USS Sidonia - History


(AKA-42: dp. 4,087; 1. 426'; b. 58'; dr. 16', s. 16.9 k.; cpl. 303; a. 1 5", 8 40mm., 10 20mm.: cl. Artemis: T. S4-SE2-BE 1) Sidonia (AKA-42) was laid down on 1 February 1945.

Under Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 1903) by the Walsh-Kaiser Co., Inc., Providence, R.I.; launched on 7 April 1945; sponsored by Mrs. Gustave Metzman and commissioned on 30 April 1945, Lt. Comdr. E. C. Earl in command.

Sidonia's sea trials were interrupted when she struck a derelict off Cape Cod on 11 May 1945, and repairs to her port propeller and to metallurgical defects in her port shafting lasted until 31 May. The ship arrived at Norfolk on 3 June and underwent shakedown in Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay from 4 to 13 June. After postshakedown repairs, she sailed on 23 June for France arriving at Marseilles on 4 July. There she loaded 26 troops with their supplies and sailed on 14 July for the Pacific, transiting the Panama Canal on 28 and 29 July, and calling at Eniwetok from 18 to 21 August. On 22 August, Sidonia's starboard engine was disabled by an electrical ground, and it remained out of commission during the rest of the ship's career. Sidonia arrived at Lingayen Gulf on 31 August and disembarked her troops and cargo. On 13 September, a fire disabled her port engine, and repairs lasted until 24 September. The ship arrived at Manila on 29 September and departed on 7 October with 322 homeward-bound servicemen, whom she disembarked at Portland, Oreg., on 9 November There her engines were dismantled, but, on 18 December; repairs were suspended and the ship was ordered deactivated. Sidonia was decommissioned at Everett, Wash., on 25 February 1946, struck from the Navy list on 17 April 1946, and transferred to the War Shipping Administration on 29 June 1946 for retention in the National Defense Reserve Fleet at Olympia, Wash. The ship was sold on 7 December 1964 to Zidell Explorations, Inc., Portland, Oreg., for scrapping.

‘Knights of Sidonia’ Gets Pulled From Netflix Again Next Month

Knights of Sidonia is slated to be pulled from the Netflix library again next month.

This particular anime series has a significant history with Netflix

Season 1 and Season 2 of Knights of Sidonia are scheduled to be removed from the Netflix library in January of 2021. But, if history repeats itself, this may be a very short lived removal. As What’s On Netflix reminds us, this is the oldest anime series under the Netflix Original umbrella. It, however, technically falls under the “internationally distributed exclusive.” The series currently has 24 episodes total. And, they are all set to be removed on January 1st, 2021.

The Netflix fan site describes the series as “one of the best anime series” on the streaming service. It is liked for its gorgeous animation and its incredible story. For someone who has never watched anime before, this series is an nice gateway for newbies.

This isn’t the first time Netflix lost Knights of Sidonia

Netflix lost the rights to stream Knights of Sidonia back in July of 2019. After just six months, however, Netflix reclaimed those rights and the series was added back to the streaming library. A few regions, including Australia, however, never got the series back. But, this makes sense. Streaming rights on an international level can get pretty complicated.

Naturally, this has a lot of Netflix subscribers thinking the removal of Knights of Sidonia this time around isn’t a huge deal. After all, it will just come back, right? What’s On Netflix reminds us Netflix does not provide all of the details about every contract they have in place.

Knights of Sidonia, for example, just magically showed up in the streaming library again six months after being pulled. So, if you plan to watch it, it is a good idea to watch it before the removal date. After all, there is no guarantee Netflix is going to pull a second magic act to bring it back again.

Will we see a Season 3?

We also know some fans of Knights of Sidonia are holding out hope for a Season 3. But, as more time passes, it becomes harder and harder for this to be a possibility. That being said, there is a film attached to the series slated for release in 2021. We don’t have much information regarding whether the film will hit Netflix. But, we do know the studio behind the series is still working with Netflix and working on fresh anime shows!

Have you checked out Knights of Sidonia? Do you like watching anime? Are you surprised this series is being pulled? Share your thoughts with us in the comments. And, stick with us at Tv Shows Ace for the latest Netflix related news.

In the city centre is the Prophet’s Mosque, which Muhammad himself helped to build. Non-Muslims are not permitted to enter this sacred area of the city but may still glimpse a good view from outside the area. Additions and improvements to the mosque complex were undertaken by a succession of caliphs, and the chamber of the Prophet’s wives was merged in the extension during the time of the Umayyad caliph al-Walīd ibn ʿAbd al-Malik. Fire twice damaged the mosque, first in 1256 and again in 1481, and its rebuilding was variously undertaken by devout rulers of several Islamic countries. Sultan Selim II (1566–74) decorated the interior of the mosque with mosaics overlaid with gold. Sultan Mahmud II built the dome in 1817 and in 1839 painted it green, this being the accepted colour of Islam. Sultan Abdülmecid I initiated a project for the virtual reconstruction of the mosque in 1848 and completed it in 1860. This was the last renovation before the modern expansion planned by King ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz in 1948 and executed by King Saud in 1953–55. The mosque now includes a new northern court with its surrounding colonnades, all in the same style as the 19th-century building but of concrete instead of stone from the neighbouring hills. The qafaṣ (cage), to which female worshippers were formerly restricted, has been dismantled, while, apart from minor repairs, the southern (main) part of the mosque has remained intact. It comprises the three ornamental iron structures representing the houses of the Prophet and containing respectively (according to general consensus) the tomb of the Prophet himself under the great green dome, those of the first two caliphs, Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, and that of the Prophet’s daughter Fāṭimah. A specially adorned section of the pillared southern colonnade represents the palm grove (al-Rawḍah) in which the first simple mosque was built.

In Ottoman times there was a small military landing ground at Sultanah, to the south near the garrison’s barracks, but the area is now occupied by the king’s palace and its extensive satellites. There too are the ruins of the tomb of ʿAmr ibn al-ʿĀṣ, the celebrated conquerer for early Islam of Palestine and Egypt. The tomb of Aaron is located on the highest point of Mount Uḥud.

Other religious features of the oasis include the mosque of Qubāʾ, the first in Islamic history, from which the Prophet was vouchsafed a view of Mecca the Mosque of the Two Qiblahs, commemorating the change of the prayer direction from Jerusalem to Mecca, at al-Rimāḥ the tomb of Ḥamza, uncle of the Prophet and of his companions who fell in the Battle of Uḥud (625), in which the Prophet was wounded and the cave in the flank of Uḥud in which the Prophet took refuge on that occasion. Other mosques commemorate where he donned his armour for that battle where he rested on the way thither, and where he unfurled his standard for the Battle of the Ditch (Al-Khandaq) and the ditch itself, dug around Medina by Muhammad, in which the rubble of the great fire during the reign (1839–61) of Sultan Abdülmecid I was dumped. All these spots are the object of pious visitation by all Muslims visiting Medina and, like the Prophet’s Mosque, they are forbidden to non-Muslims. In addition the city is also the site of the Islamic University, established in 1961.

The modernization of Medina has not been so rapid as that of Jeddah, Riyadh, and other Saudi towns. Building development has involved the complete dismantlement of the old city wall and the merging of that historic area with the now built-up pilgrim camping ground (al-Manakh) and the Anbariyyah quarter, beyond the Abu Jidaʿ torrent bed, which was formerly the commercial quarter and in which the Turks established the railway station and terminal yards. The foundations of the old city wall were found to be lower than the surface of accumulated silt and rubble, but no attempt has been made to examine the excavations from the archaeological point of view. Nor has any archaeological work been done on the ruined sites of the old settlements, the largest of which was Yathrib (the Lathrippa or Iathrippa of Ptolemy and Stephanus Byzantius), which gave its name to the whole oasis until Islamic times. There are also several interesting mounds (ʿitm), besides the village of Al-Quraidha, which would certainly produce historical data of interest. The Islamic cemetery of al-Baqīʿ (Baqīʿ al-Gharqad) was shorn of all the domes and ornamentation of the tombs of the saints at the time of the Wahhābī conquest of 1925 simple concrete graves in place of the old monuments and a circuit wall have been installed.


Due to the nigh-complete lack of communication with other seed ships, Sidonia has evolved into an entirely unique society with equally unique technology. The evolution of their technology has followed rather unsurprising directions given their desperate situation for survival.

Resource Extraction and Preservation

Sidonians are experts at resource extraction and preservation. They genetically engineered their entire population to be able to use plant-like photosynthesis to generate nutrients for their bodies, reducing their need to eat food down to roughly one meal a week. They do still need to drink water regularly but Sidonians have also developed extremely advanced filtration technology, able to extract clean drinking water from materials ranging from Garde hydraulic fluid to urine in a matter of seconds. Every Garde pilot's flight suit is equipped with one and also inserts a catheter into the pilot, giving access to a long term supply of drinking water on long missions or if the pilot gets stranded.

For resource extraction, there are multiple pieces of equipment that can be used by Gardes to quickly extract water or minerals from a variety of locations, ranging from planets to ice comets.

Genetics and Biology

Sidonian genetic and biological technology is extremely advanced. Along with the genetic manipulation they did to the entire Sidonian population to give them the ability to photosynthesize, they have advanced technology related to cloning, memory extraction, and transfer, artificial wombs, and accelerated training. The Honoka sisters, for example, are a set of cloned, fully trained, and combat-capable Garde pilots but are only 5 years old. Given how often they take casualties while fighting the Gauna, this technology is extremely critical to keep their population numbers from dwindling too much. They also have the ability to near-infinitely prolong the life of any human barring death due to critical injury, however ,the Immortal Ship Committee zealously guards this information for themselves.

Military Tech

Very unsurprisingly, because of the constant threat of attacks by Gauna, Sidonian military technology is not only one of its most advanced fields, but also sees the most research and development. The Garde units, large humanoid-shaped combat mechs, are highly mobile and adaptable multipurpose combat vehicles and advanced virtual-reality training simulators are used to train their pilots. Multiple technologies built around the use of the powerful Heigus Particles have given Sidonians strong power generation, beam weapon and propulsion equipment.

29 July

In the early hours, the English sent eight so-called “fireships” to attack the Armada. These sacrificial ships were filled with combustible material before being set alight and sent towards the enemy fleet in order to cause destruction and chaos. In this case, none of the Spanish ships were burnt, but the fireships were successful in causing the fleet to break formation and scatter.

The route taken by the Armada.

The Duke of Medina Sidonia tried to reform near the small port of Gravelines, further up the coast. But the English soon attacked, with the ensuing clash becoming known as the Battle of Gravelines.

The English fleet had learned something of the Armada’s strengths and weaknesses during its previous engagements with the Spanish fleet. This, coupled with its superior manoeuvrability, meant it was able to provoke the Armada’s front line ships into using up much of their ammunition, while many Spanish gunners were killed.

By late afternoon, however, the weather was worsening, and the English were out of ammunition. So they chose to withdraw.

When the winds shifted to blow northwards, the Armada was able to escape into the North Sea.

Also in Oral history interviews of the National Council of Jewish Women Cleveland Section Holocaust Archive Project

The interviews document the experiences of 136 Holocaust survivors, Righteous Gentiles, and former concentration camp liberators from the Cleveland, Ohio, area.

Oral history interview with Molly Akst

Molly Akst, born in Bodzanow-Ktodzisko, Poland, describes being one of seven children born to Orthodox parents her grandfather living with the family her family owning a dry-goods store the positive relations between Jews and Gentiles in her town belonging to the Mizrachi youth group how the only antisemitic acts in Bodzanow were perpetrated mostly by young boys leading a quiet, studious life and planning to eventually go to Krakow to teach Hebrew the German invasion the many restrictions placed on Jews most men, including her father, being forced to go to work camps her father returning home shortly before they were deported in March 1941 being sent to Chasno, where Jews were still living in their own homes and moving freely through the city the creation of a ghetto in Chasno convincing four of her siblings to escape with her hiding for two years with gentile families and fields keeping the other children safe her sisters being denounced by a former neighbor in 1944 the arrest of the girls and their release after two weeks, but never seeing their younger sister again taking her brothers and her sister to live in the woods remaining in hiding, living outdoors until their liberation in January 1945 returning to Bodzanow, where they lived in a cousin's empty house several Jews returning to the town and learning that her parents had died at Treblinka getting married and going to a displaced persons camp in Germany becoming ill with chronic hiccups going to Montreal, Canada in 1948 after the birth of her son her brothers and sister eventually moving to Cleveland, OH and joining them in 1957 living in Cleveland with her husband and her two children and three grandchildren.

Oral history interview with Jennie Alpert

Jennie Alpert, born in Czechoslovakia, describes being the second of three daughters her mother dying when she was three her father remarrying and going to live with her stepmother's sister becoming a dressmaker and having a small business, which employed several young girls being sent with her aunt to a ghetto in Ungvar (Uzhhorod), Ukraine in 1941 her father, stepmother, and eight brothers and sisters being sent elsewhere being sent with her aunt to Auschwitz and wearing red arm-bands since they were barracks workers the mass killings in the camp, and the death of her aunt being selected for death but being forced to wait three days and then selected for work being given a piece of bread and a dress, and then being transported to Traxenberg their work digging trenches in the woods and being forced to sing as they walked to work becoming a favorite of the camp commander, who was not a member of the SS, but of the Wehrmacht the camp being evacuated in November and being forced to march for three weeks the emotional state of one of the guards being taken to Bergen-Belsen, where she remained until the liberation in April being very sick at the end of the war and taken to a hospital in Juttaborg, Sweden (possibly Goteborg, Sweden) immigrating to the United States along with her brother and two sisters meeting and marrying a Polish man who had moved to the US in the 1920s and having a daughter and living in Cleveland Heights, OH.

Oral history interview with Emerson Batdorff

Emerson Batdorff describes being drafted into the American Army on May 18, 1942 being classified as “limited service” due to his health problems, but eventually being accepted to Officer Candidate's School being sent overseas in 1943 as a member of the 103rd Division, 41st Infantry Regiment being assigned to Casablanca, Morocco, where he became an instructor in a leadership and battle training school experiencing battle for the first time in 1944 when his unit landed at Naples, Italy being shot in the leg and spending a short time in a hospital rejoining his unit in time to enter southern France one hour after the main Allied invasion his unit going through Alsace and Strasbourg, and then into Germany not actively participating in battle being assigned to the 15th Corps' historical section arriving at Dachau one day after it was liberated and staying for four hours seeing a transport train filled with dead concentration camp inmates his current life and retiring from his position as entertainment editor of the Cleveland Plain Dealer living in Cleveland Heights, OH and his son, stepson, and stepdaughter.

Oral history interview with Estelle Beder

Estelle Beder, born in Lutsk, Poland (Ukraine), describes her father, who was a tailor, and her mother, who sold hand-made clothes from a covered wagon her two brothers and one sister her family struggling financially the German invasion and the restrictions imposed including curfews and mandatory armbands the sexual abuse and fear during that time the creation of a ghetto in 1942 and her family suffering terribly her father being very ill and still sewing helping her family by delivering clothes and procuring food acts of great cruelty to the Jews while in the ghetto her father being beaten and her brother being killed in public she and her sister being separated from the family and sent to the Łódź ghetto, where they were treated very poorly remaining in Łódź until 1944 when they were transported to Auschwitz the great physical and mental cruelty at Auschwitz being selected with her sister for death in the gas chambers, but the Germans ran out of their supply of gas being sent with her sister to work in an ammunition factory for a short period, where they received better treatment being moved from place to place without reason passing through Bergen-Belsen and walking on thousands of skeletons, wondering if her family was among them being selected with her sister to be exchanged for German soldiers in Sweden enduring a perilous trip to Sweden and being nursed back to some normalcy her entire family, except her sister, dying during the war her cousin in the United States arranging for she and her sister to live in New York City marrying another survivor, Sam Beder having three sons and moving to Cleveland, OH, where she has enjoyed a peaceful life in a community of other survivors still suffering from the physical and emotional effects of the Holocaust and being thankful for her family and her community.

Oral history interview with Adam Beer

Adam Beer, born in Liptovsky Mikulas, Czechoslovakia (Slovakia), describes his conservative Jewish family his older sister, Gabriela, and his younger brother, Otto his mother dying when he was very young and his father remarrying within a year of her death his father owning a business in electrical contracting the cultural amenities in Liptovsky Mikulas the active Jewish community the Slovaks separating from the Czechs in 1938 Tiso coming to power in 1939 finishing school in 1940 and problems for Jews beginning soon after the restrictions placed on Jews his grandmother being deported to Poland on April 2, 1942 his father losing his business in 1940 and preparing an emergency bunker in the mountains outside the town partisans attacking the town and killing several Germans on August 28, 1944 his family and other families escaping to the bunker in the mountains the Gestapo finding the bunker on December 15, 1944 and destroying it his younger brother running away building a second bunker Russians finding them and taking them back to Liptovsky Mikulas his family finding his brother hidden with a family going to Bratislava, Slovakia to begin medical school communists taking over the country in 1948 deciding to leave rather than finish his studies going to Cleveland, OH with his fiancée finishing medical school opening a medical practice in Cleveland and his wife and two children.

Oral history interview with Susan Eisdorfer Beer

Susan Beer, born on May 14, 1924 in Budapest, Hungary, describes growing up in Topolčany, Slovakia, describes being an only child of a physician the family being very comfortable and Orthodox the good relations between the Jews and the Gentile community attending a Jewish public school and a gymnasium, hoping eventually to become a doctor her studies being interrupted when the civil war broke out Slovakia becoming independent and allied to Germany the restrictions placed on Jews her father being forbidden to practice medicine her father arranging for her to be smuggled into Hungary, where she stayed with relatives her parents later joining her her father passing as a Gentile and being caught by the police her father escaping the police and making plans for the family to Partisan-held Czechoslovakia the family being arrested and held in a jail for three weeks being deported to Auschwitz, and classified as political prisoners her father working in the camp hospital being sent with her mother to the "model camp," which was organized for the Red Cross inspectors who occasionally toured the camp the evacuation of Auschwitz and being sent on a death march being taken with her mother to Ravensbrück, where she worked as a camp translator Ravensbrück being evacuated and being sent to a camp deeper in Germany, attached to a camp filled with French prisoners-of-war the German guards running away and the French prisoners cutting the wires enclosing the camp the prisoners discovered stockpiles of food going to the nearby town going with her mother to Bratislava, Slovakia, where a man recognized them in the street and told them that Susan's father was in Budapest remaining in Budapest for a year finishing her studies at the gymnasium returning to Topolcany beginning medical school in Bratislava her family being anxious to leave Europe going to Williamsburg, New York with her fiancé moving to Cleveland, OH her husband’s podiatry office and their two children.

Oral history interview with Alice Ben-Horin

Alice Ben-Hurin, born in Hungary (along the Danube between Budapest and Vienna, Austria), describes being the youngest of three children her father working in the import-export business and her mother assisting him with the bookkeeping her prosperous family how education was very important to the family and several cousins stayed with them while attending school in the city finishing high school in 1939 the German takeover and her father being temporarily arrested working for the local Jewish committee with her older sister her brother joining the army and disappearing in 1942 trying to persuade her family to escape from Hungary being sent to the ghetto with her family the day after her brother returned being sent to an old army post with Jews from the city and the surrounding countryside her brother returning to the army and being the only survivor of the massacre of his unit being deported to Auschwitz the immediate killing of her family except for herself, her cousin, and her sister being sent to Dresden, Germany, where she worked in a munitions factory being evacuated in a march to Bergen-Belsen being liberated by American and British troops along the way working for the Red Cross for a short time going to Austria with a friend's brother who worked for the US Army working as a high school teacher in Philadelphia, PA after coming to the US living in Cleveland, OH and her three children and three grandchildren.

Oral history interview with Joseph Benson

Joseph Benson, born in Strasin in the Northern Bohemian section of Czechoslovakia (now in Czech Republic), describes his German mother and Czech father having a happy life on a farm with his family and receiving a strong Catholic education acquiring a love for aviation early in life being a teenager when the Germans occupied the Sudentenland being loyal to the Czech ideals and people at that time becoming involved in anti-German activities joining the underground movement when he turned 18 being smuggled to England to join the Czech Army in exile eagerly volunteering for intensive combat flight training and mastering all facets in a short time his plane being shot down over Germany during an early combat mission being discovered by the Gestapo and imprisoned for interrogation suffering torture and imprisonment in Nuremberg, Selenstrausse, and Stadelheim prisons being in isolation for a great deal of the time refusing to divulge any information being transferred first to Dachau and then to Buchenwald performing labor in aircraft component factories being transferred to Schoenbeck and escaping with a friend to the American lines his methods for survival being a strong believer in personal freedoms and lecturing to youths about the dangers of totalitarian governments.

Oral history interview with Jack Beigelman

Jack Biegelman, born in Łódź, Poland in 1930, describes being part of a large family, where music was the major vocational and recreational focus being a young boy when the Germans invaded Poland the turmoil and the powerful images of the German military force life in the ghetto doing forced labor being transported with his family to Auschwitz in 1944 the death of his mother and younger brother his father surviving several months, but dying from illness enduring the horrors, starvation, and work at Auschwitz being transferred to Glechamberg camp, where he was liberated by the Russians returning to Łódź living with an uncle in Germany going to the United States and, with the aid of Jewish organization, being placed in the home of a retired school teacher his studies in music enlisting in the Air Force during the Korean War getting married and having three children his life in Cleveland, OH and his commitment to Jewish organizations, especially those dealing with education and commemoration of the Holocaust.

Oral history interview with Leah Binstock

Leah Binstock, born in Jaroslaw, Poland, describes the prevalence of antisemitism before the war the large and active Jewish community her parents’ candy factory her sister her family being very religious attending a private Jewish school belonging to a Zionist organization and hoping to someday go to Palestine being 14 years old when the Germans invaded the anti-Jewish measures all the Jews in Jaroslaw being forced to move to Krakow, Poland escaping with her sister and going to a work camp for Polish women assuming the identity of two Ukrainian girls they befriended on a train living as Christians in Terezin, Poland, where they worked for the telephone company her sister learning to speak German and getting a better job being denounced to the Gestapo by their co-workers being deported to Auschwitz in February 1943 being evacuated on foot with the other prisoners escaping on the second night with four others being hidden by a priest for several days until the war officially ended in May 1945 returning to Jaroslaw with her sister learning that their parents died in the Krakow ghetto moving to Germany, where they opened a grocery business meeting her husband through a girl she knew in Auschwitz registering with a Zionist organization that helped refugees immigrate to the United States settling in St. Louis, MO moving to Cleveland, OH after experiencing antisemitism in St. Louis living in Mayfield Heights, OH working for her husband's business and her three children and four grandchildren.

Oral history interview with Elias Cala

Elias Cala, born in Dobrzyn (Golub-Dobrzyń), Poland, describes the Jewish population in the area being the third of five children in a close, loving family his father being extremely religious the lack of anti-Semitism in Dobrzyn prior to 1934 working at a cousin’s shoe store in Łódź, Poland in 1936 when he was 16 years old his father’s death in 1938 being drafted into the army in 1939 his unit being on the German boarder when Germany invaded a fierce battle lasting several days his unit being taken prisoner by the Germans the Jews being immediately separated from the rest of the unit and pretending he was a gentile with the help of his fellow soldiers the non-Jewish prisoners being released soon after their capture staying with his cousin in Łódź going to Dobrzyn, where the Germans were persecuting Jews being expelled from Dobrzyn settling in a town near the Russian border with his aunt and uncle and their children getting married being deported to a camp at Dzialdowo, and then sent to a ghetto in Piotrkov escaping with his wife and going to Warsaw, Poland going to Nalewaj, where they found his wife's family working on a road crew, but getting sick and being hospitalized being badly burned during a fire his wife giving birth to a daughter being deported to Auschwitz being separated from his wife and baby being sent to an I.G. Farben factory the bombing of the factory being evacuated and forced to move from camp to camp going to Mauthausen and Oranienburg being left at Flossenbürg being transferred to a work-camp near Stuttgart, Germany being evacuated from Stuttgart and traveling again from camp to camp hiding in a haystack with 21 others being discovered and many of them being shot surviving and being taken in by villagers and given food and clothing being liberated by the Americans on May 1, 1945 remaining in Germany, where he got married again moving to the US in March 1949 living in Beachwood, Ohio and his five children.

Oral history interview with Vincent Cochrane

Vincent Cochrane, born in 1919 in Cuyahoga Falls, OH, describes enlisting in the US Army in 1937 and serving until 1950 serving in Germany from 1944 to 1945 being a captain and commanding a medium tank company being present at the liberation of three concentration camps in Ahlen near Hannover, Gardelegen, and Salzwedel his unit only staying about an hour until back-up units and medical units arrived how it took a while for the liberators to realize what they were seeing becoming an operating engineer after his service being the on the security staff of Cuyahoga County, OH feeling that his experience in the war may have helped him become more sensitive person and wanting to be interviewed to help make sure the Holocaust is never forgotten.

Oral history interview with W. Louis Cohn

W. Louis Cohn, born in Berlin, Germany in 1925, describes having a younger sister, born in 1927 as well as an older brother his father, Waldemar, who was an attorney with the German government his father working from 1925 to 1931 in the German embassy in Nice, France his mother, Lottie Epstein, who came from a prosperous family his family moving to the outskirts of Berlin in 1937 being assimilated into German life and belonging to a Reform congregation attending elementary school from 1931 to 1935 without problems and attending gymnasium from 1935 to 1938 being kicked out of school in November 1938 and attending an improvised Jewish school antisemitism increasing the deportation of men to concentration camps his brother going to the US being sent on December 10, 1938 with his 11-year-old sister and his ten-year-old cousin on a train to Holland, where his cousin's grandmother lived missing the train and being sent to a refugee camp for two to three months, then a children’s home, and then to a camp near Utrecht his mother finding then in May 1939 and taking them to Brussels, Belgium attending school in Brussels for a year being arrested by Belgian police in 1940 being sent to Paris, France then moved from camp to camp finding his father in Gurs concentration camp working in the censorship office at Gurs and being able to smuggle news out getting caught smuggling letters being deported to Mauthausen and escaping with some other young men in August 1942 going through France to Spain being sent from Barcelona to Africa for basic training going to England where he was trained in counter-espionage by the Office of Strategic Services being assigned him to parachute into France and blow up wheels in a German motor pool completing his task and searching for his sister and parents finding his sister in a convent under the false name Elise Carpentier returning to England and receiving further training from the US Army 82nd Airborne Division parachuting into France on D-Day and being wounded on the beachhead staying in a hospital for three days fighting with the Allies in Northern France, Holland, and accompanying them into Berlin going to his family's apartment building, which had been bombed and finding his family’s possessions, which were buried in the yard losing all his family except his sister and his uncle’s family going to Palestine, where he worked on a kibbutz and helped train the Haganah having special status because he was a captain in the US Army and becoming a US citizen going to Cleveland, OH in 1947 and attending college to become an engineer marrying Lottie Wolff in 1951 believing he survived because he worked hard and took care of himself receiving help from Quakers in Spain and counseling from Catholic chaplains during the war and missing out on his youth but feeling that perhaps he learned something from the experience.

Oral history interview with Peppi Dekker

Peppi Dekker (née Chajes), born in Apeldoorn, Holland, describes having a twin sister her parents’ successful textile business attending public school until the war began Germany invading Holland and being forced one year later to attend the local Jewish school her family escaping the first roundup of Jews in May 1942 her family being deported the following September being sent with her sister, mother, and grandfather to Westerbork, where they found her father her father becoming a "law and order officer" at Westerbork and the family acquiring special status being sent in 1944 to Bergen-Belsen with a transport of Dutch orphans staying at Bergen-Belsen for two years being sick often her mother’s strength and determination to survive and maintain the family's dignity her mother’s cleaning job outside the camp her mother being beaten and sexually assaulted being evacuated from the camp and sent by train to Elba being liberated by the Russian Army her family being given a home which had been occupied by a German officer moving to the American zone after several incidents with Russian soldiers returning to Holland receiving reparations from the Dutch government her father sending she and her sister in 1957 to the United States, where they stayed with her father's brother and his wife getting married and moving with her husband to Chicago, New Jersey, and then to Cleveland living in Strongsville, Ohio and her two children.

Oral history interview with Maury Feren

Maury Feren describes being a member of the 2nd Infantry Division, 5th Division, Medical Detachment from 1943 until 1945 his unit being located near Prague, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic) in early May 1945 when they suddenly came upon 75 emaciated, dying women between the ages of 20 and 35 how these women had been among a group of 500 who had started on a death march from Auschwitz and most had died along the way the horror and pain of discovering human beings in such a state of suffering how the army tried to help these women medically and emotionally in their struggle for recovery being moved and disturbed by his role as liberator and feeling heartened by the courage and devotion of those who tried to help the survivors.

Oral history interview with Simon Fixler

Simon Fixler describes being one of 16 children, born to a prosperous family in Kelca, Czechoslovakia his happy childhood, with religious freedom and no sense of antisemitism the introduction of antisemitism with the occupation of Czechoslovakia by the Hungarians the anti-Jewish atmosphere escalating the Jews being forced to perform menial work in labor camps evading conscription to the labor camps for a year and a half being discovered by the government and sent to a parachute factory getting married in 1943 and being able to see his wife after the work days being sent in November 1944 to a more severe forced labor camp in one of Eichmannfs last transports enduring terrible working conditions and witnessing mass murders and atrocities at the labor camp being transferred to the concentration camp at Mauthausen in April 1945 he and his brother supporting each other physically and emotionally throughout this horrible ordeal being liberated by the Americans in May 1945 wandering through the countryside with his brother seeking the aid of the Jewish Federation in Prague, Czech Republic moving to Budapest, Hungary, where they reunited with the six other surviving family members moving with his wife to Germany, where they remained for three years being selected for sponsorship to Cleveland, OH by a knitting mill having several knitting jobs and building his life in the US becoming interested in Jewish fund raising and Holocaust memorial activities enjoying the freedoms of the US believing that it is his duty to share his experiences and believing the best investment in the future of Judaism is education.

Oral history interview with Herman Frank

Herman Frank, born in Łódź, Poland, describes being the only child of a well-to-do family in the textile and fur business having an active and happy childhood, attending concerts and the theater and vacationing abroad the antisemitism in Łódź his father’s death before the war and deciding not to emigrate the German invasion his mother’s preparations for the war being moved to the ghetto his mother’s death in 1942 when he was 17 years old attending a textile engineering school in the ghetto his various jobs in the ghetto the liquidation of the ghetto and the deportations to Auschwitz being transferred to Gleiwitz being evacuated in January 1945 escaping but being captured and sent to Gross-Rosen being propositioned sexually by the camp commander being evacuated to Buchenwald being moved a few weeks later to Berga-an-Elste being assigned to work in the kitchen because of an injury and getting more food the evacuation of the camp and escaping with his friends convincing SS that they were Polish civilians how after liberation he went to the American zone in Weiden, Germany, and worked for the US Army marrying another Polish survivor in Germany the birth of their first son in Germany his wife’s aunt sponsoring their entry into the US in 1949 the difficultly of adjusting to life in the US owning his own carpet cleaning business living in Pepper Pike, Ohio and his two sons and two grandchildren.

Oral history interview with Helen Fried

Helen Fried (born circa 1926) describes being the third of ten children in a large, orthodox family in Hust, Czechoslovakia (Khust, Ukraine) the Jewish community of Hust her mother supporting the family by running a leather store, while her father was a Torah schlar her grandparents living in an adjoining house and helping to raise the children her family having good relations with their gentile neighbors the start of the war and her family losing their store the Hungarian invasion of Hust the store being returned to her family under the Hungarian occupation and living a relatively good life anti-Jewish measures being imposed when the Germans were in control again the creation of the ghetto in 1943 and the deportation soon after to Auschwitz her parents, four brothers, and one of her sisters being killed immediately remaining in Auschwitz with her four sisters until late 1944 when they were sent to work on a farm being evacuated and forced to march escaping with her sisters and taking the identity of Polish maids who had worked for the German army maintaining their identities until liberation but being separated going to work in a factory with 60 Russian women being liberated before the official end of the war by Russian soldiers reuniting with several cousins and her sister in Dobrzyn, Poland going to Prague, Czech Republic living in a displaced persons camp in Leipheim, Germany to wait for a visa to the United States marrying a man she met in Budapest, Hungary going to the US in 1949 settling in New York, NY the Joint Distribution Committee helping them find a place to live and a job for her husband moving to Cleveland, OH not telling her son about her Holocaust experiences her feelings about Judaism the effects of the Holocaust on her life and her thoughts on why she survived.

Oral history interview with Marcel Friedman

Marcel Friedman describes having a comfortable childhood with his family in Presov, Slovakia his numerous non-Jewish friends having a religious home life his educational and recreational interests being denied admission to the University of Bratislava in 1939 due to a Jewish quota deciding to go to Palestine, as he had been an active Zionist beginning his journey to Israel in 1940 and encountering political problems, a shipwreck, and bombings being interned on the island of Rhodes in a tent camp being moved to a camp in Southern Italy being treated fairly well during his internment being liberated by the British in 1943 joining the Czech Army and being part of the weather department being transferred back to Czechoslovakia, where he was reunited with his brother and sister in 1945 his parents' fate in the concentration camps being recruited for Palestine in 1948 joining the Israeli Army and serving in the weather service determining that life was too difficult in Israel in 1953 and moving to the United States his American family members sponsoring and financially aiding he and his wife and child working in a travel agency in the US joining a synagogue and becoming active in Jewish activities believing his luck, personality, and religion contributed to his survival his belief that survivors have a responsibility to make others aware of their experiences still feeling some bitterness and his interests in learning more about the Holocaust.

Oral history interview with Ann Frum

Ann Frum, born in 1925 in Zdunska Vola, Poland, describes her Orthodox Jewish family experiencing antisemitism before the war, but enjoying a fairly stable, carefree childhood the German invasion and fleeing for safety being forced to live in a ghetto in her small town the liquidation of the ghetto in 1942 and being sent to the large ghetto in Łódź, Poland the terrible living conditions during her transport and her internment in the ghetto being sent to work in a munitions factory in Czestochowa, where she met the man she later married being transferred to a concentration camp in Ravensburg, Germany, where she was forced to dig trenches for the burial of other Jews being sent to Bergau (Burgau) and Turkine (Türkheim), smaller concentration camps, where she again was forced to work amid horrible conditions being liberated at Allach, near Dachau, by the Americans on May 1, 1945 reuniting with her future husband and getting married in 1946 going to the US in 1951 and settling in New Jersey moving to Cleveland, OH having three children, and creating an extended family of close friends in the Cleveland Jewish community and her belief that it is essential that survivors tell others of their experiences.

Oral history interview with Jack Gildar

Jack Gildar, born in Tarnowa, Poland, describes his the strong Jewish community in his town his close, loving family his father’s death going at the age of nine to attend school in Lomza becoming an apprentice carpenter antisemitism in Tarnowa working in a town near the German border when the war began returning home and discovering that Tarnowa had been bombed the Russian occupation the German occupation beginning in 1941 being sent to a ghetto in 1942 in Lomza being sent to a camp in Zembrov (Zambrów) being sent with his family to Auschwitz being separated in Auschwitz and never seeing his family again being sent to Birkenau, then to another section of Auschwitz, where he worked in an SS hospital being able to trade for extra food, medicine, and items such as soap and razor blades because of his work sharing much of his good fortune with others, sending food and medicine to friends and cousins in other parts of the camp remaining relatively strong and healthy the evacuation of the camp in January 1945 and being walked for four days to the Czech border, where they boarded trains for transport to Mauthausen volunteering for a transfer to Ebensee being liberated by the American Army spending June through November after liberation in an abandoned lake house in Austria going to Germany, where he lived on a kibbutz in Landsburg the closing of the kibbutz in 1949 and discovering relatives in Cleveland, OH going to Cleveland in June 1949 living in Beachwood, OH and his work as a butcher his wife Sara, who is also a Holocaust survivor and their two children, Rochelle and David.

Oral history interview with Ileen Green

Ileen Koslov Green (née Chaia Koslovsky), born on September 23, 1926 in Holsczaly, Poland (near Vilnius, Lithuania), describes being the middle child of three daughters in an orthodox Jewish family her father owning a dry goods store and the family living in 13 rooms located behind the store living with her parents, sisters, grandmother, aunt, and cousin her father leaving in 1938 to live with his brother in Cleveland, OH the family planning to follow her father later but their plans being interrupted by the war the Russian occupation, during which the family's store was closed surviving by trading merchandise for food with local farmers the German occupation in 1941 being sent with her mother and sisters to a ghetto Gentile friends supplying Jews in the ghetto with food being sent to a labor camp in Lithuania soon after her sister was sent there her work building streets her mother and other sister arriving in the camp a year later being sent to Dunjeje in Estonia, and then to Kaiserwald in Lithuania in 1943 going to Stutthof and life there being beaten for stealing food volunteering for farm work being sent to Dresden, Germany, where she and her older sister worked in an ammunition factory the bombing of the factory and being forced to march to Prague, Czech Republic being liberated by French and Russian soldiers returning home going to Fahrenwart displaced persons camp and contacting her father in the US immigrating to the US in 1948 living in South Euclid, OH and her son, daughter, and five grandchildren.

Oral history interview with Phillip Green

Philip Green describes his Orthodox family his older sister and younger sister the vandalizaton and boycotts of his family’s dried-goods store being 14 years old when his family moved from their small Polish town to Łódź, Poland the creation of the ghetto in 1939 and moving there soon after with his family he and his sisters being forced to work in factories his father dying after being attacked by the Gestapo in his home surviving in the ghetto with his mother and sisters until 1944 returning home from a food search one day to find a note saying that his family was taken surrendering himself and being taken to Auschwitz being transferred to Braunschweig, a truck factory, where he worked under deplorable conditions and near-starvation for over eight months being moved to the Hermann Goehringwerke airplane factory for a month's work being transferred to Ravensbrück being moved around until the Russians liberated Philip and his group of near-dying men on May 5, 1945 near Ludwigslust, Germany being taken to a hospital for treatment and slowly began to recover their health and their lives trying to locate his family in Łódź and finding no one going to Munich, Germany, where he joined a displaced persons camp, and later worked in the office of an American aid organization meeting his future wife, also a survivor, and going to the United States in 1948 getting married in 1951 working for a plumbing supply company his daughter and son and how he is a strong supporter of Israel.

Oral history interview with Ervin Heksh

Ervin Heksh, born in a village 60 km northwest of Budapest, Hungary, describes how there were few Jewish families in his village having a happy and active childhood not being able to attend a university and going to yeshiva instead entering his father’s grain business the rise in antisemitism after 1935 his father being forced to take on a partner the deportation of many Jews and his near deportation because he bought a house that a Hungarian gendarme wanted to buy being sent to a forced labor camp in Crimea, Ukraine in 1942 witnessing many instances of brutality being transferred to Belopolye, Ukraine in October 1942 working through a harsh winter, which few of the men survived the cruel commander a group of Italian prisoners joining his unit in Belopolye and the kindness they showed to Jewish prisoners working at a hospital in the Bryansk forest returning home that summer, where he found his family and his son, who had been born while he was in Russia working for a while as a traveling salesman the creation of the ghetto in Budapest, where his parents, wife, and son were confined working in a mine he and some friends being arrested and placed in the ghetto when they were caught sneaking in to visit their families being taken out of the ghetto to work being arrested and sent to a labor camp, which he escaped finding his wife and child in a Red Cross community being deported to Bergen-Belsen hearing rumors that they would be sent to Switzerland as part of a special exchange being evacuated to Theresienstadt in April 1945 their train being stopped between stations and the SS guards abandoning them being liberated the next day spending time in Hildenheim, Germany returning to Budapest learning that his parents died at Auschwitz and his wife died at Bergen-Belsen after liberation finding his son in Budapest, living with his wife's parents his son dying from illness when he was two years old secretly crossing the border into Germany and living in several refugee camps working for the UNRRA eventually remarrying going to the US in 1948 working at a plumbing supply company his son and daughter and his reasons for sharing his story.

Oral history interview with Karel Hoffman

Karel Hoffman describes being 21 years old when he was ordered to report to Terezin, Czechoslovakia to help in the construction of a model prison camp how Terezin was originally a fortress town from the Austro-Hungarian Empire the many ironies and falsehoods of this model camp how the Nazis touted Terezin as having many services, such as a bank, but money was totally worthless within the town the outward appearance of Terezin versus the actual treatment of inmates within the concentration camp the poor living conditions the food rations and overcrowding the inmates suffering beatings, physical abuse, and intimidation from the Nazis remaining at Terezin for three years being one of 5,000 taken to Auschwitz the horrors of induction at Auschwitz, especially in the later years of the war being transferred to Gleiwitz, where he participated in the construction of platforms for cannons and machine guns being liberated at Gleiwitz in 1945 wandering through the woods, witnessing the chaos and confusion returning to his home to search for family members and being unsuccessful in his search moving to a displaced persons camp in Germany, where he remained until 1949 being sponsored for immigration to the United States by his aunts in 1949 pursuing furniture and carpentry work in the US and getting married and having one son.

Oral history interview with Al Horwitz

Al Horwitz, born in Ohio, describes being part of an American Army division that liberated Nordhausen concentration camp being drafted into the army in 1941 serving as a staff sergeant in the 104th Infantry Division, 387th Field Artillery being stationed at Camp Adam, Oregon, went on maneuvers in the California and Arizona deserts, and spent time in Washington state being sent with his unit in June 1944 landing in France and being part of the battle to free the port of Antwerp, Belgium being active in Holland moving into Germany through Aachen, as part of the drive to Koln (Cologne) going to Nordhausen, in the Hartz Mountains how Nordhausen was attached to a German bomb factory, and the inmates were Jews and political prisoners being there while Generals Eisenhower and Bradley toured the camp moving on to Leipzig, Germany, where he helped set up the "Lucky Strike" displaced persons (DP) camp being in Leipzig when the famous conference was held to divide post-war Germany returning to the US in June 1945 and being discharged from the army shortly after living in Cleveland, Ohio working in the life insurance business and his wife and three children.

Oral history interview with Rose Ickowicz

Rose Ickowicz, born in Vicovu de Jos, Romania, describes enjoying a pleasant family and community life as a child before World War II being the oldest of seven children and raised in an atmosphere of strong devotion to family and pride in country the invasions of Hungary in 1944 and life changed drastically for her family being taken to a ghetto for three weeks and then sent to Auschwitz arriving at Auschwitz near the end of the war suffering the atrocities of the Nazi regime and also the cruelty and jealousy of other Jews who had been imprisoned much longer believing she survived because of her strong faith, clear values, and what she calls "miracles" doing manual labor being transferred to Bergen-Belsen being liberated a year after she entered the camp trying to immigrate to the United States and going to Canada with her husband life in Canada encountering difficulties moving to the US building an economic and social foundation and retaining great pride in America and being grateful for the opportunity to start over in this country.

Oral history interview with Munci Katz

Munci Adler Katz, born in Rakov, Czechoslovakia, describes her hometown, which had 60,000 people, was near the Polish border, and was later part of the Soviet Union the large Jewish community in Rakov belonging to Mizrahi, a Zionist youth organization her very orthodox family her father working in a factory and being financially stable her mother dying when she was 13 and her father remarrying her three sisters attending a Czech public school for eight years learning the trade of dressmaking the increase in antisemitism in Rakov after the German invasion the Jews of Rakov being ghettoized briefly being were sent to the crowded ghetto in Matejovce (possibly Matejovce nad Hornádom, Slovakia) being deported four weeks later to Auschwitz the death of her father, stepmother, and two sisters being selected with her sister to go to a work camp in Geistlingersteiger, Germany being the camp seamstress and receiving extra food and better treatment being evacuated to Dachau then Allach being the seamstress under the same commander from Geistlingersteiger staying behind at the camp with her sister while most of the women were evacuated to the Tyrol mountains being liberated on May 9, 1945 by a unit of black American soldiers finding her father's brothers in Tsiget being forced to get engaged to her uncle’s friend returning to Rakov and finding a farmer neighbor living in their house returning to Tsiget and going to Bucharest, Romania to escape her fiancé getting engaged to Harry Katz losing touch with her sister received permission to emigrate in 1964 going to Cleveland, OH, where Harry had an aunt working as a dressmaker and their two children.

Oral history interview with Joseph Klein

Joseph Klein, born in Strabyczowa, Czechoslovakia (a small town in the Carpathian Mountains that was later part of the Soviet Union), describes being part of a large, orthodox family his three brothers and three sisters his father working in the lumber, sand, and gravel trade his youngest sister dying in childhood and his father dying of liver cancer in 1943, one year before the family was sent to Auschwitz how the Jews of Strabyczowa were among the last to be deported being sent to the ghetto at Munkacs (Mukacheve, Ukraine) being sent to Auschwitz the death of his mother and sister being sent to work camps with his other sister spending ten days in Buchenwald, then going to a work camp near Leipzig, Germany, where he repaired a bomb-damaged petroleum refinery being evacuated by train and escaping the train with another prisoner being recaptured several days later and returned to their unit being marched back and his friend being shot by their Gestapo guards being forced to march to Theresienstadt remaining in Theresienstadt for one month being liberated by the Russian Army on May 8, 1945 becoming gravely ill with typhus obtaining a train ticket to Czechoslovakia when he was well enough to travel returning to Strabyczowa and finding his brothers, uncle, and sister in Chop crossing the border into Czechoslovakia before it was permanently closed going to England in May 1946 through an orphan-refugee program immigrating to the United States three years later his surviving siblings settling in the US serving in the American Army for 19 months during the Korean War working as a printer at the Cleveland Press travelling to Israel for the country's tenth anniversary and meeting his wife, Bela, there living in South Euclid, OH and working as a property manager and his two daughters, Audrey and Mona.

Oral history interview with Paul Kuper

Paul Kuper, born on December 31, 1933 in Brussels, Belgium, describes being the youngest of three children having a sister who was four years older and a brother who was six years older his mother, who came from a White Russian family his Polish father living in a small apartment with no running water his father working long hours as a baker the German invasion in 1940 hiding in a basement with his mother when the Germans bombed the city the Germans establishing their headquarters in a school on their street being required to wear the yellow star Jews being banned from theaters, movies, and hospitals the deportation of his brother and sister being taken by his mother to the Tuberculosis Society, where the underground was active being placed in a sanatorium in a suburb, under a non-Jewish name, and staying there in 1941 and 1942 his parents being sent first to Malines and then to Germany staying with a non-Jewish family friend, Seline Sinn, in his old neighborhood attending a Catholic school living with Seline’s sister in a different neighborhood being discovered by the Germans in 1943 and sent to a village near Brussels, which was controlled by Jewish youth being sent to another camp in Aix-la-Chapelle, where he lived in an old castle the liberation of Belgium and being told by underground members from nearby Peruwelz to run into the woods so the Germans would not use them as hostages the children being taken to stay with families in Peruwelz going back to Brussels attending Catholic school and living with his godparents immigrating to the United States on his 21st birthday living with his godmother's cousins and becoming a truck helper for Dean Supply settling in Cleveland, OH and being in the military living in South Euclid, OH and being married with four daughters.

Oral history interview with Bertha Lautman

Bertha Lautman (née Berkovitch), born in Banska Stiavnica, Czechoslovakia (Slovakia), describes her religious family her Hasidic father attending school in Swidnica being taken by train to Auschwitz on March 23, 1942 her mother taking her out of hiding to send her to Auschwitz instead of her father her parents, along with her youngest brother, being taken to Majdanek three months after her the death of her parents and her brother’s survival being a teenager and put to work digging ditches in Auschwitz being moved to Birkenau in August 1942 working as part of the Leichencommando, taking care of the dead bodies being taken from Birkenau to Bergen-Belsen on October 31, 1944 being liberated by American soldiers in April 1945 reuniting with her sister and brother getting married another survivor going to the United States in 1949 and visiting the concentration camps she was in three times over the years as well as Majdanek, where her parents were killed.

Oral history interview with Dina Leiser

Dina Leiser, born in Paris, France, describes her parents, who had immigrated to France from Poland to escape antisemitism and worked as tailors her younger brother her family not being religious experiencing antisemitism from her schoolmates wanting to be identified more as French than as a Jew staying with her brother for several months on a farm in Souillé as part of a school-sponsored program the war beginning in 1939 when she was 12 years old her father enlisting joining her brother on the farm her mother obtaining false papers and joining them on the farm the villagers in Souillé being very protective of them remaining in Souillé for the duration of the war finding out her father had been deported and learning only recently that he had been sent to Auschwitz studying shorthand and typing experiencing antisemitism at work and going to work for a Jewish firm immigrating with her brother to the United States in 1947 her mother going to Canada and then the US five years later teaching herself English by listening to the radio and reading her brother being drafted into the US Army getting married to one of her brother’s soldier friends in 1952 her son and grandson living in University Heights, OH and working for the Jewish France.

Oral history interview with Sylvia Malcmacher

Sylvia Malchmacher, born in Vilna, Poland (Vilnius, Lithuania) in 1926, describes the Jewish community in Vilna, including the many synagogues, Hebrew schools and universities, and the many Zionist organizations her older and younger sisters her father, who was a printer, and her mother, who kept house experiencing antisemitism after 1939 living in the Russian zone of Poland food rationing and being forced to work for the government the German invasion in 1941 the collaborators in Vilna the creation of the ghetto her sister’s work in a fur factory the liquidation of the ghetto in 1943 being ordered to report with all the children under 18 and old people and going with her younger sister being sent home because she was 18 and her sister never coming home being deported on May 16, 1944 on trains to a camp in the Kaiserwald, where they remained for three weeks being sent in August 1944 to Stutthof remaining in Stutthof for two weeks under horrible conditions selections for work and being sent to Milldorf, a camp near Mannheim clearing the debris as tunnels were blasted into a mountain washing clothes for the German camp staff being liberated by American troops on May 2, 1945 going to a displaced persons camp learning that her father, mother and sister had died attending a training school and marrying Israel Malchmacher in 1946 going to Cleveland, OH in 1949, sponsored by the Jewish Family Service and her two grown daughters.

Oral history interview with Marguerite Morris

Marguerite Morris, born in Paris, France, describes her parents, who had emigrated from Poland enjoying a comfortable childhood keeping kosher, but not being orthodox living in a predominantly gentile neighborhood her father enlisting in the French Army and returning to Paris in October 1940 her father being sent to Beaune-la-Rolande concentration camp in 1941 and never seeing him again fleeing with her mother to unoccupied France going first to Limoges then Oradour living on their savings returning with a Gentile friend to Paris to retrieve family valuables they had left with a neighbor staying with 20 other Jewish families in Oradour until liberation in August 1944 going to Limoges and returning to Paris after the war ended officially her mother receiving government assistance to reopen the family business attending an accelerated school being depressed and deciding to move to the United States to live with cousins in Akron, OH studying accounting and working for Firestone getting married to an American, who had been stationed at Normandy during the war her two sons and becoming certified public accountant.

Oral history interview with Anna Moses

Anna Felsn Moses, born in Milicz, Poland, describes her large, traditional, religious family her family moving in 1933 to Krakow, Poland, where her father was a businessman acts of antisemitism carried out by the Poles of Krakow before the war the boycotts of Jewish businesses the German invasion and life rapidly becoming more difficult for the Jews "Black Monday," when Torahs were desecrated and synagogues were burned her family being among the 10,000 Jews enclosed in a ghetto living in the ghetto from 1940 until the end of 1942, when she became separated from her family and was sent to Płaszów concentration camp remaining there for nine months being sent to Skarszysko, where she worked in a munitions factory being sent to Buchenwald, where she remained for nine months, working at making grenade timers being marched for three weeks escaping with eight others and being liberated by the Russian army several days later returning to Krakow meeting her husband in 1946 arriving in the United States in 1948 and living in Cleveland, OH, where her husband is a rabbi in Menorah Park.

Oral history interview with Mimi Ormond

Mimi Ormond describes growing up in Marienbad, Czechoslovakia (Mariánské Lázne, Czech Reublic) the German community in Marienbad switching from a German school to a Czech school her family deciding to flee after Kristallnacht the Jewish population of Marienbad her brother, who was away at college when her family fled Marienbad belonging to a Zionist organization her parents’ lack of interest in Zionism feeling isolated from other students during the Nazi salute and Catholic prayers fleeing to an apartment in a small town called Kolín, Czech Republic the German invasion her father being a socialist and on a Nazi arrest list leaving on a children’s transport to Palestine via England living on a farm in England being moved with the other children to unoccupied castles in 1940 learning Hebrew and receiving agricultural training receiving a notice that her parents were going to Palestine the British authorities declaring Jewish refugees over the age of 17 to be enemy aliens being left alone in the castle night bombing near the castle moving to another castle and joining an Orthodox Mizrahi labor group when she was 15 years old going to live with an uncle in London studying early education at a university meeting her future husband, who was an American soldier having a temple wedding visiting her parents in Palestine living in Ann Arbor, MI then Indianapolis, IN feeling isolated from other Europeans moving to Cleveland, OH and meeting survivors from her hometown having survivors guilt and her feelings about Israel.

Oral history interview with Dan Pavlovitch

Dan Pavlovitch, born in 1928, describes being the oldest of three children in a fairly unconventional family in Ploesti, Rumania his parents and their attitude toward Judaism was one of respect for tradition rather than of religious belief his grandfather, who was a rabbi living in an enlightened household, which valued music and literature and open discussion with the children his father working as an engineer for an American oil company and his mother owning a dress shop the Iron Guard, a fascist organization, becoming powerful in the late 1930s and Jews beginning to suffer his father being forced to resign from his job and the family being forced to go to Yugoslavia being sent to Belgrade (Serbia) living safely in Belgrade until the German takeover his father being sent to a labor camp and never hearing from him again being put in a camp across the river from Belgrade in December 1941 with his mother and two sisters conditions in the camp his mother getting false identities for them and being released from the camp going to Bulgaria and then Turkey living as Christians in Turkey from 1943 until 1948 his mother working as a translator for the US consulate in Turkey working at a YMCA hospital as a translator for the US War Information Office working for a German film company in Yugoslavia leaving Turkey and returning to school attending Roosevelt College in Chicago, IL his mother and sisters eventually settling in the US going to the Cleveland area with his wife and two sons in 1963 and living in Cleveland Heights and working as a paint distributor and with wood and stained glass.

Oral history interview with Hilda Prooth

Hilda Prooth, born in Carlsbad (Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic) in 1904, describes her father, who was a painter and chose to become a Czech citizen after WWI having three brothers and two sisters the fates of her siblings, some of whom died in concentration camps going to Prague, Czech Republic to earn a living as a governess teaching German to Czech children becoming a seamstress after the German occupation meeting her husband, Mike, in 1939 in the Jewish community and getting married in 1940 coming under the protection of the Swedish government after she was married to Mike, who was Russian being deported to Theresienstadt in 1943 being considered a Russian internee being sent to Prague in 1944 then by train through Austria to an internment camp in Vittel, France being liberated by the French in March 1945 being evacuated with a group of about 100 internees to the French Alps, to a former resort for asthmatic children returning to Paris, France in August 1946 to get permission to return to Prague to find her husband being sent to Epernay, France and traveling for three weeks in cattle cars back to Prague reuniting with husband in Prague working in an old printing house while her husband taught at the university crossing into Germany in 1947 her husband working as an interpreter between the Jews and the Americans in Munich, Germany waiting for passage to the US in displaced person camps in Bremen and Hamburg going to Cleveland, OH in 1948 life in Cleveland and her husband’s death in 1960 working in the needle trades at Keller-Kohn and being very active in the ILGWU (International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union) and her reasons for volunteering to be interviewed for the Holocaust Archives Project of the Council of Jewish Women.

Oral history interview with Isidor Reisman

Isidor Reisman, born in 1920 in Bilka, Hungary (Bilky, Zakarpats'ka oblast', Ukraine), describes being the oldest of nine children his father, who was a monument engraver and a good provider the active Zionist movement in Bilka being inducted into the army in 1941 the uniforms having yellow badges to identify the Jews doing hard labor, building railroads, for two years receiving word from his parents that they were moved about 37 kilometers from Bilka and visiting them in 1944 in the barracks where they were living his division being walked in January 1945 toward Germany and told to go to a synagogue which was controlled by the Germans living in a ghetto and working as an emergency volunteer for several weeks being freed by the Russian Army deciding to go to the United States going to New York, NY, where he worked as a monument engraver for about two years going to Cleveland, OH in 1952 living in Mayfield Heights, OH teaching Hebrew at the Bureau of Jewish Education and consulting on religious education getting married to Ann (née Zaremsky) and having two children and rebuilding his life after the Holocaust.

Oral history interview with Sally Rettman

Sally Rettman, born in 1923, describes growing up in Bedzin, Poland being 16 years old when the Nazis invaded Poland in 1939 her father, who was in the textile business and died suddenly in 1942 being sent to the ghetto in 1939 her mother being taken to Auschwitz and killed in 1943 being forced into another ghetto on the outskirts of Bedzin getting married to Yakov (Jack) Rettman in the ghetto her aunt being sent to Auschwitz being moved to the Greenberg labor camp and being assigned to textile factory her husband being sent to the camp also but not being allowed to see or talk to one another being evacuated and marched to the Czech border at the end of 1944 their numbers dwindling from 1,500 female prisoners to 120 escaping from the transport with her sisters and two friends being housed and taken care of by a Mrs. Schmidt living in Langesdorf being liberated by American soldiers finding her husband back in Bedzin living in Hungary for five years then Germany and going to New York, NY in 1949.

Oral history interview with Ursula Rosow

Ursula Rosow (née Braatz), born in Berlin, Germany in 1919, describes growing up in a middle-class, gentile family her parents being active socialists her father, who was part Hungarian and was a laboratory technician her mother, who was part Polish the Nazis coming to power and street fights beginning all over Berlin the SS shooting at her father in 1934 for making anti-Nazi comments in a local pub her father’s imprisonment that same year for distributing anti-Nazi propaganda her family belonging to an organization that helped Jews escape Germany with false identity papers helping to obtain ration cards for Jews in hiding hiding a Jewish dancer leaving the city with her mother when the Allies beginning to bomb Berlin going to Wurzburg while her mother went to Bad Kissingen marrying a Jewish American soldier after the war going to the US in 1948 with her husband settling in Cleveland Heights, OH being divorced and her two children.

Oral history interview with Leo Rzepka

Leo Rzepka, born in 1913 in Ruckzyn, Poland, describes the Jewish community in his hometown being one of nine children (five girls and four boys) his father, who was a wagon-wheel maker working with his father after finishing school at age 13 the German invasion of Poland in 1939 and his family fleeing to Russia, where they lived for several years attending chauffeur's school, from which he graduated two days before the Germans invaded Russia life becoming difficult for Jews in Russia trying with one of his brothers and one sister to return to the home of one of his sisters in Poland living for many months in the woods and staying with farmers in exchange for work going to a small concentration camp in Zembrov in late 1942 with his sister, brother, and brother-in-law remaining there for three weeks until January 1943 when they were deported to Auschwitz working as a carpenter spending time in Birkenau being evacuated in January 1945 to Mauthausen and then to Ebensee, Austria, where he worked in the stone quarries being liberated by the Americans on May 5, 1945 going to Israel illegally being intercepted by the British and spending 21 months in Cyprus being able to go to Israel, where he spent five months in the army getting married going to the United State in 1956 living in Cleveland, OH having a wife, a son, a daughter, and one grandchild and being retired.

Oral history interview with Eva Sands

Eva Sands, born in 1940 in a Jewish ghetto, describes her parents, who came from Piotrkov, Poland her father, Zev Wolfe, who was in the wood veneer business and was also a Talmudic scholar her mother, Hannah, who died when Eva was seven months old her father remarrying shortly after her mother’s death her aunt Esther obtaining false papers and escaping the ghetto with two-year-old Eva and Eva's cousin, Naomi Esther finding refuge for Naomi in a convent and leaving Eva on the doorstep of a woman named Maria Zaider her parents remaining in the ghetto, having another child against ghetto rules, and being shot when this was discovered living with the Zaiders throughout the war in Pustelnik, Poland (possibly the Pustelnik in Łódź Voivodeship) and not being aware of her Jewish identity her Aunt Esther passing as a Polish Aryan until the war ended, and then reclaiming Eva from the Zaiders being hysterical for several days after the separation from Maria Zaider and not wanting to be in the same room with her aunt living first in a displaced persons camp in Germany, where her aunt was married settling in Frankfurt, Germany antisemitism in Frankfurt attending a Hebrew school in Salzheim, Germany growing up in Germany moving to the United States in 1952 and spending a year in New York, NY attending an Orthodox Jewish boarding school in England at age 14 and attending a finishing school in Switzerland attending college at Western Reserve University in Cleveland, OH, and meeting her husband, Barry Sands going to Poland to find Maria Zaider in 1976 and her painful visit with her living in University Heights, OH and her two children.

Oral history interview with George Sapin

George Sapin, born in 1924, describes entering into the army in 1943 being a member of the 67th Signal Battalion, the 82nd Airborne, and the 1286th Engineer Combat Battalion going to England and arriving before the Battle of the Bulge antisemitism in the army his life after the war, becoming an electrical engineer then a technical writer being originally from New York, NY moving south with his unit along the Rhine as the war drew to a close his emotions during the war and not having developed a Jewish identity being Jewish in the army not being present at the actual liberation of any camps having many experiences with German citizens and seeing physical evidence of Nazi atrocities, including pictures of torture and rapes his experiences having a strong influence on his political and social philosophy and his attempts to live according to his belief that one should be committed and active.

Oral history interview with Werner Sauer

Werner Sauer, born in 1918 in Gelsenkirchen, Germany, describes the Jewish population of Gelsenkirchen his family considering themselves German and being financially well-to-do his father’s meat-packing plant attending a Jewish Volkschule (an elementary school) for four years and then a gymnasium until he was forced to leave in 1933 at age 15 having to relinquish his license in 1938 becoming a bricklayer with the help of his father's friend the ruin of his father’s business the gradual changes under the Nazis Kristallnacht and being arrested deportations in 1940 being deported with his parents to the ghetto in Riga, Latvia in the winter of 1941 along with 500 Jews from Gelsenkirchen and 500 from Dortmund conditions in the ghetto his family being taken to Stutthof concentration camp going to a section called Lent a where the Nazis had gathered all the artisans and skilled laborers living and working in the factory, which he was ordered to rebuild with virtually no materials being transferred with his father to Buchgarten, a section of Stutthof where people were exterminated escaping with a friend and being caught briefly and passing as marine deserters escaping the deserters’ camp and hiding on farms being caught by Russians and having to prove they were German Jews obtaining identity papers his parents’ deaths walking toward Germany working in a Russian-occupied hospital after the liberation living in Berlin, Germany until he received his emigration papers in May 1949 flying out of Berlin in an empty cargo plane and then taking a boat to New York, NY getting a job in Cleveland, OH, where he had an aunt and uncle who sponsored him working for Carling Brewing Co. for three years his work installing boilers for the Ira E. Baker Co. until the company liquidated and he retired at age 60 and living with his wife in Middlefield, OH.

Oral history interview with Freda Schmelzer

Freda Schmelzer, born in a small Romanian town in the region of Transylvania, describes her parents, who ran a small general store being one of seven children the beautiful Jewish traditions and the peaceful life among the gentiles during her childhood her home life and learning homemaking by assisting her mother the arrival of the Hungarians the restrictions placed on Jews her family’s last time together at their Passover meal in 1944 the great psychological distress of not knowing what was happening elsewhere or of what was going to become of her family the Jews of her town being taken to a ghetto in Soluge (possibly Vynohradiv, Ukraine), where they remained for four weeks being transported to Auschwitz and being separated from her family the conditions in the camp being selected to work in a grenade factory, where conditions were slightly better being marched to an unknown location and detained for four weeks in a horse barn being liberated by the Russians and returning home.

Oral history interview with Max Solomon

Max Solomon (ne Slomovitz), born in Drahova, Czechoslovakia (Drahovo, Ukraine), a small town in the Carpathian mountains being the oldest of four boys and having six sisters his father’s saloon and restaurant being raised religious and being part of a relatively small Jewish community being affected by the war in June 1941 when the Germans invaded Jews being deported from his town and the remaining Jews being forced to work being taken with his family to Kolomyja, Poland (Ukraine) and then to Horodenka, Ukraine his family’s attempted escape and the women being successful while the men were captured and killed escaping the massacre passing as a Christian and going to Russia, where he lived as an adopted son on a communist co-op a flood causing a famine in the area meeting people who were looking for food and reported that many Jews were still living in Drahova returning home and finding his mother and sisters being sent to a Hungarian forced labor camp while his mother and sisters were sent to Auschwitz escaping and joining the Yugoslavian underground fighting until the war ended returning home and finding two of his sisters going to a displaced persons camp in Egenfelder, Germany where he married in 1945 going to the US in 1949 with his wife living in Beachwood, OH and being an active member of Green Road Synagogue.

Oral history interview with Helen Stone

Helen Stone (née Kahan), born in Napszolok, Czechoslovakia, describes her life in Cleveland, OH with her husband and her son, daughter, and grandchild growing up in Nagydobryn, near the large city of Ungvar (Uzhhorod, Ukraine) the Jewish population in Nagydobryn being very close to her mother, but having a bad relationship with her stepfather her five brothers and sisters her stepfather sending her to an orphanage, but returning home at her mother’s request antisemitism increasing in 1939 getting typhoid being deported with all the Jews in her town shortly after Passover in 1944 being sent to Auschwitz and separated from her mother conditions in the camp witnessing medical experimentation on the inmates being sent to work in a factory in either Altenburg or Waldenburg (Mrs. Stone is not certain) being forced to march with her fellow prisoners for many days being liberated by American soldiers, but having to go to a Russian refugee camp since she was a resident of the Russian-occupied zone returning to Nagydobryn escaping with a friend over the border and getting married to him shortly after going to the United States in 1948 her husband working in a meat market in Cleveland, OH and feeling proud to be Jewish.

Oral history interview with Inge Weiss

Inge Weiss, born in 1923 in Hannover, Germany, describes her father, who was born in Warta, Poland and became a men's clothing manufacturer in Germany her mother, who was born in Germany but lost her citizenship when she married her younger sister her family being active in the Jewish community and keeping kosher attending public school and having a Jewish education attending business school for a short time her family’s plan to immigrate to the United States antisemitism increasing as the Nazis rose to power being ostracized in school the vandalism of her father’s store her family being deported to Poland in October 1938 staying in crowded stables in Spoczynek living with relatives in Kalisz, Poland not being able to speak Polish nor Yiddish the war starting and her family being deported to Krakow where they lived under very poor conditions until 1941 escaping to Warta the atrocities in Warta the gathering of the Jews in the town square and being separated from her family being sent with her father to the ghetto in Łódź, Poland, where they stayed from 1942 to 1944 being deported to Auschwitz and sent to Bergen-Belsen in September 1944 her job distributing bread, which she got because she spoke German getting typhoid being liberated by the British and living in the German officers' quarters until she recovered returning to Hannover in 1946 and working for the Jewish community getting married in 1947 getting half of her father’s business and running a notions business there going to the US in September 1949 her son’s birth in 1948 going to Cleveland, OH and receiving help from the Ratner family.

Oral history interview with Jack Wieder

Jack Wieder, born in Bozkov, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic), describes being the fourth of 11 children in a happy, religious family his father, who was a wood processor the existence of some antisemitism but his family being treated well because of his father’s good reputation the Ukrainians taking over in 1939 the situation improving temporarily when the Hungarians came to power in 1941 the deportation of some Jews the Nazis arriving in Bozkov in 1943 his sisters fleeing to Budapest, Hungary and Belgium his father and older brother being sent to a work brigade his father returning in 1944 being deported with his remaining family to a ghetto in Matejovice (possibly Matejovce nad Hornádom, Slovakia), where they stayed from five weeks being taken to Auschwitz and the death of his mother and six younger siblings being sent with his father to Warsaw, Poland to work at clearing the remains of the Warsaw ghetto being sent to Dachau to work the camps in Kaufering and Landshut being sent back to Dachau his father dying at Dachau four days before liberation being evacuated from Dachau to Garmisch-Partenkirchen being liberated by American soldiers returning to Bozkov and discovering that his brother, Hermann, and sisters, Julia and Toni, had also survived the war being inducted into the Russian army serving in the army for one year and escaping to Hungary working for a refugee assistance organization and meeting his future wife, Eva going to Vienna, Austria immigrating to the United States and living in Cleveland, OH, as do Toni, Julia and Hermann.

Knights of Sidonia

Outer space, the far future. A lone seed ship, the Sidonia, plies the void, ten centuries since the obliteration of the solar system. The massive, nearly indestructible, yet barely sentient alien life forms that destroyed humanity’s home world continue to pose an existential threat. Nagate Tanikaze has only known life in the vessel’s bowels deep below the sparkling strata where humans have achieved photosynthesis and new genders. Not long after he emerges from the Underground, however, the youth is bequeathed a treasured legacy by the spaceship’s coolheaded female captain.

Meticulously drawn, peppered with clipped humor, but also unusually attentive to plot and structure, Knights of Sidonia may be Tsutomu Nihei’s most accessible work to date even as it hits notes of tragic grandeur as a hopeless struggle for survival unfolds.

"One of Knights of Sidonia's chief strengths is that it doesn't bog down the intrigue of its world with too much unnecessary, bloated dialogue . Dig into the first volume and see if Nihei's gorgeously depicted wreck of a sci-fi future doesn't secure an immediately tight grip." —Otaku USA

"Tsutomu Nihei has been knocking on America's door for ages now. Tokyopop released his ten-volume epic Blame!, pronounced "blam" like a gunshot, and its prequel, Noise in the United States. In 2006, he earned a coveted spot in the amazingly awesome (and financially successful) Halo Graphic Novel, standing shoulder to shoulder with superstar artists like Moebius, Simon Bisley, and Geof Darrow, among others."—Comics Alliance

“To complement his expert art, Nihei gives his story some welcome strange touches, such as the spacesuits having a built-in catheter than automatically inserts itself into the wearer—and we see the panels of Nagate shuddering as he experiences this for the first time … The Sidonia residents face the wrath of a tentacled (of course) monster that would give H.P. Lovecraft a boner, and the stakes are very real. There’s also a talking bear, and no one blinks.” —BookGasm

The 33rd Degree Law of the Masonic Phoenicians

The number 33 is said to be the Master Number (Master Teacher). The Amon (AMEN) is the numerical equivalent of 1+13+5+14=33. Amen is the God of Truth, and 33 represents Christ consciousness. In the Book of Enoch, Mount Hermon is the place where the Grigori “Watchers, Sons of God or the Nephilim,” a class of fallen angels descended to Earth, and is at 33 degrees latitude and longitude.

There are many conspiracies surrounding the 33rd parallel of latitude that is 33 degrees north of the Earth’s equatorial plane, and the 33 degrees in Freemasonry. Whether or not there are any concrete facts tying them together in Truth, in my opinion has yet to be determined without a shadow of a reasonable doubt. But there are definitely some strange coincidences and a pattern of both Phoenician (Sidonian/Hebrew/Canaanite) and Masonic endeavors that seem to tie the two together in a world wide web that needs to be explored using reason rather than conspiratorial nonsense.

Some people seem to think it has to deal with some evil Masonic plot and or that it some type of grid energy portal to the Gods, but I have found that this is just a theory propagated by profane people who are not in the know, but think they are by spreading disinformation.

In studying the 33rd parallel of latitude that is 33 degrees north of the Earth’s equatorial plane, I have found a common thread or method of building that seems to prove that the Phoenicians who we know as some of the world’s first sea faring conquerors and merchant marines had purposely built many of their settlements around the world along the 33rd parallel. These first Phoenician settlements can be found all across the globe in places like where I was live in San Diego, California in North America and along the 33rd degree you will also find major Phoenician founded countries such as Lebanon, Jordan, Portugal, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Israel etc. you will find them all situated along the 33rd parallel.

The Masons also have 33 degrees and trace their craft back to the Phoenician King Hiram Abiff. This doesn’t mean by default that since we see the number 33 that there is some secret conspiracy in regards to the 33rd parallel and 33 degrees in Freemasonry, but it does bring up some interesting connections when you start studying both the Phoenicians and the Masons. As it has been said, nothing is a coincidence, and when dealing with the Phoenicians and Masons, this rings true more than ever.

The Science of the 33rd Degree

The main Truth I have found in the number 33 deals with time, travel, the sun and the methods the Phoenicians employed to circumvent and settle around the globe. In order to accomplish such a feat in a time where there were no satellites, computers or modern compasses, they would need a congruent system put in place that the Phoenician kings, mariners, warriors, masons and slaves had to follow so they were all on the same global page even when they were separated by different oceans, countries and time.

I would like to propose that the Phoenicians accomplished this by following the laws of the 33rd Degree circle of latitude on the Earth which they had invented, and this evidence can be found in many ancient and modern Phoenician settlements. Not all the Phoenician settlements can be found on the 33rd degree, but enough to prove that my theory may in fact be correct.

The laws of the 33rd Degree circle of latitude are based on an imaginary east-west circle connecting all locations (ignori ng elevation) with a given latitude. A location’s position along a circle of latitude is given by its longitude. The time for rising and setting of the sun is given only for two parallels of north latitude—the 33rd and 39th. Not even the intervening degrees, 34 to 38, are given. Thus if you live on the 34th parallel of latitude, the sun will rise one minute later and set one minute earlier than on the 33rd parallel and so on.

At the 33rd latitude the sun is visible for 14 hours, 20 minutes during the summer solstice and 9 hours, 58 minutes during the winter solstice. This time is set by natural laws that the Phoenicians had followed from time, travel and settling the globe. These laws also allowed them to locate, manage and travel easily between their kingdoms which were and are spread all across the globe to this very day.

The Global Cornerstone of the Laws of the 33rd Degree

As I have said before, the name of the Phoenicians was applied to them by their cousins, the ancient Greeks, and they had referred to themselves as the Sidonians and in the Scripture are the Hebrew people and Israelites. Their history book and racial religion we know as the Old Testament (Old Law). The Phoenicians two main ancient political centers were on the Holy Island of Crete in the Mediteranean at the city of Sidon (Now Suida Bay), and the sister city located at Sidon in the country of Lebanon.

Sidon also known as Zidon or “Great Zidon” the mother city. It is located at 33.55993 latitude, and 35.37564 longitude. Sidon was situated in the narrow fertile plain between the mountains of Lebanon and Mediterranean 25 miles north of Tyre. It is the main Phoenician city to send their ships around using the stars to navigate around the world in the open seas. The northern border of ancient Canaan extended to Sidon (Gn 10:19). Later, Jacob spoke of it as the boundary of Zebulun (Gn 49:13) and Joshua included it as part of the land promised to Israel (Jos 13:6). Sidon was included in the inheritance of Asher, on its northern boundary (Jos 19:28)

This is the exact country and location that for at least 3,000 years had provided much of the Cedar timber needed to build their Phoenicians ships and maintain their Navy and Merchant Marines ships to trade their silk linen embroidery, dies, metals, and glass. This would make Sidon one of their main Naval ports and a specific coordinate they would use to travel and settle the globe.

In the Scripture, Sidon was founded by Sidon, the firstborn of Canaan, the son of Ham, from whom the Sidonians are descended. In Tyre and Sidon reigned Phoenix, who was the brother of the Phoenician Prince and inventor of letters, Cadmus of Thebes in Egypt. From the name of Phoenix, the Greeks applied the name of the Phoenicians to the Sidonians.

In Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, Sidon and the Sidonians are mentioned (17 times:Iliad 6.290–91 23.743-44 Odyssey 4.83, 84, 618 13.272, 285 14.288, 291 15.118, 415, 417, 419, 425, 473). Homer’s usage appears to relate the term Sidonian with Phoenicians in general (see also 1 Kgs 5:6 Jidejian 1996:60).

1025 – 945 B.C. 33rd Degree of Tyre – The Egyptians called the Phoenicians by the name of the Sea Peoples. Their first two first main political centers located at Sidon on the Holy island of Crete and Sidon in Lebanon and the next city of importance was Tyre, Lebanon which is home to the legend of the Masonic King Hiram.

Tyre is less than 20 miles north of the 33rd Parallel as part of the Laws of the 33rd Degree. Hiram was the Phoenician King of Tyre in the reigns of Egyptian Kings, David and Solomon (Ramesses II and III). He was on friendly terms with both of them. King Hiram supplied King David with cedar trees, carpenters and masons who help built David a house.

During the tenth century B.C. King Hiram of Tyre supplied King Solomon with craftsmen, metallurgists, cedar wood, architectural design, and presumably the esoteric symbolism of these two columns for the construction of his temple at Jerusalem. (1 Kings 7: 13-22)

The Cretan, Joannes Phocas (1185) had written ,”The Pilgrimage of Joannes Phocas in the Holy Land (in the Year 1185 A.D.)” in which an account is written by John the priest, the most holy Phocas, who practices religion in the Island of Patmos, how he saw the holy places in the year 1185. At the beginning of the book was written “I the son of Phocas of Crete write this, by name.”

Phocas the Cretan left us this description of Sidon, “Next comes Sidon with the famous twin harbor, whose situation has been admirably described by the historian of Leucippe5 for if you visit the place, with its harbor and outer harbor, you will find the reality agreeing with the description given in his writings. Outside the city, at a distance of about three bow shots, stands a church, surrounded by a colonnade of great length, upon the upper part of the apse of which is placed a four-sided stone, whereon, according to the report of the vulgar, Christ, the Saviour of the world, used to stand and teach the multitude.”

Sidon was said to be destroyed about 350 years before-Christ by Alexander the Great in 333 BC when the Hellenistic era of Sidon began. Alexander in the 33rd year of his age and thirteenth of his government. From the confines of Tyre and Sidon came the Phoenician Canaanite woman who said to Jesus, ‘Son of David, have mercy upon me,’ and Jesus cured her because she showed faith in him (Matt 15: 21 -28 Mk 7:24 -30). While Paul was on his way to Rome as a prisoner he was allowed to visit his friends in this city (Acts 27:1,3).

After Sidon of the 33rd Degree, there was Dido, who founded the Phoenician (Sidonian) colony of Carthage in Africa.

875-848 B.C. 33rd Degree of Mount Carmel – The Biblical Mount Carmel is south of the modern city of Haifa and west of the Sea of Galilee in Israel. Mount Carmel is less than 20 miles south of the 33rd Parallel. At Carmel, Elijah the Phoenician Hebrew prophet stood against 850 heathen prophets and defeated them (1 Kings 18).

593-571 B.C. In Ezekiel Chapter 28, the prophet wrote while in exile in Babylon, not far south of the 33rd Parallel. Ezekiel wrote about the ruler of Tyre. Tyre is less than 20 miles north of the 33rd Parallel. The prophecy of Ezekiel called the king of Tyre wealthy and skilled in trading but proud and destined to destruction:

‘Therefore this is what the Sovereign LORD says: “‘Because you think you are wise, as wise as a god, I am going to bring foreigners against you, the most ruthless of nations they will draw their swords against your beauty and wisdom and pierce your shining splendor. They will bring you down to the pit, and you will die a violent death in the heart of the seas. Will you then say, “I am a god,” in the presence of those who kill you? You will be but a man, not a god, in the hands of those who slay you. You will die the death of the uncircumcised at the hands of foreigners. I have spoken, declares the Sovereign LORD.'”

The North American Phoenicians of the 33rd Degree

The Hohokam, a name meaning Sea Peoples of Southwest America and whom I identified as Phoenicians, have an important religious site in Arizona known as Snaketown 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Phoenix, Arizona. They had occupied the land that would become what we know today as Arizona, in places such as Sedona (Sidonia) and Phoenix for approximately 2,000 years or more from from as early as A.D 500 until about A.D. 1450. Snaketown was located about five miles north of the exact 33 degrees line, while the ruins of the astronomical observatory called Casa Grande still rest about five miles south of the line. I have also found they were some of Americas first Masons to lay the stones that became the United States of America.

Near Phoenix is a place called the Circlestone Observatory (33 degrees 28 minutes) where you will find what is called a “medicine wheel” constructed of a stone wall three feet thick with a circumference of 427 feet. New Zealand researcher and Druid Martin Doutré states that this structure incorporates various navigational codes, including phi, or the Golden Ratio (1.618…).

Doutré states that, “Ancient astronomer mathematicians built sites like Circlestone as repositories of codes and places where initiates to the astronomical arts could be taught the age-old principles. These initiates were the brightest, most adept children who were set apart as the “few to bless the many”. Their task was to learn, preserve and use the great knowledge for the benefit of regional society and their responsibility extended to teaching many others during the course of a lifetime of service.”

Like me, Doutré connects these structures to the Phoenicians who he says mined millions of pounds of copper that was transported back to the Eastern Mediterranean. He writes, “It is very apparent that ancient ships were ranging all over the world in search of resources for thousands of years before the Christian era. The mathematical concepts found within ruined ancient structures like the pyramids or Stonehenge attest to the fact that ancient civilizations had a perfect knowledge of the size of the Earth and how to grid reference it for successful navigation to any point of the globe.”

This perfect knowledge I like to call “The 33rd Degree Law of the Masonic Phoenicians.”

Travelling 1,500 miles to the east of Phoenix along latitude 33 North, we find the Moundvillesite ( 33°0′16.81″N 87°37′51.85″W ) of what is called the Mississippian culture site on the Black Warrior River in Hale County, near the city of Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

We again find the Phoenicians under the name of the American Indians following the law of the 33rd Degree at a river that is said to be once called the River Sidon and is now known as the Mississippi river.

The Louisiana Territory was that part of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase which lay north of the 33rd parallel, and was divided at the 33rd parallel. The northern division under Indiana Territory was called “District of Louisiana”, and the southern division, the “Territory of Orleans.” Slavery was restricted and inhabitants including Indian Tribes were to be incorporated into union of the United States according to the Constitution.

The Law of the 33RD Degree Freemasons – In the year 1756 in Charleston, South Carolina, the original site was founded for The Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, in the United States of America and the law of the 33rd Degree. It is known officially as “the Mother Lodge or Mother Supreme Council of the World.” It was originally founded by Moses Lindo as the King Solomon Lodge.

On May 31, 1801, the first Supreme Council of the Thirty-third Degree, the Mother Council of the World, declared its existence with a motto of “Ordo ab Chao” (Order from Chaos). It announced a new 33-degree system of high degrees that incorporated all 25 of the Order of the Royal Secret, and added eight more, including that of 33°, Sovereign Grand Inspector General.

This new organization declared control of high-degree Masonry in America. All regular Supreme Councils of the world today descend from the Mother Supreme Council of Charleston. (The Origins of the Scottish Rite: Copy of the Grand Constitutions of 1786 from the Archives of the Supreme Council, 33°, S.J., U.S.A., in the handwriting of Rev. Frederick Dalcho, ca. 1801–02)

It may be no surprise to you after read this article that the Mother Lodge of the World that governs the laws of Ordo ab Chao of the 33rd Degree which by no coincidence sits on the 33rd Parallel.

“Call to me and I will answer you and tell you great and unsearchable things you do not know.” – Jeremiah 33:3


“Pre-eminent amongst these old-world Masons were the Phoenicians. Bro. Fort, in his “Antiquities of Freemasonry,” tells us of Masons’ marks still visible on the foundations of the temple of Solomon, now uncovered to the human gaze after the lapse of ages. Similar marks have been discovered at Sidon and other distant and varied localities of Palestine.

These peculiar geometrical figures were used undoubtedly by the Tyrian carvers and ” hewers of stone,” who were sent by their Tyrian king to aid in the erection of the most complete and gorgeous Masonic work of remote antiquity. The descendants of these very builders barely two centuries later founded Carthage, and carried westwards the skill and peculiar customs of their confraternities.

The marks we can see to-day on many a fragment of the ruins around us exactly correspond with those of Jerusalem and other cities in the far East. They are part and parcel of a system, an integral portion of the working of those ancient operative guilds which have laid the foundations upon which in the present day the great fabric of speculative Masonry may be said to rest.”

In A Cyclopedia of Freemasonry by George Oliver and Robert MaCoy, it is said of the Sidonians in the KNIGHT OF THE ROYAL AXE, or PRINCE of LIBANUs 22nd Degree:

“The 22d degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. The legend of this degree informs us that it was instituted to record the memorable services rendered to Masonry by the mighty cedars of Lebanon, as the Sidonian architects cut down the cedars for the construction of Noah’s ark. Our ancient brethren, indeed, do not tell us how the Israelites had the wood conveyed to them from the land of promise to the mountains in the wilderness.

They further say, that the descendants of the Sidonians were employed in the same place, in obtaining materials for the construction of the ark of the covenant and also, in later years, for building Solomon’s Temple and, lastly, that Zerubbabel employed laborers of the same people in cutting cedars of Lebanon for the use of the second temple. The tradition adds that the Sidonians formed colleges on Mount Libanus, and always adored the G. A. O. T. U. Sidon was one of the most ancient cities of the world, and even in the time of Homer, the Sidonians were celebrated for their trade and commerce, their wealth and prosperity.

The allusion to the “colleges” on Mount Libanus may have some reference to the secret sect of the Druses, who still exist in that country, and whose mysterious ceremonies travelers affirm, have considerable affinity to Freemasonry. Bodies of this degree are styled Colleges. There are two apartments the first representing the workshop at Lebanon, with axes, saws, mallets, planes, wedges, and such like implements.

The room should be lighted with lamps or candles. In this apartment the Senior Warden presides, and is styled Master Carpenter. He and all the brethren wear blouses and aprons. The second apartment represents the council-room of the round table. It is hung with red, and lighted with 36 lights, arranged by sixes and each 6 by twos.

In the center of the room is a round table around which the brethren sit on the table are plans and mathematical instruments.

The presiding officer is Chief Prince, who is styled Thrice Puissant. The sash, to be worn from right to left, is a broad rainbow-colored ribbon, lined with purple. The apron is white, lined and bordered with purple in the middle a round table is painted, on which are mathematical instruments, and plans unrolled. On the flap is a serpent with three heads. The jewel is a golden axe, crowned, having on the blade and handle the initials of several personages illustrious in the history of Masonry.”

“The Egyptian order of Sacred Builders, which had existed long before the time of Rameses and Ptolemy, erected the great pyramids which keep watch over the placid Nile, and whose sides are builded square with the four points of the compass. The Israelites were forced to assist in the building of these monuments to the Pharaohs, and at the time probably acquired a knowledge of the secrets of this order of builders.

At the time of the erection of King Solomon’s Temple, 1,000 years before Christ, the Sidonians had a society of builders which, no doubt, had derived their art and their secrets from the Egyptians and Phoenicians. One of the Tyrian artisans had married a Jewess of the tribe of Naphthali, and they had a son called Hiram Abiff who spoke the language of Tyre and Sidon, and also of the Hebrews.

He was a curious and cunning workman, an architect and artisan of great renown and he had obtained all the secrets of the Sidonian order, which, in turn, had received the mysteries from the order of Sacred Builders of Egypt.

Whether those ancient mysteries were identical with these of the order of Freemasonry which King Solomon, King Hiram of Tyre and Hiram Abif instituted at the building of the Temple 3,000 years ago, we know not but at that point we find an unquestioned, established and authentic organization of Masonry. From the present back to that tine, the chain of Masonic history is unbroken.

The permanent foundation of the order in connection with the building of the House of the Lord, which proceeded under divine direction, links Masonry with religion and scriptural history.”

USS Sidonia - History

What is the Mossad?

Mossad is a shell organization for Jewish/Israeli terrorism all over the world.

What is a False Flag?

Committing an atrocious act, and blaming another party or nation for it. The point is to turn public opinion against an entity, and have someone else fight your battles for you.


Churchill, who was 1/2 Jewish, leaked intelligence to Germany that Lusitania carried munitions, and then it was sent it in a U-boat infested area. The ship was supposedly torpedoed, and a massive bomb exploded, killing 1200.

This set the stage for Wilson to bring the USA into WW2, at a later date.


When government officials were away, Jewish-paid thugs went on a rampage in Berlin and some border towns.

Nazis were blamed, and world opinion favored Jews

Bromberg massacre

An estimated 58,000 German civilians lost their lives in the massacres carried out prior to the 1939 invasion. A website on the atrocity at Bromberg explains how Polish Bolshevik Jews massacred 5,500 Germans, on one 'Bloody Sunday, in 1939.

This was the flashpoint for the Polish invasion.

The King David Massacre

July 22, 1946

Jewish terrorists blew up a hotel, and killed 91 British soldiers, and blamed the atrocity on Arabs. When later caught, they said the British had a list of their Arab spies and were going to turn them over to the Palestinians.

The goal of the False Flag was to pit the British against the Palestinians.

Lavon affair

I n 1954, Israeli agents working in Egypt planted bombs in several buildings, including a United States diplomatic facility, and left evidence behind implicating Arabs as the culprits. The ruse would have worked, had not one of the bombs detonated prematurely, allowing the Egyptians to capture and identify one of the bombers, which in turn led to the round up of an Israeli spy ring

June 1968

Robert Kennedy is shot by a PLO bus-boy named Sirhan Sirhan. Kennedy was running for President, and would have sought revenge over the Israeli killing of his brother.

The use of a Palestinian was a little too 'Hollywood'.

USS Liberty . June 6th, 1967

Six fighters, three torpedo boats and two assault helicopters attacked the USS Liberty. There were 24 dead and 177 maimed. F-4 phantoms were enroute when President Johnson stopped the rescue.

Israel's plan was to blame Egypt, and have the US retaliate against Egypt.

September 5, 1972

Eight Palestinian "Black September" terrorists seized 11 Israeli athletes in the Olympic Village in Munich, West Germany. In the rescue attempt by West German authorities, nine of the hostages, and five terrorists were killed.

Israel, and it's Jews, are once again the victim, and the Palestinians are demons.

1976 . Entebbe

Israel faked a hijacking to Kenya (Idi Imin was an Israeli puppet), and then pulled a rescue, portraying themselves as elite commandos.

Arabs looked like monsters and the Israelis, having suffered countless persecutions, have decided to fight back.


Abu Nidal, who was an Israeli Black Ops agent, attacked the Jewish Goldenberg's delicatessen in Paris. 6 were killed, and 20 were wounded, of which 2 were Jewish.

Pan Am flight 73

A 747 was enroute from Karachi, to Frankfurt, to its final destination of New York.

Four hijackers took control of the airplane, and for the next 16 hours, they held 379 passengers at gunpoint, while the pilots escaped. The plane was stormed and 20 died.

Beirut Marine barracks . October 23,1983

241 Marines died when a truck packed with explosives blew up a Marine barracks at Beirut International Airport

Achille Lauro . 1985

Abu Abbas, and 15 Arabs, took over a cruise ship and threw a Leon Klinghoffer overboard. After two days of negotiations, the seajackers abandoned the ship.

In this False Flag, the Israelis turned world opinion against the Arabs, while once again portraying themselves as victims.

English policewoman shot. 1984

In 1984, Zionist Jews staged a protest outside the Libyan embassy in London. Approximately 25 English Bobbies were used for crowd control. During the middle of the demonstration, a shot rang out and a female Bobby named Yvonne Fletcher was hit and killed.

The shot came from a building used by the Mossad to spy on the Libyan embassy, but the newspapers overlooked that and blamed Libya.

Israel used this false flag murder of Policewoman Fletcher, to turn world opinion against Libya.

Alia airliner . 1985

Nidal's Black September group hit a jet with an SAM as it took off from Athens airport.

Although the rocket did not explode, it left a hole in the fuselage.

Lockerbie . Dec 1988

Mossad blew up Pan AM 103 and blamed it on Libya. Unfortunately, the plane was late and blew up overland, and all the evidence pointed towards Israel.

Israel's goal was to demonize the Muslims, and lay the groundwork for 9/11.

AMIA . 1992

Mossad blew up AMIA and the Israeli Embassy in Argentina. Over 100 killed, and practically all of them were Argentineans.

Luxor, Egypt . 1992

An attack on Luxor, by militants, in which 58 foreigners, most of them Swiss, were killed. Arabs blamed the Mossad.

Israel destroyed Egyptian tourism, and turned world opinion against Muslims.

Khobar Towers . 1996

Khobar Towers was bombed. It housed an F-15 unit.

Israel said it was done by Hezbollah, but US military investigators linked it to Mossad.

Karin-A . 2000

Israel intercepted a ship, the Karin-A, in the Red Sea. The ship contained massive weapons, which Israel claimed were destined for the PLO. A Jewish arms dealer set it all up.

As a result, world opinion turned on the PLO, and Israel's slaughter of rock throwing Arab children wasn't questioned.

Two airports attacked . 1985

Terrorists of Abu Nidal's Black Sept. struck at the Rome and Vienna airport s. Nineteen were killed at Schwechat Airport and three at the Rome airport.

LaBelle Disco . 1986

As part of a Libya False flag, the Mossad sent a series of false messages out of Tripoli, talking of an impending attack. The Mossad then bombed a German Disco, the Labelle Club, killing three and wounding 230. President Reagan was convinced it was a Libyan attack, and retaliated by bombing Libya

World opinion turned against Libya.

OKC Murrah Building . 1993

One of the Mossad's American arms, the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), was concerned about the growth of Patriot movements such as Militias, so an attack was staged using a Timothy McVeigh patsy, who was out of Elohim City (Jewish-sponsored terror Mecca).

The real brains behind the OKC bombing were Andreas Strassmeir and Daniel Spiegelman, who were/are both Jewish.

The Zionists destroyed the Militia movement's credibility, and brought the FBI down on them.

Flight 840

TWA's Flight 840, a Boeing 727 flying from Rome to Athens with 115 passengers and seven crew members aboard, had already begun its descent toward the Athens international airport. Twenty minutes before landing, as it flew at 15,000 ft. over Argos, a town near the ancient site of Mycenae, an explosion shook the aircraft. Four were killed but 111 lived.

Once again, Israel planted the seed of "Arab" terrorism.

World Trade Center . 1993

In Dec. 1992, an Israeli soldier, Nissim Toledano, was kidnapped and killed. The Israeli government rounded up 1600 members of Hamas, and deported 415 of them to the no-mans land between the Israeli and Lebanese borders. In the brutally inhospitable weather, these 415 Hamas members were stranded without food and shelter. Furthermore, the Israeli authorities stopped any humanitarian aid from reaching these people. With media focus on the deportees, it triggered international outrage against Israel, which was followed by international pressure on Israel that refused to go away. This time, Israel had bit off more than it could chew. It was time to ‘deflect’ pressure off Israel.

Israeli intelligence services went into action. A detailed process that is too long to elaborate here, hatched a plan. In the third week of February 1993, a truck bomb exploded in the basement of the World Trade Center building. Muslims used as scapegoats took the blame for it, while the real culprits were safely back in Israel. Thus world opinion and pressure was shifted away from Israel.

Port Arthur Massacre . 1996

A 2-man Israeli Counter-Terrorism team killed 35 at a remote tourist center at Port Arthur, Tasmania. The blame fell on a mentally challenged man named Martin Bryant, who has served as the designated patsy for this crime ever since.

Zionists got their long-awaited draconian gun control laws passed in Australia as a result of this massacre.

Birmingham . 1998

Birmingham abortion clinic bombed and two people killed.

As a result of the bombing, abortion opponents were portrayed as lunatics, while the Jewish-dominated abortion industry special laws passed to protect their trade.

Egyptair 990 . 1999

Israel planted a thermite bomb in the aircraft tail.

USS Cole

Sayanims in the Pentagon had the Cole directed to a part in Yemen, where Israeli agents had Arab patsies approach the Cole with a small boat, in order to be seen by crewmen, while they attacked it with a shape charge.

Sept 11 . 2001

The most brazen of all Israeli attacks.

Flight 587 . 2001

Mossad blows up a Fl 587 out of NY, and it crashes in Rockaway.

Bali Bomb

Mossad sets off a micro nuke on the island of Bali, killing 182.

Israel blamed the attack on Al Qaeda (which is really an Israeli false flag patsy intel op), and the USA invaded Iraq.

Kenya missile . 2002

In 2002, Israel claimed AL Qaeda shot two SAM missiles at a jet on take-off. Israel used this incident to help lay the groundwork for shooting down a US airliner.

Manila . 2003

Mossad planted a bomb on a Manila ferry, killing 103.

Israel blamed the attack on Al Qaeda.

CIA Bomb In Gaza . 2003

Three CIA agents are traveling in Gaza, when a Mossad bomb exploded.

Palestinians were blamed for the attack.

Madrid Train . 2002

Mossad killed 198 in the Madrid bomb blast.

Al Queda was blamed.

Introduction to Israel
By Jackie Patru
What IS this all about? First we should attempt to determine what a Jew is, or isn't. Is a Jew a person who embraces a particular religion known as Judaism? Or, is it a Semitic person who traces his/her bloodline to the ancient tribe of Judah? Or is it both? Actually, it is neither. Their Biblical territory? The WORLD.

A Jewish Defector Warns America
BENJAMIN FREEDMAN SPEAKS. In 1961, at the Willard Hotel, Mr. Freedman warned of the cabal laying plans for WWIII, and the genocide being committed by Israel on the Palestinian people figured heavily then as now. This is a repost, taken verbatim from the taped version of the speech.

The Zionist State (Harbinger of WWIII)
By Douglas Reed
A microscopic look behind the scenes at the manipulations, threats, bribes and murders committed in order to secure the vote by the United Nations, mandating the 'state' of Israel as a homeland for the so-called Jews. A gruesome picture of the bloody terror in Palestine that began simultaneously with the UN mandate. This a MUST READ, even for those who believe they know the facts.

Rothschild-Israeli Connection
Baron Edmond James (Avrahim Binyamin) de Rothschild (1845-1934) is known as the "Father of the Settlement" (Avi ha-Yishuv). The Independence Day coin is dedicated to the memory of Rothschild and marks the centenary of his first projects in Israel.

The Kol Nidre
The first and most important prayer of the Talmudist (Jewish) Holiday. "All vows , obligations, oaths, and anathemas. . . from this Day of Atonement until the next. . . we do repent.. May they be deemed absolved, forgiven, annulled, and void, and made of no effect they shall not bind us nor have power over us. The vows shall not be obligatory nor the oaths be oaths."

Purim: What's It All About?
G.W.Bush announced 'his' decision to sack Iraq on Purim Eve, March 17th, 2003. WHY? Why Purim Eve? It was not his plan, it was the plan of his advisors/handlers. On CNN that evening, a boxed quote told the viewers, it was "A Time Of Our Choosing." Whose choosing? Read this about Purim -- the Feast of Lots, and you will KNOW who chose the time for the massacre in Iraq. "On Purim, the Jews reaffirm their allegiance to Judaism -- and reach new spiritual heights. But then come masquerades, parodies, and serious drinking and feasting." Celebrating the death of their named 'enemies'.

Samuel Untermeyer's Speech
A transcript of Samuel Untermyer's speech made on WABC, declaring a 'holy war' by the Jews against Germany, and appealing to the masses of non-Jewish humanity to boycott German-made imports and all merchants who have German-made items in their establishments. The entire speech was published in the New York times on the morning following the broadcast (August 7th, 1933) which was mentioned by Benjamin Freedman in his talk before a group of patriots.

The Protocols
A chapter from the Controversy of Zion, by Douglas Reed
"Uncanny knowledge, therefore, again seems to have inspired the statement, made in 1905 or earlier: 'Ever since that time' (the French Revolution) 'we have been leading the peoples from one disenchantment to another. By these acts all States are in torture they exhort to tranquility, are ready to sacrifice everything for peace but we will not give them peace until they openly acknowledge our international Super-Government, and with submissiveness'."

Israel: The Jewel-Box of the World
ISRAEL - THE ARTIFICIAL 'NATION/STATE' IS THE WEALTHIEST 'NATION' IN THE WORLD! READ: Message To Israel: May 1971: "See how this central piece of land, that is given the preeminence over all other land by God is, 'The Jewel Box of the World'. . . They [minerals in the dead sea] are estimated to have a total market value of about $1700 billion [$1.7 trillion] which is far more than the total wealth of the United States . . . This means that the Dead Sea will be a perpetual source of wealth to the nation that controls it."

The Cost of "Occupied" Israel to the American People
By Richard Curtiss
"Put another way, the nearly $14,630 every one of 5.8 million Israelis had received from the U.S. government by October 31, 1997, cost American taxpayers $23,241 per Israeli. That's $116,205 for every Israeli family of five."

The Finest Senate Money Can Buy
By Uri Avenim, member of Israeli Knesset
"One thing, however, is quite clear: Israel is not the 51st state of the United States of America, as some would like to think rather, the US Congress is one of the occupied areas of Israel."

Israeli Lobby Slips Anti-Israel Speech Bill Through U.S. House of Representatives
This bill was introduced some time ago by Rick Santorum, 'Christian' Senator from Penna. The original bill would withhold 'federal funds' from a college that allowed ANY criticism of Israel. WHO controls the U.S. Congress?

Oscar Levy, a Jew, Admits His People's Error
"We (Jews) have erred, my friend we have most grievously erred. And if there was truth in our error 3,000, 2,000, nay, 100 years ago, there is now nothing but falseness and madness. a madness that will produce an even greater misery and an even wider anarchy. There has been no progress, least of all moral progress. . . And it is just our Morality, which has prohibited all real progress, and -- what is worse -- which even stands in the way of every future and natural reconstruction in this ruined world of ours."

Disraeli's "Coningsby' - An Excerpt
(London, 1844)
"And at the moment, in spite of centuries, or tens of centuries, of degradation, the Jewish mind exercises a vast influence on the affairs of Europe. I speak not of their laws, which you still obey of their literature, with which your minds are saturated, but of the living Hebrew intellect."

The Ship Wreckers
By George Lincoln Rockwell
". in spite of all the fronts and cover-ups, there is one sure way of knowing who is the real boss anyplace."

Israel-Backed Firm Buys U.N. Plaza
Capital Real Estate, a New York-based company backed by Israeli shekels is now in contract to buy the glamorous green glass U.N. Plaza from the United Nations Development Corp. for approximately $161 million.

Israeli Extremists and Christian Fundamentalists - The Alliance
By Grace Halsell
"By the time my book came out those "crazies" were on the front page of every American newspaper and on every news channel. we are seeing how the Christian Zionists, motivated by religious beliefs, are working hand in glove with politically motivated, militant Jewish Zionists around the world."

A Lobby to Reckon With: Pro-Israel Christian Zionists
BBC Broadcast and transcript.
America's new Christian Zionists lobbying for Israel. "From this we see that the engine driving the U.S. and Israel into an all out world conflagration is -- along with the money from the Jewish PACs which control the U.S. Congress -- the Christian Zionists. Judeo-Christian wasn't quite 'Jewish' enough. What an oxymoron, and what a spit-in-the-face of Jesus." Jackie Patru

Israel Wants U.S. to Pressure Syria
Associated Press: In remarks published Monday, Defense Minister Shaul Mofaz said Israel has "a long list of issues we are thinking of demanding of the Syrians, and it would be best done through the Americans."

Greater Israel: What Does It Really Mean?
The U.S. led war on Iraq. and eventually many other Muslim nations may be part of an Israeli plan to let others die for the goal of its expansion into Greater Israel. Extremist Zionist sympathizers in Bush's administration are the perpetrators of this scheme to have American military men and women die for Israel. See the arguments for this claim. Webmaster's note: This document is lengthy and is full of maps and other images. Please allow extra time for loading.

American Murdered by Israeli Soldier
Hoffman Wire: "Rachel Corrie, 23, is the American woman who was killed by an Israeli soldier operating a giant, D-9 armored bulldozer (paid for with your tax dollars). Congress, the president and the war-Zionist media are all silent. Imagine if she had been killed by an Iraqi!"

Rachel Corrie's E-mails Home
The Guardian - UK: "23-year-old American peace activist Rachel Corrie was crushed to death by a bulldozer as she tried to prevent the Israeli army destroying homes in the Gaza Strip. In a remarkable series of emails to her family, she explained why she was risking her life."

Four Eye-witnesses Describe the Murder of Rachel Corrie
"Her faced showed she was panicking and it was clear she was in danger of being overwhelmed. . . They pushed Rachel, first beneath the scoop, then beneath the blade, then continued till her body was beneath the cockpit. They waited over her for a few seconds, before reversing. They reversed with the blade pressed down, so it scraped over her body a second time. Every second I believed they would stop but they never did."

Rachael Corrie's Memorial Service Disrupted by Israeli Army The Guardian - UK: "Israeli forces fired teargas and stun grenades yesterday in an attempt to break up a memorial service for Rachel Corrie, the American peace activist killed by an army bulldozer in Gaza on Sunday."

Rachael Corrie's mom speaks up and out
. . . about the Israeli genocide on Palestinians: "Friday, approximately twenty [Israeli] military vehicles surrounded the ISM (International Solidarity Movement) media office, seized ISM computers and video equipment, pillaged files and photos, broke equipment and damaged office space. Three females in the office (one from Human Rights Watch, a Palestinian volunteer, and an American volunteer) were taken away."

Israel - The Secret Arsenal of the Jewish State
MSNBC Interactive: "Despite Israel's refusal to acknowledge its nuclear weapons status, its secret arsenal is an open secret that Israeli policy makers don't go out of their way to deny." Look at the dots on this map! 2 Air Bases, 7 Strategic Weapons Plants and 3 Missile Facilities! It appears that no nation should have WMDs except U.S., U.K and Israel.

Israeli Professor: 'We Could Destroy All European Capitals'
"We have the capability to take the world down with us. And I can assure you that this will happen before Israel goes under." [It's called The Samson Option, folks.]

What Christians Don't Know About Israel
By Grace Halsell
“We believe with absolute certitude that right now, with the White House in our hands, the Senate in our hands and The New York Times in our hands, the lives of others do not count the same way as our own.” —Israeli journalist, Arieh Shavit

Jewish Calendar for Soldiers and Sailors
Actual calendar, showing Bush family heritage.

Tell a Joke, Go to Jail
"In Hungary, the democratically-elected Parliament just last week passed a law stipulating a two-year prison term for 'someone who publicly insults a Jew'. What's more, if the insult amounts to an expression of 'hatred', the sentence goes up to three years! Fortunately, at the last moment, Hungary's President declined to sign the bill. It will be back, just like the American Federal hate-crime legislation kept coming back until it was passed recently.

Israel's Mossad
Black Ops and False Flags. Summary - MUST SEE! You WILL believe!

New Order > From the President of the United States
Jewish American Heritage Month, 2006
For our visitors who haven't read "Jewish Persecution", go to Chapters 12 and 18 if you would like to see the influence these people have had in the past -- early, early settling America, including the not-so-spontaneous American Revolution. A tough, bitter pill to swallow. -Jackie


World War II, 1945–1946

After completing her fitting-out at Boston, Mass., Renate conducted shakedown training in Chesapeake Bay (13–19 March), after which time she underwent post-shakedown availability at the Norfolk Navy Yard, Portsmouth, Va. she ultimately sailed for the Panama Canal Zone on 31 March 1945. After transiting the canal, she arrived at Balboa on 6 April, and sailed thence two days later, bound for Hawaiian waters and steaming independently. Renate reached Pearl Harbor on 21 April, underwent an inspection six days later, and completed discharging cargo on the 29th.

Bringing cargo-loading operations to completion on 13 May, Renate embarked 197 enlisted passengers — sailors, marines, and soldiers — and two naval officers for transportation the following day, and sailed for the Marshall Islands. Steaming independently, her men standing daily dawn and dusk alerts, the attack cargo ship crossed the 180th meridian on 18 May, and ultimately reached Eniwetok on the 22nd. Pushing on, bound for the western Carolines, on 5 June, she followed a lone course to Ulithi, arriving on 9 June. Next assigned to convoy UOK-36, Renate got underway for Okinawa on 10 July, dropping anchor in Buckner Bay on the 14th. Interrupting cargo operations to sortie on 19 July to evade a typhoon, she ultimately completed discharging cargo five days later, getting underway to return to Ulithi on 25 July with convoy OKU-16.

Anchoring in Ulithi lagoon on the last day of July, Renate got underway on 2 August for Pearl Harbor. Again steaming independently, she crossed the International Date Line on 10 August, and reached her destination on the 13th. Shifting to Kahului, Maui, ten days later, she completed cargo operations the following day, and sailed to return to Pearl on the 25th.

Departing on 14 May, she returned to Hawaii the day before the Japanese capitulation and was assigned to Operation "Campus," the occupation of the defeated enemy’s home islands. She got underway for Kyūshū 1 September, mooring 16 days later at Sasebo where she disembarked units of the 5th Marines. Completing another occupation troop lift, from the Philippines to Sasebo, in early October, she joined in operation "Magic Carpet", the transportation of Pacific campaign veterans back to the United States. With San Francisco as her terminus she completed two "Magic Carpet" runs by mid January 1946.

The next month she sailed for the East Coast, arriving at Norfolk on the 26th.

Conversion to survey ship, 1946–1948

In June she entered Portsmouth Naval Shipyard for conversion to a survey ship and on 12 July was renamed Maury (AGS 16). As Maury she emerged from the shipyard in October with a new silhouette. Electronic survey and sounding equipment, as well as photographic, printing, and repair shops had been added within her compartments and a helipad, helicopter, and sound boats had been provided topside. The boats would be used in charting positions and depths accurately, while the ship's helicopter would transport surveyors and their equipment to points ashore and perform aerial photographic missions.

On 6 January 1947 Maury got underway for the Pacific and her first hydrographic mission, the charting of the waters around Truk and Kwajalein. Having added to navigational knowledge of those areas she sailed for San Francisco, arriving on 13 September and remaining until 11 July 1948. She then got underway for New York City where she reported for duty with Service Force, Atlantic Fleet, on 10 August.

Atlantic Fleet, 1948–1959

During 1949, 1950, and 1951, Maury made three 8-month cruises to the Persian Gulf, constructing charts of those waters, accompanied by the tugs Allegheny (ATA-179) and Stallion (ATA-193). In October 1952, in concert with Sheldrake (AGS-19) and Prevail (AGS-20) she began a resurvey of the North Atlantic, to correct existing false soundings on navigational charts and studying methods for hurricane and weather predictions. Through 1957 she served in the Western Atlantic, surveying as far north as Newfoundland in the summer months and working to the south, as far as the West Indies, during the winter.

In 1958 Maury returned to the Mediterranean for an abbreviated deployment, from 3 February to 9 May. In July her North Atlantic resurvey missions were extended and she crossed the ocean to chart the waters in and around the Shetland and Faroe Islands. Throughout this period, while fulfilling her primary assignment of correcting navigational charts, she added to meteorological knowledge by studying the North Atlantic's weather patterns, particularly with regard to hurricanes.

Early in the Spring of 1959 Maury again passed through the Straits of Gibraltar. Continuing on to the Eastern Mediterranean she began a study of the Turkish coast. By September she was ready to extend that survey to the Turkish Black Sea coast and on the 17th and 18th transited the Dardanelles. Maury thus became the first U.S. naval unit to enter the Black Sea since 1945.

Pacific Fleet, 1960–1969

The next year, 1960, Maury was transferred to the Pacific Fleet and by 22 March was operating out of Pearl Harbor. Attached to the 7th Fleet's logistic support group during her extended cruises, she completed a preliminary survey of the Gulf of Siam in preparation for her next long range assignment, an accurate survey of designated areas of the southwestern Pacific and Indian Oceans. After modernization at Pearl Harbor, she returned to the Gulf of Siam in December with Serrano (AGS-24) . Working in concert, Maury concentrated on hydrographic survey, while Serrano gathered information on the physical and chemical makeup of the waters and ocean floor. During their 1961, 1962, and 1963 7th Fleet tours, the oceanographic vessels charted and collected data on the Gulf of Siam, the Andaman Sea, the Straits of Malacca and areas of the Philippines, punctuating those tours with missions of mercy as the occasion demanded.

Detail of Pacific Fleet activities off Vietnam & in Mekong Delta

Willard J. McNulty (Captain naval USN) of Spokane, Washington (1918-2004) commanded the Maury during its initial period of Vietnam conflict related activity in Southeast Asian waters from July, 1961 – August, 1962. During that period of Capt. McNulty’s command and with the USS Serrano (AGS-24) , the Maury (AGS-16) charted and collected data on the Gulf of Siam, Strait of Malacca, and Andaman Sea in prelude to possible U.S. troop and war ship involvement in Vietnam. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] In addition to standard charting, the extensive U.S.S. Maury (AGS-16) and Serrano (AGS-24) oceanographic and hydrographic surveys completed for these bodies of water included, also, studies of the physical and chemical make-up of both their water and ocean floors by echo sounding casts, bathythermic observations and Core samples, eve and bottom samplings. The Maury completed the brunt of the pairs military intelligence gathering, while the Serrano appears to have completed any more scientific research oriented oceanography. [ 8 ] Capt. McNulty, who again was in command of the Maury during this sensitive, early, period of its primarily military environmental intelligence gathering off Vietnam, had been a surface warfare officer during the Korean War and had prior commanded the also storied escort destroyer USS Tabberer (DE-418) (4 Battle stars for World War II service) during its later non-combat operations. [ 9 ] He later served as a base commander. [ 10 ]

The USS Maury (AGS-16) and the USS Serrano (AGS-24) were again teamed in the Gulf of Thailand in 1963-1964, and the USS Maury (AGS-16), itself, saw significant action in the Vietnamese War from 1966-1969, particularly in the Mekong Delta. [ 11 ] Its sound boat GS-16-2 was there deployed, and to serve U.S. Vietnam combat operations urgent needs for environmental intelligence, the Maury’s printing plant there generated and printed on board for immediate distribution multicolored field survey charts for the first time in naval history in 1967, receiving for that year’s operations the Secretary of the Navy’s Meritorious Unit Citation. [ 12 ]

Summarizing with further detail, the Maury had surveyed the Vietnam coast with the Serrano in 1961-1962 and in 1963-1964. On 1 February 1965 Maury had departed Pearl Harbor for a four-month survey of the continental shelf off Buenaventura, Colombia. Returning to Oahu on 2 June, she began preparations for her return to Southeast Asia. Departing on 15 November she soon commenced a seven-month survey of the coast of strife-torn South Vietnam. As earlier noted, concentrating on the Mekong Delta area during that cruise, she then resumed her study of the Vietnamese coast with each annual deployment. Into 1969 her efforts added significantly to knowledge of the characteristics of the coastal area in which naval forces conducted riverine warfare and amphibious operations. Maury (AGS-16) earned a Meritorious Unit Commendation and six battle stars for her service in the Vietnam War.


After completing her last operational survey operations, off the coast of the Republic of Korea, Maury sailed for home. Pausing at Pearl Harbor en route, she stood out for the West Coast on her final voyage on 1 December 1969. She reached San Francisco on 8 December, off-loading fuel, ammunition, and vehicles before shifting to the Naval Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility, Mare Island, Vallejo, Calif., later the same day. Decommissioned on 19 December 1969, Maury was stricken from the Navy List the same day. The ship remained at the Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility until transferred to the custody of the Maritime Administration (MARAD) on 26 June 1970. Taken to MARAD's Suisun Bay, Calif., berthing area, she remained there until sold to the National Steel and Metal Co., of Terminal Island, Calif., on 10 August 1973 to be broken up for scrap.

Watch the video: American Battleships 1892 to 1945 (January 2022).