Guards and the Island City Rifles. Two days later the ship was taken to New Orleans, where Louisiana's Governor Moore changed its name to the CSS St. Philip. The old name persisted, however, and the Star of the West served as a naval station and hospital ship until Admiral David Farragut captured New Orleans.

Still under Confederate control, the Star of the West escaped recapture by transporting millions in gold, silver, and paper currency to Vicksburg and continued to Yazoo City, Mississippi. When federal Lieutenant Commander Watson Smith tried to lead two ironclads and five smaller vessels through the Yazoo Pass into the Tallahatchie River to attack Vicksburg from the rear, Confederate defenders hurriedly constructed Fort Pemberton, and Major General William W. Loring had the Star of the West sunk broadside in the Tallahatchie near Greenwood to block the passage of the Union flotilla. In a skirmish on April 12, 1863, the Union forces suffered heavy casualties and were forced to withdraw.

Following the war, the owners of the Star of the West collected $175,000 in damages from the United States government for their loss.


Civil War [ edit | edit source ]

On January 9, 1861, weeks after South Carolina had seceded (but before other states had done so to form the Confederacy) Star of the West was fired upon by cadets from The Citadel stationed at the Morris Island battery as the ship entered Charleston Harbor. ΐ]

This prevented Star of the West from resupplying Major Robert Anderson's garrison at Fort Sumter. Star of the West was given a warning shot across the bow and turned about to leave the harbor mouth. She was hit three times by what were effectively the first shots of the American Civil War. Although Star of the West did not suffer any major damage, her captain, John McGowan, considered it too dangerous to continue and turned about to leave the harbor. The mission was abandoned and Star of the West headed for her home port of New York Harbor.

The ship was then hired out of New York as a troop transport for $1,000 a day under its master, Elisha Howes. Star of the West sailed for Texas to pick up seven companies of United States troops assembled at Indianola. On April 18, 1861, while anchored off Pass Caballo bar leading into Matagorda Bay, the ship was captured by Colonel Earl Van Dorn and members of two Galveston militia units, the Wigfall Guards and the Island City Rifles. Two days later the ship was taken to New Orleans where Louisiana's Governor Moore changed its name to CSS St. Philip. The old name persisted, however, and Star of the West served as a naval station and hospital ship until Admiral David Farragut captured New Orleans. Still under Confederate control, Star of the West escaped recapture by transporting millions in gold, silver, and paper currency to Vicksburg and continued to Yazoo City, Mississippi. When federal Lieutenant Commander Watson Smith tried to lead two ironclads and five smaller vessels through the Yazoo Pass into the Tallahatchie River to attack Vicksburg from the rear, Confederate defenders hurriedly constructed Fort Pemberton, and Major General William W. Loring had Star of the West sunk broadside in the Tallahatchie near Greenwood to block the passage of the Union flotilla. In a skirmish on April 12, 1863, the Union forces suffered heavy casualties and were forced to withdraw. Following the war, the owners of Star of the West collected $175,000 in damages from the United States government for their loss.


History

Sequoyah, the inventor of the Cherokee syllabary

Liberty today sits on land that was once part of the Cherokee Indians’ hunting ground. The Otarre, or Lower Hill Cherokees, had several thriving villages along the riverbanks in the area perhaps the most notable example being the village of Keowee, located near the modern day Oconee and Pickens County line. Cherokee tribesmen, who often survived by growing crops, and tended to live in small villages, were in many ways more domesticated than other Native American tribes. The Cherokee also hunted game, believing that the foothills were a sacred hunting ground for deer, buffalo, and other large animals. [6]

Tradition holds that Hernando DeSoto and his group of Spanish explorers were the first Europeans to travel through the area around year 1540. [7] The first Englishmen to venture into the area were traders who often traveled up from Charles Town and Savannah to exchange their guns, horses, cloth, and liquor with the Cherokee for animal skin and fur. [8] In 1753, British colonists built Fort Prince George, the first white settlement in Pickens County. [9] During the American Revolution the Cherokee chose to support the loyalists. South Carolinian patriots, angered at the Cherokee for supporting the Redcoats, forced them to cede much of their territory with the Treaty of DeWitt’s Corner in 1777. [10] American settlers did not start moving into the area in large numbers until the mid-1780’s.

Cherokee Chief Attakullakulla

Much of the history of the Liberty area in the late 18th century is unknown. By 1800, Liberty—then called Liberty Spring—was included in the newly formed Pendleton District, which included most of modern-day Anderson, Oconee, and Pickens Counties. During the Antebellum period, most people living in Liberty Spring were subsistence farmers: farmers who grew only what they needed to survive. Few in the area could afford to own slaves like the wealthier planters in the Low-country, and almost every farmer was forced to work the land himself. Even for those who wished to trade with other towns, the poor roads made the effort to transport goods cost more than those goods were often worth. Outside of church, local residents had few opportunities to socialize with each other. By 1826, the Pendleton District had split up into Pickens and Anderson Districts, with Liberty becoming part of the new Pickens District, which included both Pickens and Oconee Counties.

The Civil War and Reconstruction Era (1860-1877)

/>Confederate General Wade Hampton III

In 1860, a group of Pickens County delegates went to Columbia, where they—along with every other South Carolina delegate—voted unanimously in favor of South Carolina’s secession from the Union. [11] Though it is generally accepted that the first shot of the Civil War occurred when the Union ship Star of the West was fired upon from state troops at Morris Island on January 9, 1861, an old legend claims that a local resident named William Mauldin fired upon the Union ship from Fort Moultrie a few hours earlier, making his the first shot of the War. [12] Either way, what is known is that men from almost every family in the area enlisted to fight for the Confederate cause. Many families lost two, three, or more sons to the war effort. Several companies of infantry and cavalry were formed in Pickens District before being dispatched to serve under one of the state regiments. The men who either refused to enlist or deserted in battle were often thought upon with scorn by their neighbors for the rest of their lives, and even their descendants were often ostracized for years afterwards. The women who stayed behind willingly suffered through the whole war by doing without foods and supplies that were needed in the war effort. [13]

After the war, Pickens District, like the rest of the South, was placed under martial law by Union troops. [14] With little choice in the matter, South Carolina was readmitted to the Union in 1868. Not long afterwards, Pickens District was separated into the modern day Pickens and Oconee Counties. Between 1865 and 1877, southerners had little control over their government. Gangs of Union troops sacked and looted many farms in Pickens County during this period, known as Reconstruction, and the county and state governments were largely controlled by Northerners who moved South after the war. [15] Reconstruction officially ended in South Carolina around year 1877, not long after former Confederate General Wade Hampton III was elected governor under the Democratic ticket. [16]

The Founders’ Era (1876-1900)

Liberty’s official recognition as a town came soon after the Charlotte-Atlanta Airline Railway was completed in the early 1870s. [17] Former Confederate General William Easley, a lawyer working for the railroad company, negotiated to have the tracks laid through the southern part of Pickens County. It is along these tracks that the towns of Liberty, Easley, and Central all grew. By 1873, Liberty Station was built north of Liberty Spring after Mrs. Catherine Templeton deeded her land to the railroad company. John T. Boggs set up the new Liberty Post Office that same year, and was named the town’s first postmaster. [18] Liberty was formally chartered on March 2, 1876, with the future town center being located on the former lands of Mrs. Templeton.

In 1877, James Avenger was appointed the town’s first marshal. The marshall, a forerunner to today’s chief of police, was satirized in a Pickens Sentinel article that claimed, “there was nothing for him to do, except to look after the cows that go astray.” [19] The town’s first mayor W.E. Holcombe, a lawyer and former state senator, was elected in 1876. [20] He, like every succeeding mayor until the early 20th century, conducted most municipal business in his own home. Several schools were already in operation by this time, with most being privately funded, and sponsored either by the community or by the local churches. The Liberty First Baptist Church had existed prior to the city’s founding, being located at the old Liberty Spring site. [21] Reports indicate the Church had a congregation as early as year 1802, when they met at an old log house north of the present-day town. The Liberty Presbyterian Church was built in 1883 at its present site formerly the church’s members had worshiped at Mt. Carmel Church in the country. [22]

Norfolk Southern Mixed Freight – Liberty, SC

The Textile Era (1900-1980)

Liberty’s next change came in 1901, when Mr. Jeptha P. Smith organized and started the first cotton mill, which he named the Liberty Mill. The original mill contained a card room and operating spinning frame. Eighteen houses and two overseer houses were built as a mill village to house the plant’s workers and their families. The second cotton mill was built by Mr. Lang Clayton of Norris in 1905. Built in a part of town often referred to as Rabbit Town, the plant was originally named the Calumet Mill, and later renamed the Maplecroft Mill. By 1920, both mills had come under the control of

The four Woodside brothers (left to right) Edward F., Robert I.
J. David, and John T. Photo Courtesy Mr. James Woodside

Woodside Mills. The first mill became known as Woodside Liberty Plant #1 (commonly called the Big Mill), and the second as Woodside Liberty Plant #2 (commonly called the Little Mill). Woodside Mills operated the plants until 1956, when the company was purchased by Dan River Mills of Virginia. At their height in the 1970s, the mills employed over one thousand workers and housed over one thousand looms. [23] In the 1970s, the Woodside Liberty Mills were the world’s largest producers of oxford fabric, a popular fabric of the era. The mills were again purchased in the early 1980s by Greenwood Mills, which maintained control of the mills until local textile industry declined in the 1990s due largely to foreign competition. In 2013 the little mill was demolished. The Big Mill is currently being stripped for demolition.

The growth of cotton mills in the area brought about a major shift in the way people lived. Many migrated away from farmlands to the mill villages, and went from growing food to survive to earning hourly wages in the mills. Though farming was a hard life, early mill life was grueling in its own right mill workers—condescendingly referred to as lintheads—often worked twelve or more hours a day in unventilated rooms. [24] Nevertheless, most workers believed that they were fortunate just to have such work, and willingly worked in the same mills all their lives. In many mill village families, both the husband and wife worked in the same mill.

Outside of the mills, several other major changes also happened during this long time period. Electricity came to Liberty in 1910, when Mr. J. Warren Smith, a salesman, installed two gasoline generators downtown to operate the first street lights and the lights of several shops. By 1928, demand had increased to the point that Mr. Smith decided to sell his assets to Duke Power, which established a small office downtown. [25] The Liberty Fire Department was first established in 1925, with J. Warren Smith—the same man who brought electricity to Liberty—being named as the first fire chief. The Fire Department moved into its present building in 1974. [26] The first town library originated in 1947 as a small room located in the same building as City Hall. The Sarlin Community Library, the one in current use, was built at its present location in 1966. [27] Liberty’s police department was finally organized in the 1920s, when the city employed a chief of police and two policemen. The first telephone service came to Liberty in 1902, when Southern Bell installed a telephone switchboard in the same building as the post office. The first water plant for the town was built in 1918 on Black Snake Road. This plant initially supplied water to around one hundred homes. This plant was phased out by 1956 after a newer waterworks sight was built on Eighteen Mile Creek. [28]

The former Mohawk Carpet plant is currently occupied by Southern Vinyl Windows & Doors, a major employer in the area.


“Star of the West” is fired upon - HISTORY




The Star of the West.
From Battles and Leaders of the Civil War.

President Buchanan was persuaded to send off a relief expedition almost immediately. Initial plans called for the dispatch of the sloop of war Brooklyn for this purpose, but when word came which indicated that the South Carolinians had obstructed the harbor entrance by sinking several ships, it was decided to use an ordinary merchant ship. The Brooklyn, of heavy draft, could probably not now pass into the harbor. A merchant ship would certainly excite less suspicion and would avoid the appearance of a coercive movement. Accordingly, the Star of the West —a ship which regularly sailed southward from New York—was chartered. Two hundred men, small arms and ammunition, and several months' provisions were placed aboard. The men were to remain below deck on entering Charleston Harbor the Brooklyn would follow, in case the Star of the West were fired upon and disabled.

But Charleston was forewarned. When the Star of the West appeared at the entrance of the harbor on January 9, 1861, Citadel cadets opened fire with a gun mounted on Cummings Point and the merchant ship, unarmed, steamed out of the harbor. Anderson had held his fire, thinking the firing unauthorized by the State authorities. Orders authorizing supporting fire on his part had failed to reach him in time. As if accidentally, civil war had been averted for the moment.

There was some Northern reaction to the incident, but further plans for Anderson's relief once projected, were delayed. Anderson indicated no immediate need, and President Buchanan was anxious to end his term of office in peace. On January 10, the Secretary of War had ordered Major Anderson to act "strictly on the defensive." Anderson and Governor Pickens of South Carolina exchanged angry letters, and the Governor's demand for the fort's surrender (January 11) was resolved in the "mission" to Washington of the State's attorney general, I. G. Hayne. When that mission, tempered by the efforts of cooler-headed Southern Senators, met stubborn resistance on the part of President Buchanan, the situation was resolved in the formation of the Southern Confederacy, with the consequent assumption of the Fort Sumter problem by that government.


The American Civil War raged from 1861 to 1865, killing between 600,000 to 1 million Americans on both sides of the divide. After a long and intense crisis over slavery, Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860, and the Confederate States seceded shortly after.

The first battle of the war took place at Fort Sumter near Charleston, South Carolina, which had been the first state to seceded the union. After a long period of shortages in the fort due to a Confederate blockade, the first crisis of Lincoln's administration was to resupply the fort. After an ultimatum from the South to evacuate the fort was ignored, Confederate forces attacked on April 12, 1861, beginning the civil war.


War of the Rebellion: Serial 001 Page 0001

CHAPTER I.

OPERATIONS IN CHARLESTON HARBOR, S. C.

December 20, 1860-April 14, 1861.

SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS.

December 20, 1860.-Ordinance of secession adopted by the South Carolina Convention.

26, 1860-United States troops, under command of Major R. Anderson, transferred from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter.

27, 1860-Castle Pinckney and Fort Moultrie seized by the State troops.

30, 1860-United States Arsenal at Charleston seized by the State troops.

January 2, 1861-First Johnson seized by the State troops.

5, 1861-First expedition for the relief of Fort Sumter sails from New York Harbor.

9, 1861-Steamship Star of the west fired upon by the State troops.

11, 1861-Surrender of Fort Sumter demanded of Major Anderson by the governor of South Carolina and refused.*

March 1, 1861-The Government of the Confederate States assumes control of military affairs at Charleston.

3, 1861.-Brigadier General G. T. Beauregard, C. S. Army, assumes command at Charleston.

April 3, 1861-Schooner Rhoda H. Shannon fired upon by the Confederate batteries.

10, 1861-Second expedition for the relief of Fort Sumter sails from New York Harbor.

11, 1861-Evacuations of fort Sumter demanded by General Beauregard.

12-14, 1861.-Bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter.

REPORTS.#

Numbers 1.-Major Robert Anderson, First U. S. Artillery, of the evacuation of Fort Moultrie.

Numbers 2.-Extracts from annual report of Captain John G. Foster, U. S. Corps of Engineers, relating to the evacuation of Fort Moultrie, the seizure of Castle Pinckney and Fort Johnson, and operations at Fort Sumter.

Numbers 3.-Ordnance Storekeeper F. C. Humphreys, U. S. Army, of the seizure of Charleston Arsenal, and correspondence.

---------------

*No record of this transaction found in the files of the Department but the demand and refusal were published about the time stated, and that demand is referred to in Foster to Totten, January 12, and in Holt to Hayne, February 6, 1861. See "Correspondence and Orders," post.-COMPILER.

#Of the bombardment and evacuation of Fort Sumter, when not otherwise indicated.

---------------

1 R R

Page 1
(Untitled)

If you have trouble accessing this page and need to request an alternate format contact [email protected]


Learn about current events in
historical perspective on our Origins site.


Watch the video: Citadel Cadets Hit the High Seas WCSC (June 2022).