Information

USS Mugford (DD-105), 1920


U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann .The standard history of the development of American destroyers, from the earliest torpedo boat destroyers to the post-war fleet, and covering the massive classes of destroyers built for both World Wars. Gives the reader a good understanding of the debates that surrounded each class of destroyer and led to their individual features.


Update for October 2017 at HistoryofWar.org: Sulla's Second Civil War, War in the Pacific, War of Liberation and Austrian Generals, Bell and Consolidated Aircraft, Wickes class destroyers, German Artillery

Update for October 2017 at HistoryofWar.org: Sulla's Second Civil War, War in the Pacific, War of Liberation and Austrian Generals, Bell and Consolidated Aircraft, Wickes class destroyers, German Artillery

This month at HistoryofWar.org we look at some of the key events of Sulla's Second Civil War, from the siege of Praeneste to the battles that saw him defeat the consul Carbo. For the Second World War we begin a new series on the Pacific islands campaign, looking at the early build-up and parts of the Gilbert Islands campaign. For the Napoleonic Wars we complete our series on the War of Liberation, and begin a short collection of biographies of Austrian generals.

In the air we complete our series on Consolidated aircraft and begin a new look at Bell aircraft. At sea we continue our series on Wickes class destroyers. On land we look at the 10.5cm light field howitzers of the German Army.

Sulla's Second Civil War

The siege of Praeneste (82 BC) saw the consul Marius the Younger besieged in the city for most of the campaign of 82 BC, from his defeat at the battle of Sacriportus in the spring, to his suicide as the city surrendered to Sulla (Sulla's Second Civil War).

The battle of Sena Gallica (82 BC) saw Pompey defeat one of the consul Carbo's armies near a small port on the Adriatic, helping to strengthen Sulla's position in the north of Italy (Sulla's Second Civil War).

The battle of the Glanis River (82 BC) saw Sulla defeat a force of Celtiberian cavalry that had been sent to help the Consuls in their attempt to resist his invasion of Italy (Sulla's Second Civil War).

The battle of Saturnia (82 BC) was a minor victory for Sulla's forces over a detached part of Carbo's army during a period of campaigning in the area around Clusium (Sulla's Second Civil War).

The first battle of Clusium (82 BC) was an inconclusive battle between Sulla and Carbo, fought eighty miles to the north of Rome

The battle and siege of Spoletium (82 BC) was a partial success for Pompey, then serving under Sulla, against Carrinas, one of the lieutenants of the consul Carbo.

Operation Fetlock, or the occupation of Funafuti Atoll (2 October 1942) saw the Americans seize the largest atoll in the Ellice Islands, ready to turn it into a base to use against the Japanese in the Gilbert Islands.

The occupation of Nanomea Atoll (18 August 1943) was part of an American build-up before the invasion of the Gilbert Islands.

The occupation of Nukufetu Atoll and Motolalo Island (27 August 1943) was part of the US build-up of strength before the invasion of the Gilbert Islands.

The battle of Apamama (21-25 November 1943) saw the Americans capture this atoll in the Gilbert Islands after a brief clash with a Japanese garrison.

The combat of Kosen (20 October 1813) was a rearguard action during the French retreat from Leipzig.

The battle of Hanau (30-31 October 1813) was an unsuccessful attempt to interfere with the French retreat after Leizpig, carried out by a Austro-Bavarian army that had moved up from southern Germany.

The siege of Hamburg (3 December 1813-27 May 1814) was the last phase in Davout's year long occupation of Hamburg, and lasted until after Napoleon's first abdication.

Johann Gabriel Chasteler de Courcelles (1763-1825) was an Austrian general who served as a engineer, a staff officer and a corps commander.

Johann Conrad (Freidrich), Freiherr von Hotze (1739-99) was a Swiss officer who served in the Württemburg, Russian and Austrian armies, and who was killed while campaigning in Switzerland in the Austrian service.

Prince Friedrich Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1757-1844) was an Austrian general who was undefeated in independent command, with a reputation for leading his men from the front.

Hieronymus Karl, Graf von Colloredo-Mansfield was an Austrian general who served throughout the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

Ignaz Gyulai, Graf von Maros-Nemth und Nadaska (1763-1831) was an Austrian general most famous for his role in the campaigns of 1813 and 1814.

The Bell FM-1 Airacuda was a twin engined escort fighter developed to operate with the B-17, but that never entered service due to its poor performance and limited manoeuvrability.

The Bell P-63 Kingcobra closely resembled the P-39 Airacobra, but was actually a new aircraft and not simply a modified P-39. Very few were used by the US, but a large number did serve in the Soviet Union.

Consolidated Aircraft

The Consolidated XC-99 was a transport aircraft based on the massive B-36 bomber, but only a single example was ever completed.The Consolidated XC-99 was a transport aircraft based on the massive B-36 bomber, but only a single example was ever completed.

The Consolidated C-109 was a fuel tanker produced from the B-24 Liberator and mainly used on the 'hump' between India and China.

The Consolidated B-32 Dominator was produced to the same specifications as the B-29 Superfortress, but took far longer to develop and was only ever produced in small numbers.

The Consolidated B-36 Peacekeeper was developed in response to the early German victories in 1939-40, but development was slow, and it ended up being Strategic Air Command's main long range bomber during the 1950s.

The 10.5cm leFH 98/09 (light field howitzer) was the main German field howitzer at the start of the First World War, and was a modified version of an earlier weapon.

The 10.5cm leFH 16 (light field howitzer) was a Rheinmetall design that became the main German field howitzer during the second half of the First World War, and remained in service until 1945.

The 10.5cm leFH 18 was the first in a large family of light howitzers that provided the standard divisional artillery guns for the German Army during the Second World War.

The 10.5cm leFH 18M was a modified version of the leFH 18 that was given a muzzle brake to reduce the recoil forces.

Wickes Class Destroyers

USS Hale (DD-133) was a Wickes class destroyer that served with the US Neutrality Patrol before becoming HMS Caldwell and carrying out convoy escort duties for the Royal Navy and Royal Canadian Navy.

USS Crowninshield (DD-134) was a Wickes class destroyer that served with the US Neutrality Patrol and then on convoy escort duties with the Royal Navy and Royal Canadian Navy.

USS Tillman (DD-135)/ HMS Wells was a Wickes class destroyer that saw active service with the Royal Navy, performing convoy escort duties.

USS Boggs (DD-136/ DMS-3) was a Wickes class destroyer that spent most of the interwar years on experimental duties, before serving as a minesweeper in the Pacific from 1940 to 1944.

USS Kilty (DD-137/ APD-15) was a Wickes class destroyer that served as a fast transport in the Pacific in 1943-45, serving in the Solomons, along New Guinea and in the Philippines.

USS Kennison (DD-138/ AG-83) was a Wickes class destroyer that operated as a coastal escort off Califonia from 1941-44 and then as a target ship for the rest of the war.

The Gestapo - A History of Hitler's Secret Police, 1933-45, Rupert Butler .

More of a general history of Nazi repression than a focused study of the Gestapo, with a tendency to focus on the major events - the Röhn Purge, the career of Heydrich, the attempts to assassinate Hitler and not on the day-to-day activities of the Gestapo. Good on the areas it covers, and does include a fair amount of material on the Gestapo, but could have been better focused

American Knights - The Untold Story of the Men of the Legendary 601st Tank Destroyer Battalion, Victor Failmezger.

Tells the story of the first Tank Destroyer battalion to be formed in the US army, from its original creation in the United States, through its wartime service in North Africa, Italy, France and Germany. Heavily based on the recollections of a core group of members of the battalion (all of whom survived), this gives us an insiders view of the use of one of the more controversial weapons in the US armoury during the Second World War

Atlanta 1864 - Sherman Marches South, James Donnell.

Covers one of the most important campaigns of the American Civil War, the start of Sherman's devastating march across the heart of the Confederacy, both a crucial military victory and a key element in Lincoln's re-election as President. A good text, supported by a well chosen series of maps, starting with one that covers the opening of the campaign and gives an overview of the entire campaign area, and moving on to maps for each series of battles that give a really good idea of Sherman's fluid movements

The Thinking Man's Soldier - The Life and Career of General Sir Henry Brackenbury, 1837-1914, Christopher Brice.

A biography of a Victorian soldier who made his name away from the front line, and in particular as head of the Intelligence Department and the successful head of the Ordnance Department during the Boer War, where the army had to cope with demands on a unprecedented scale. An interesting view of life in the British Army as it changed from the disastrously amateurish force of the Crimean War into the increasingly professional force that fought the First World War

Military Technology of the First World War - Development, Use and Consequences, Wolfgang Fleischer.

Focuses on the technology used by the German army, with a particular focus on those weapons that played a direct part in the battles on the Western Front - machine guns, flame throwers, gas, artillery, mortars and tanks. Very useful to have a book written from the German point of view. Well illustrated, and the text is supported by a good selection of eyewitness accounts describing the impact of the new technology as seen by those who were using it

Rikugun - Guide to Japanese Ground Forces 1937-1945 - Volume 2: Weapons of the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy Ground Forces, Leland Ness .

Looks at an impressively wide range of the weapons used by the Japanese military during the Second World War, covering personal weapons such as machine guns or grenades, the full range of artillery and anti-aircraft guns, aircraft detection systems, tanks, mines, chemical weapons (including smoke generators) and even river crossing equipment. A very useful reference work on the equipment of the Japanese armed forces, providing both a narrative account of developments in a particular area and weapon by weapon technical details

Ancient Warfare Vol IX, Issue 6: A Feast for Dogs & Crows - The Aftermath of Battle

An unusual theme, focusing on the aftermath of war, looking at the fate of the victors and vanquished, the return home and the celebrations of victory as well as the fate of the dead or the captive. Interesting to follow on from where most accounts of battles end, . Also looks at the real role of the Praetorian Guard, and the nature of the cuneus in Roman fighting.

Ancient Warfare Vol X, Issue 6: Ancient Rome in Turmoil - The Year of the Four Emperors

Looks at one of the more familiar topics in Roman history, the turmoil that ended the reign of Nero and with it the Julio-Claudian dynasty, and ended the period of internal peace first established by Augustus. Mainly focuses on topics that are away from the main events of the civil wars, demonstrating just how widespread an impact the year of crisis had across the Empire.

Ancient Warfare Vol XI, Issue 2: On the Cusp of Empire - The Romans unify Italy

Focuses on the period which saw Rome defeat its last enemies in peninsular Italy, the first stage on the road to Empire. An interesting focus on the Greeks of southern Italy, Rome's last major enemies , and a fascinating look at two newly discovered frescos recovered from grave robbers by the Italian police that give us images of some of Rome's enemies in this period.

Sumter After the First Shots, Derek Smith.

Looks at the famous Confederate siege of Fort Sumter and the much longer, but also less successful Union siege, part of a wider, and equally unsuccessful attack on Charleston. Demonstrates the limits of artillery before the introduction of high explosive shells, and the perils of having a split command, which hamstrung the Union campaign at key moments. A useful account of the longest siege of the American Civil War, which only ended when Sherman's advancing army forced the Confederates were evacuate Charleston

Rikugun - Guide to Japanese Ground Forces 1937-1945 - Volume 1: Tactical Organization of Imperial Japanese Army & Navy Ground Forces, Leland Ness.

A valuable reference book that provides a well researched and detailed guide to the often confusing ground forces of the Japanese army and navy, tracing the creation, career and end of every significant unit, as well as their many changes in organisation, and the actual troops allocated to these units (often very different to the official structure). Includes some interesting material on how the army in particular reacted to the changing war situation, but is mainly intended as a reference work

Operation Dragoon - The Invasion of the South of France, 15 August 1944, Andrew Stewart.

A reprint of the Naval Staff History of Operation Dragoon, one of a series of studies written during and immediately after the war. Focuses very much on the naval aspects of the campaign, and on the initial battles close to the coast. Gives a clear picture of just how sizable a naval effort was involved in the invasion, both before, during and after the beach landings, including a major minesweeping effort, convoy escorts, the invasion fleet itself, air support and gun support for the coastal battles.


The Ships at Pearl Harbor, December 7th 1941: A Brief History of Each Ship

Friends of Padre Steve’s World,

The attack on Pearl Harbor is one of the seminal moments in the history of the United States where at one time the nation rose up as one to the challenge of an attack against it and against its armed forces. Sadly, for most Americans today no matter what their political ideology the concept of coming together in a crisis is a foreign and possibly even a hateful idea.

However, in December 1941 the Pacific Fleet of the United States Navy was attacked at Pearl Harbor of the nation came together as it never had before. On the morning of December 7th 1941 there were over ninety ships of the Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. While over twenty percent of these ships were sunk or damaged in the attack, almost all returned to service in the war. Likewise, many of the surviving shipswere lost in action during the war. Only two ships or craft remain of the ships present on December 7th 1941, the tug USS Hoga and the Coast Guard Cutter USCG Taney which is now a museum ship in Baltimore Maryland. The rest, lost in action, sunk as targets or scrapped. Of the gallant men who served as their crews during the war and at Pearl Harbor very few remain. They are part of what we now refer as the “Greatest Generation.”

In 1978 I had the opportunity to visit Pearl Harbor and visit the USS Arizonaand USS Utah Memorials during what was a nearly three week long cruise and visit to Pearl Harbor while a Navy Junior ROTC Cadet. I cannot forget forget that experience, as the visits to both memorials, sited above the wrecks of the two sunken ships in which more than 1000 Americans remain entombed to this day left a mark on me.

Today I remember all of the ships present, from the greatest to the most humble, as well as their gallant crews, many of whom were volunteers who had gone into service not long before the attack, because they believed that the nation was in danger who were present at Pearl Harbor on December 7th 1941. I also remember a government which though torn by by ideological differences decided to unite to meet the threat of advancing enemies even before they targeted the United States.

The fact ids that only two of the ships present at the Pearl Harbor attack are still afloat, and the vast majority of their crews have passed away. Very few survivors of that day of infamy remain and it is our sad task to keep reminding the nation and the world of the price of arrogance.

This is the story of the ships that were at Pearl Harbor that fateful morning of December 7th 1941.

A few years ago I wrote a piece called The Battleships of Pearl Harbor. I have added to it, and recently republished it. I followed that with an article entitled “Forgotten on the Far Side of Ford Island: The USS Utah, USS Raleigh, USS Detroit and USS Tangier.

Of course most anyone that has see either Tora! Tora! Tora! or Pearl Harboris acquainted with the attack on “Battleship Row” and the airfields on Oahu. What are often overlooked in many accounts are the stories of some of the lesser known ships that played key roles or were damaged in the attack. Since none of the articles that I have seen have discussed all of the U.S. Navy ships at Pearl Harbor on that fateful morning I have taken the time to list all the ships with the exception of yard and patrol craft present at Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941.I have also excluded Coast Guard cutters in Honolulu. A brief account of each ship’s war service and final disposition is included. I believe that this is the only site that has this information in a single article.

During the attack 18 ships were sunk or damaged but only three, Arizona, Oklahoma and Utah never returned to service. During the war a further 18 ships were sunk or written off as losses during the war. All ships lost in the war are marked with an asterisk. One ship, the USS Castorremained in active service until 1968 serving in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. One ship, the Light Cruiser Phoenixwas sunk in the Falklands War while serving as the Argentine ship General Belgrano. No U.S. Navy ships apart from the Yard Tug Hoga(not included in this article) remain today. It is unfortunate that the Navy or any organization had the foresight to save one of these ships. It would have been fitting for one of the battleships that survived the war to be preserved as a memorial ship near the Arizona Memorial. While the USS Missouri serves this purpose symbolic of the end of the war it is a pity that no ship at Pearl Harbor was preserved so that people could see for themselves what these gallant ships was like.

Battleships

Nevada (BB-36) Nevadawas the only Battleship to get underway during the attack. As she attempted to escape the harbor she was heavily damaged and to prevent her sinking in the main channel she was beached off Hospital Point. She would be raised and returned to service by the May 1943 assault on Attu. She would then return to the Atlantic where she would take part in the Normandy landings off Utah Beach and the invasion of southern France in July 1944. She then returned to the Pacific and took part in the operations against Iwo Jima and Okinawa where she again provided naval gunfire support. Following the war she would be assigned as a target at the Bikini atoll atomic bomb tests, surviving these she would be sunk as a target on 31 July 1948. She received 7 battle stars for her WWII service.

USS Oklahoma

*Oklahoma (BB-37)During the Pearl Harbor attack Oklahomawas struck by 5 aerial torpedoes capsized and sank at her mooring with the loss of 415 officers and crew. Her hulk would be raised but she would never again see service and sank on the way to the breakers in 1946. She was awarded one battle star for her service during the attack.

USS Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania (BB-38) Pennsylvania was the Pacific Fleet Flagship on December 7 th 1941 and was in dry dock undergoing maintenance at the time of the attack. Struck by two bombs she received minor damage and would be in action in early 1942. She underwent minor refits and took part in many amphibious landings in the Pacific and was present at the Battle of Surigo Strait. Heavily damaged by an aerial torpedo at Okinawa Pennsylvania would be repaired and following the war used as a target for the atomic bomb tests. She was sunk as a gunnery target in 1948. She received 8 battle stars for her WWII service.

The USS Arizona before the attack

*Arizona (BB-39) Arizona was destroyed during the attack. Hit by 8 armor piercing bombs one of which penetrated her forward black powder magazine she was consumed in a cataclysmic explosion which killed 1103 of her 1400 member crew. She was decommissioned as a war loss but her colors are raised and lowered every day over the Memorial which sits astride her broken hull. She received one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

Tennessee (BB-43) Tennesseewas damaged by two bombs and was shield from torpedo hits by West Virginia.After repairs she conducted operations in the Pacific until she reported to Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in August 1942 for a complete rebuild and modernized with the latest in radar, fire control equipment and anti-aircraft armaments. She returned to active service in May 1943. She provided Naval Gunfire support in numerous amphibious operations and was a key ship during the Battle of Surigo Strait firing in six-gun salvos to make careful use of her limited supply of armor-piercing projectiles, Tennessee got off 69 of her big 14-inch bullets before checking fire. Her gunfire helped sink the Japanese Battleships Fuso and Yamishiro and other ships of Admiral Nishimura’s Southern Force. She was damaged by a Kamikaze off Okinawa on 18 April 1945 which killed 22 and wounded 107 of her crew but did not put her out of action. Her final assignment of the war was to cover the landing of occupation troops at Wakayama, Japan. She was decommissioned in 1947 and remained in reserve until 1959 when she was sold for scrap. Tennessee earned a Navy Unit Commendation and 10 battles stars for World War II service.

USS California transiting the Panama Canal

California (BB-44) California was hit by two torpedoes but had the bad luck to have all of her major watertight hatches unhinged in preparation for an inspection. Hit by two torpedoes and two bombs she sank at her moorings suffering the loss of 98 killed and 61 wounded. She was refloated and received temporary repairs at Pearl Harbor before sailing to Puget Sound Naval Shipyard to be completely rebuilt and modernized with the latest in radar, fire control equipment and anti-aircraft armaments. She returned to service in January 1944. She saw her first action in the Marianas and was in continuous action to the end of the war. She played an important part in the Battle of Surigo Strait and in the amphibious landings at Guam and Tinian, Leyte, Iwo Jima and Okinawa. She was decommissioned in 1947 and placed in reserve finally being sold for scrap in 1959. She received 7 battle stars for her WWII service.

Maryland (BB-45) At Pearl Harbor Maryland was moored inboard of Oklahoma and was hit by 2 bombs. She would be quickly repaired and returned to action and receive minimal modernization during the war. She would participate in operations throughout the entirety of the Pacific Campaign providing naval gunfire support to the landings at Tarawa, Kwajalein, Saipan, where she was damaged by an aerial torpedo, Palau, Leyte where she was damaged by a Kamikaze, Okinawa and the battleship action at Surigo Strait. Decommissioned in 1947 she was placed in reserve and sold for scrap in 1959. On 2 June 1961 the Honorable J. Millard Tawes, Governor of Maryland, dedicated a lasting monument to the memory of the venerable battleship and her fighting men. Built of granite and bronze and incorporating the bell of “Fighting Mary,” this monument honors a ship and her 258 men who gave their lives while serving aboard her in WWII. This monument is located on the grounds of the State House, Annapolis, Md. Maryland received seven battle stars for World War II service.

The USS West Virginiabefore the war andafter her salvage and reconstruction

West Virginia (BB-48) West Virginia suffered some of the worst damage in the attack. Hit by at least 5 torpedoes and two bombs she was saved from Oklahoma’s fate by the quick action of her damage control officer to counter flood so she would sink on an even keel. She would be raised, refloated and taken back to the West Coast for an extensive modernization on the order of the Tennessee and California. The last Pearl Harbor battleship to re-enter service she made up for lost time as she lead the battle line at Surigo Strait firing 16 full salvos at the Japanese squadron helping sink the Japanese Battleship Yamashiroin the last battleship versus battleship action in history. West Virginiawas decommissioned in 1947, placed in reserve and sold for scrap in 1959.

Heavy Cruisers

New Orleans (CA-32) Minor shrapnel damage from near miss. Fought throughout the war in the Pacific bow blown off by Japanese torpedo at Battle of Trassafaronga in November 1942, repaired. 17 battle stars for WWII service, decommissioned 1947 and sold for scrap in 1957.

USS San Francisco CA-38

San Francisco (CA-38Undamaged at Pearl Harbor, fought through Pacific war, most noted for actions at the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal fighting Japanese Battleship Hiei. Decommissioned 1946 and sold for scrap in 1959. San Francisco earned 17 battle stars during World War II. For her participation in the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, she was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation. For the same action, three members of her crew were awarded the Medal of Honor: Lieutenant Commander Herbert E. Schonland, Lieutenant Commander Bruce McCandless , and Boatswain’s Mate 1st Class Reinhardt J. Keppler (posthumous). Admiral Daniel Callaghan was also awarded the Medal of Honor (posthumous). During the November 1942 repair at Mare Island, it was necessary to extensively rebuild the bridge. The bridge wings were removed as part of that repair, and are now mounted on a promontory in Lands End, San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area overlooking the Pacific Ocean. They are set on the great circle course from San Francisco to Guadalcanal. The old ship’s bell is housed at the Marines Memorial Club in San Francisco.

Light Cruisers

Raleigh (CL-7) Heavily damaged by torpedo, repaired served throughout war mainly in North Pacific . Decommissioned 1945 and scrapped 1946

Detroit (CL-8) Undamaged and got underway during attack. Mainly served in North Pacific and on convoy duty earning 6 battle stars for WWII service, decommissioned and sold for scrap 1946

USS Phoenix

The Argentine Navy Cruiser General Belgrano, the former USS Phoenix sinking during the Battle of the Falklands 1982

Phoenix (CL-46) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor and served throughout war and at the Battle of Surigo Strait she helped sink the Japanese Battleship Fuso. She earned 9 battle stars for WWII service. Decommissioned 1946 and transferred to Argentina 1951. Served as General Belgranoand sunk by submarine HMS Conqueror on 2 May 1982 during the Falklands War.

Honolulu (CL-48) Suffered minor hull damage from near miss. Served in Pacific and fought several engagements against Japanese surface forces in the Solomons. At the Battle of Kolombangara on the night of 12-13 July 1943 she was damaged by a torpedo but sank the Japanese Light Cruiser Jintsu. Earned 9 battle stars for WWII service, decommissioned 1947 and sold for scrap 1949

USS St. Louis

St. Louis (CL-49) St. Louisgot underway at 0930 nearly torpedoed by Japanese midget sub. She served throughout war in numerous operations and was damaged at the Battle of Kolombangara. She earned 11 battle stars for WWII service. She decommissioned 1946 and transferred to Brazil where she was renamed Tamandare stricken in 1976 sold for scrap in 1980 but sank while under tow to Taiwan.

*Helena (CL-50) Damaged and repaired. Engaged in many battles around Solomon Islands where at the Battle of Cape Esperance at Guadalcanal she sank the Japanese Heavy Cruiser Furutakaand destroyer Fubiki.She was engaged during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal and was sunk at Battle of Kula Gulf 6 July 1943. She was the first ship to be awarded the Naval Unit Commendation and was awarded 7 battle stars for her WWII service.

Allen (DD-66)Undamaged during attack spent war in local operations in Oahu area. Decommissioned 1945 and scrapped 1946

Schley (DD-103) Being overhauled on December 7th was undamaged in attack. Converted into High Speed Transport (APD) in 1942, earned 11 battle stars for WWII service and decommissioned in 1945 and scrapped in 1946

Chew (DD-106)Undamaged during attack and conducted local operations in Oahu operations for remainder or war, decommissioned 1945 and scrapped 1946.

*Ward (DD-139) Ward was underway patrolling Channel entrance to Pearl Harbor on December 7 th , sank Japanese midget submarine. Converted to APD in 1943 and served in numerous operations prior to being heavily damaged by Japanese bombers at Ormoc Bay off Leyte in December 1944 starting fires that could not be controlled. She was sunk by USS O’Brien (DD-725) after survivors were rescued. By a strange twist of fate the C.O. of O’Brien LCDR Outerbridge who had commanded Ward when she sank the Japanese submarine at Pearl Harbor. Wardearned 10 battle stars for WWII service.

Dewey (DD-349) Being overhauled on December 7 th Dewey served throughout the war earning 13 battle stars escorting carriers, convoys and supporting amphibious operations. Decommissioned October 1945 and sold for scrap 1946

Farragut (DD-348) Got underway during attack suffered minor damage from strafing. During the war she operated from the Aleutians to the South Pacific and Central Pacific escorting carriers and supporting amphibious operations. She earned 14 battle stars for WWII service. Decommissioned 1945 and sold for scrap 1947

*Hull (DD-350) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor she operated from the Aleutians to the South Pacific and Central Pacific escorting carriers and supporting amphibious operations. She earned 10 battle stars before sinking in “Halsey’s Typhoon” on 18 December 1944.

MacDonough (DD-351) MacDonough got underway during attack and was undamaged, during war served in North and Central Pacific escorting carriers and supporting amphibious operations. She earned 13 battle stars for her WWII service. Decommissioned October 1945 and sold for scrap 1946

*Worden (DD-352) Worden got underway during attack and went to sea with ships searching for Japanese strike force. Served at Midway and the South Pacific before being transferred to the Aleutians where she grounded on a pinnacle due to winds and currents at Constantine Harbor Amchitka Island on 12 January 193, she broke up in the surf and was written off as a total loss. Wordenwas awarded 4 battle stars for her WWII service.

Dale (DD-353) Dale got underway immediately under the command of her Command Duty Officer, an Ensign and joined ships searching for Japanese strike force. During war served in North and Central Pacific and took part in the Battle of the Komandorski Islands on 26 March 1943. Earned 12 battle stars for WWII service, decommissioned October 1945 sold for scrap December 1946.

*Monaghan (DD-354) Monaghanwas the Ready destroyer on December 7th and ordered underway when Ward sank the midget submarine. On way out of harbor rammed, depth charged and sank a Japanese midget submarine that had gotten into Pearl Harbor. She participated in Coral Sea, Midway, Aleutians, the Battle of the Komandorski Islands and Central Pacific operations before sinking with the loss of all but 6 crewmen during the great Typhoon of November 1944 sinking on 17 November. She received 12 battle stars for her WWII service.

Aylwin (DD-355)Got underway within an hour of the beginning of the attack with 50% of her crew and four officers, all Ensigns manning her leaving her Commanding Officer and others behind in a launch as she was under direction not to stop for anything. This incident was captured in the movie In Harm’s Way. During the war Aylwin saw action at Coral Sea, Midway, Guadalcanal, the Aleutians, and the Central Pacific up to the Okinawa and due to the action of her crew survived the great typhoon of November 1944. She earned 13 battle stars for her WWII service and was decommissioned in October 1945. She was sold for scrap in December 1946.

USS Selfridge

Selfridge (DD-357) Manned by a crew from 7 different ships Selfridge got underway at 1300 and was undamaged in the attack. Throughout war she served primarily as an escort to carriers and transports. Torpedoed by Japanese destroyer and lost her bow at Battle of Vella Lavella on 6 October 1942. Repaired and finished war. Earned 4 battle stars for WWII service and was decommissioned in October 1945 and sold for scrap in December 1946.

Phelps (DD-360) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Phelps was credited with shooting down one enemy aircraft. She was in action at Coral Sea, Midway, Guadalcanal, the Aleutians and the Central Pacific picking up 12 battle stars for her WWII service. Decommissioned in October 1945 and scrapped 1947.

Cummings (DD-365)Sustained minor damage from bomb fragments but got underway quickly. During war served on convoy escort, with fast carrier task forces and provided Naval Gunfire Support from the Aleutians to the Indian Ocean where she operated with the Royal Navy. On 12 August 1944, President Roosevelt broadcast a nationwide address from the forecastle of Cummings after a trip the Alaska. Cummings was decommissioned in December 1945 and sold for scrap in 1947.

*Reid (DD-369) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Reidescorted convoys and amphibious operations throughout the Pacific until she was sunk by Kamikazes at Ormoc Bay in the Philippines on 11 December 1944. On 31 August 1942 she sank by gunfire the Japanese submarine RO-1 off Adak Alaska. She received 7 battle stars for her WWII service.

Case (DD-370) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Caseescorted the fast carrier task forces throughout much of the war as well as conducted Anti-Submarine Warfare operations and Naval Gunfire Support. She sank a Midget submarine outside the fleet anchorage at Ulithi on 20 November 1944 and a Japanese transport off of Iwo Jima on 24 December 1944. She earned 7 battle stars for her WWII service and was decommissioned in December 1945 and sold for scrap in December 1947.

Conyngham (DD-371)Undamaged during attack she was underway that afternoon. Spent most of war on convoy escort, escorting carrier task forces and conducting Naval Gunfire Support missions she was damaged twice by strafing Japanese aircraft she earned 14 battle stars for her WWII service. Used in 1946 Atomic Bomb tests and destroyed by sinking in 1948.

Cassin (DD-372) Destroyed in drydock but salvaged returned to service 1944 escorting convoys and TG 38.1 the Battle Force of the fleet at Leyte Gulf as well as supporting amphibious operations. She earned 6 battle stars for her WWII service. Decommissioned December 1945 and sold for scrap 1947

Shaw (DD-373) Sustained massive damage due to magazine explosion, salvaged and repaired served throughout war and awarded 11 battle stars. Damaged by Japanese dive bombers off Cape Gloucester on 25 December 1943 with loss of 3 killed and 33 wounded. Decommissioned October 1945 and scrapped 1947

*Tucker (DD-374) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Tuckerconducted convoy escort operations and was sunk when she struck a mine escorting a transport to Espiritu Santo on 1 August 1942 sinking on 4 August. She received one battle star for her WWII service.

Downes (DD-375) Destroyed in drydock and salvaged. Decommissioned June 1942, rebuilt and recommissioned 1943. After she was recommissioned and used to escort convoys and conduct Naval Gunfire Support to amphibious operations. She earned 4 battle stars for her WWII service. Decommissioned 1947 and sold for scrap.

USS Bagley

Bagley (DD-386) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Bagley conducted convoy escort operations and supported amphibious landings throughout the Pacific earning 1 battle stars ended the war on occupation duty at the Sasebo-Nagasaki area until returning to the United States. She earned 12 battle stars for her WWII service and was decommissioned in June 1946 and sold for scrap in October 1947.

*Blue (DD-387) Blue was undamaged and got underway during the attack under the direction of 4 Ensigns. Served on convoy escort duties, present at Battle of Savo Island on 9 August 192 and was torpedoed off Guadalcanal by Japanese destroyer Kawakaze on 21 August and was scuttled 22 August. She earned five battle stars for her WWII service.

Helm (DD-388) Helmwas underway, nearing West Loch at the time of the attack. Helm served in the Solomons and the South Pacific until February 19. She joined the fast carrier task forces of 5 th Fleet in May 1944. On 28 October at Leyte Gulf 28 October 1944 Helm and companion destroyer Gridley made sank the Japanese submarine I-46. She was used for a target during Operation Crossroads and scrapped in 1946. She received 11 battle stars for her WWII service.

Mugford (DD-389) Mugford was on standby status and had steam up which allowed her to get to sea during the attack in which she shot down Japanese aircraft. She spent much of 1942 on convoy duty between the U.S. and Australia. She took part in the Guadalcanal invasion and was struck by a bomb which killed 8 men, wounded 17 and left 10 missing in action. She would go on to serve in the Central and South Pacific being damaged by a near miss from a bomb on 25 December off Cape Gloucester and was stuck by a Kamikaze on 5 December 1944 in Surigo Strait. She escorted the fast carriers of TF 8 and 58 and later served on anti-submarine and radar picket duty. She decommissioned 1946 and was used in the Atomic Bomb tests and after use as a test ship for radioactive decontamination was sunk on 22 March 1948 at Kwajalein. She received 7 battle stars for her WWII service.

Ralph Talbot (DD-390) Ralph Talbotgot underway by 0900 on the morning of the attack and joined other ships at sea attempting to find the Japanese strike force. She spent much of 1942 engaged in escort duties and took part in the Battle of Savo Island where she engaged the Japanese as part of the Northern Group and was damaged by Japanese shellfire. She spent the war in the South and Central Pacific escorting convoys and supporting amphibious operations and was damaged by a Kamikaze off Okinawa. She remained in service until 1946 when she was assigned to JTF-1 and the Operations Crossroads Atomic Bomb test. She survived the blast and was sunk in 198. She earned 12 battle stars for her WWII service.

*Henley (DD-391) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Henley was already at General Quarters when the attack began because a new sailor sounded the General Quarters alarm instead of Quarters for Muster. As a result her weapons were manned. She got underway during the attack under the command of a junior Lieutenant and joined other ships patrolling outside of Pearl Harbor. Henley carried out convoy and anti-submarine patrols mainly around Australian continuing those duties through the Guadalcanal campaign. She was torpedoed and sunk by Japanese bombers on 3 October 1943 while conducting a sweep in support of troops ashore near Finshafen New Guinea. Henley earned 4 battle stars for her WWII service.

Patterson (DD-392) Patterson was undamaged during the attack and proceeded to sea conducting anti-submarine warfare patrols. She would spend the bulk of the war as an escort for fast carrier task forces. She was with the Southern Group during the Battle of Savo Island and suffered a hit on her #4 gun mount that killed 10 sailors. She was awarded 13 battle stars for her WWII service. Decommissioned in November 1945 she was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register in 1947 and sold for scrap.

*Jarvis (DD-393) Jarvis survived Pearl Harbor undamaged and got underway to join other ships in patrols around Oahu. She served as an escort for carriers and convoys and the invasion of Guadalcanal. She was heavily damaged by an aircraft launched torpedo during the landings but her crew made temporary repairs and restored power. She was ordered to Efate New Hebrides but evidently unaware of the order her Commanding Officer set sail for Sidney Australian and repairs from the Destroyer Tender USS Dobbin. She passed south of Savo Island as the Japanese cruiser force approached and refused assistance for the USS Blue. She was last seen on the morning of 9 August 1942 by a scout plane from Saratoga. Already heavily damaged and having little speed, no radio communications and few operable guns was attacked by a force of 31 Japanese bombers sinking with all hands at 1300 on 9 August. Jarvis was awarded 3 battle stars for her WWII service.

USS Narwhal

Narwhal (SS-167) Narwhal was one of a class of three large cruiser submarines that was built in the mid 1920s. Narwhal was 14 years old at the time of the attack. She was undamaged at Pearl Harbor and was used primarily to support special missions and special operations forces in raids against Japanese shore installations. Narwhal earned 15 battle stars for her service in the Pacific and was decommissioned in February 1945 and sold for scrap in May. Her 6” guns are enshrined at the Naval Submarine Base Groton.

Dolphin (SS-169) Undamaged in the Pearl Harbor attack Dolphin made 3 war patrols in late 1941 and early 1942 before being withdrawn from combat service and used for training due to her age. She was decommissioned in October 1945 and sold for scrap in 1946. She received 2 battle stars for her service in WWII.

Cachalot (SS-170) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Cachalot conducted three war patrols damaging an enemy tanker before being withdrawn from combat service in the fall of 1942 being judged too old for arduous combat service. She served as a training ship until June 1945 and was decommissioned in October 1945 and sold for scrap in January 1947. She was awarded 3 battle stars for her WWII service.

Tautog (SS-199) Tautogwas undamaged at Pearl Harbor and made the Japanese pay for not sinking her. She helped avenge the Pearl Harbor attack sinking 26 enemy ships of 71,900 tons including the submarines RO-30 and I-28 and destroyers Isoname and Shirakumoin 13 war patrols. She was withdrawn from combat service in April 1945 and served and operated in conjunction with the University of California’s Department of War Research in experimenting with new equipment which it had developed to improve submarine safety. She was decommissioned in December 1945. Spared from the Atomic Bomb tests she served as an immobile reserve training ship in the Great Lakes until 1957 and was scrapped in 1960. Tautogwas awarded 14 battle stars and a Naval Unit Commendation for her service in WWII.

Oglala (CM-4)Sank due to concussion from torpedo hit on Helena. Raised and repaired, converted to internal combustion repair ship. Decommissioned 1946 transferred to Maritime Commission custody and scrapped 1965

Minesweepers

Turkey (AM-13) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor she was redesignated as a Fleet Tug in 1942. She was decommissioned in November 1945 and sold for scrap in 1946. She received one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

Bobolink (AM-20) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor and redesignated as an Ocean Going Tug in 1942. She decommissioned in 1946 and sold through the Maritime Administration. She received one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

Rail (AM-26) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Rail was redesignated as a Ocean Going Tug in June 1942. She supported operations throughout the Pacific earning 6 battle stars for her WWII service. She was decommissioned in 1946 and transferred to the Maritime Administration for disposal in 1947.

Tern (AM-31) Undamaged in the attack Tern was redesignated as an Ocean Going Tug in June 1942 and supported the fleet for the remainder of the war. She was decommissioned and struck from the Navy List in December 1945. She earned one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

*Grebe (AM-43) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Grebewas redesignated as an Ocean Going Tug in June 1942. On 6 December 1942 Grebe grounded while attempting to float SS Thomas A. Edison at Vuanta Vatoa, Fiji Islands. Salvage operations were broken up by a hurricane that destroyed both ships 1-2 January 1943.

Vireo (AM-52) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Vireo was designated an Ocean Going Tug in May 1942. At the Battle of Midway she was assisting USS Yorktown CV-5when that ship was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine and sunk. She was damaged in a Japanese air strike off Guadalcanal on October 15th 1942 abandoned but recovered by U.S. Forces and repaired supporting damaged fleet units. She was decommissioned in 1946 and disposed of by the Maritime Administration in 1947. Her final disposition is unknown. She was awarded 7 battle stars for her WWII service.

Coastal Minesweepers

Cockatoo (AMC-8) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Cockatoooperated in the 14th Naval District from Pearl Harbor throughout the war. She was transferred to the Maritime Commission 23 September 1946.

Crossbill (AMC-9)Undamaged in the attack she operated in an in-service status attached to the 14th Naval District from 1941 to 1947.

Condor (AMC-14) Undamaged in the attack she operated in the Hawaiian Islands throughout World War II. Placed out of service 17 January 1946, she was transferred to the Maritime Commission for disposal 24 July 1946.

Reedbird (AMC-30) Undamaged during the attack she operated in Hawaiian waters throughout World War II. Then ordered inactivated, Reedbird returned to San Diego where she was stripped and placed out of service 14 January 1946. Her name was struck from the Navy list 7 February 1946 and on 8 November 1946 she was delivered to the Maritime Commission for disposal.

Light Minelayers (Note: All of these ships were WWI era “four piper” destroyers converted to Mine Warfare ships in the 1920s and 1930s)

*Gamble (DM-15) Gamble was undamaged at Pearl Harbor and served throughout the Pacific. On 29 August 1942 she sank Japanese submarine I-123 near Guadalcanal. On 6 May 1943 she mined the Blackett Strait with her sisters USS Preble and USS Breese. On the night of 7-8 May a Japanese destroyer force entered the minefield one of which Kurashio, went down and two others Oyashio and Kagerowere sunk by Allied aircraft the next day. The sinking of Kagero provided a measure of revenge as that ship was part of the Japanese Carrier Strike Group that attacked Pearl Harbor. On 18 February 1945 Gamble was damaged by two bombs while operating off of Iwo Jima. Badly damaged she was towed to Saipan but salvage was impossible and she was decommissioned sunk off of Apra Harbor Guam on 16 July 1945. She was awarded 7 battle stars for her WWII service.

Ramsay (DM-16) Ramsey got underway during the attack and dropped depth charges in the vicinity of what was believed to be a midget submarine. She served in the Solomons and Aleutians and was redesignated as a Miscellaneous Auxiliary (AG-98) in 1944 operating around Pearl Harbor. She was decommissioned in October 1945 and scrapped in 1946. She received 3 battle stars for her WWII service.

*Montgomery (DM-17) Undamaged in the attack Montgomeryconducted ASW operations in the wake of the attack. She operated throughout the Pacific until she was damaged by a mine while anchored off Ngulu on 17 October 1944. She was decommissioned on 23 April 1945 and sold for scrap in 1946. She was awarded 4 battle stars for her WWII service.

Breese (DM-18) Breese got underway during the attack and assisted in sinking a midget submarine. She was engaged throughout the war in the Pacific and operated with Gamble and Preble to mine the Blackett Strait in May 1943, an operation that resulted in the sinking of 3 Japanese destroyers. She was decommissioned and sold for scrap in 1946. She was awarded 10 battle stars for her WWII service

Tracy (DM-19) Tracy was being overhauled during the attack and all machinery and armament was dismounted. After the overhaul she operated around the Pacific and in February 1943 she Tracy, as task group leader, led Montgomery (DM-17) and Preble (DM-20) in laying a field of 300 mines between Doma Reef and Cape Esperance. That night, Japanese destroyer Makigumo struck one of these mines and was damaged so badly that she was scuttled. Tracy was decommissioned and scrapped in 1946. She received 7 battle stars for her WWII service

Preble (DM-20) Preble was being overhauled on December 7 th and took no part in the action. During the war she operated throughout the Pacific and in company with Gamble and Breeselaid a minefield on 6 May 1943 which resulted in sinking 3 Japanese destroyers. She was redesignated as a Miscellaneous Auxiliary (AG-99) and she was regulated to convoy escort duties until the end of the war. She was decommissioned in December 1945 and sold for scrap in 1946. She was awarded 8 battle stars for WWII service.

Sicard (DM-21) Sicard was under overhaul at the Naval Shipyard during the attack. During the war she primarily served on convoy escort duty with and in some mine laying operations. She was reclassified a miscellaneous auxiliary, AG-100, effective 5 June 1945, decommissioned in December 1945 and sold for scrap in 1946. She was awarded 2 battle stars for her WWII service.

Pruitt (DM-22)Pruitt was being overhauled during the attack and served throughout the Pacific during the war. She was reclassified a miscellaneous auxiliary, AG-101, effective 5 June 1945, decommissioned November and stricken from the Navy List in December 1945 being scrapped at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. She was awarded 3 battle stars for her WWII service.

High Speed Minesweepers (Note: All of these ships were WWI era “four piper” destroyers converted to Mine Warfare ships in the 1920s and 1930s)

Zane (DMS-14)Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Zane saw much service in the South and Central Pacific in WWII. She conducted minesweeping, convoy escort and ASW operations from Pearl Harbor to the Marianas campaign. She was damaged in a firefight with Japanese destroyers at Guadalcanal in 1942. After the invasion of Guam she was reassigned to target towing duties. Reclassified from high-speed minesweeper to a miscellaneous auxiliary, AG-109, on 5 June 1945 she decommissioned in December 1945 and sold for scrap in 1946. She was awarded 6 battle stars and a Naval Unit Commendation for her service in WWII.

*Wasmuth (DMS-15) Wasmuthwas undamaged during the attack and spent 1942 conducting patrol and convoy escort duties in the Aleutians and the West Coast. On 27 December 1942 while escorting a convoy in heavy seas two of her depth charges were ripped off their racks and exploded under her fantail blowing off her stern. Despite repair attempts her crew was evacuated and she sank on 29 December 1942. She was awarded one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

Trever (DMS-16) Trever got underway during the attack without her Commanding Officer. During the war she saw extensive service. In 1945 she was regulated to training and local operations around Pearl Harbor. On 4 June 1945, she was reclassified as a miscellaneous auxiliary and designated as AG-110 and decommissioned in December 1945 and sold for scrapping in 1946. She received 5 battle stars for her WWII service.

*Perry (DMS-17) Perry got underway during the attack and was undamaged. During the war she engaged in numerous minesweeping and escort duties. She struck a mine during the Peleliu invasion off Florida Island and sank on 6 September 1944. She was awarded 6 battle stars for her WWII service.

USS Sacramento

Sacramento (PG-19) The elderly Sacramento was undamaged during the attack and participated in rescue and salvage operations after the attack. During the war she served as a tender for PT Boats and an air sea rescue vessel. Sacramento was decommissioned on 6 February 1946 at Suisun Bay, Calif., and simultaneously transferred to the War Shipping Administration for disposal. She was sold on 23 August 1947 for mercantile service, initially operating under Italian registry as Fermina. She received one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

Destroyer Tenders

USS Dobbin with USS Lawrence and three other destroyers

Dobbin (AD-3) Dobbin received minor damage from a bomb burst alongside which killed 2 crewmembers. During the war she would serve in the South Pacific supporting Pacific Fleet Destroyer Squadrons. She was decommissioned and transferred to the Maritime Administration in 1946. She was awarded one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

Whitney (AD-4) Whitney was moored with a nest of destroyers during the attack and helped them prepare for sea during the attack issuing supplies and ammunition to help them get underway. Her sailors helped in repair and salvage operations on several ships during and after the attack. She would provide vital support to destroyer squadrons during the war and serve until 1946 when she was decommissioned and transferred to the Maritime Administration and scrapped in 1948. She received one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

Seaplane Tenders

Curtiss (AV-4) Damaged by bomb and repaired. She served throughout the war and was damaged by a Kamikaze in 1945 while operating off Okinawa. Repaired she finished the war and served on active duty until 1956 when she was decommissioned and placed in reserve. She was scrapped 1972. Curtiss received 7 battle stars for her WWII service.

Tangier (AV-8) Moored just past the USS Utah Tangier was undamaged in the attack and contributed her guns to the air defense as well as shooting at a Japanese midget submarine that had penetrated the harbor. She maintained a very active operational carrier in the Pacific. Decommissioned in 1946 Tangier was sold for scrap in 1961. She earned 3 battle stars for her WWII service.

Seaplane Tenders (Small)

Avocet (AVP-4) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Avocet Avocetserved in the Alaskan and Aleutian theatres of operations as a unit of Patrol Wing 4. During the years, she tended patrol squadrons, transported personnel and cargo, and participated in patrol, survey, and salvage duties. She was decommissioned in December 1945 and sold in 1946. She received one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

Swan (AVP-7) Swan was on the Marine Railway drydock during the attack and was undamaged. During the war she was primarily used on target towing duties. She was decommissioned in December 1945 and disposed of by the Maritime Commission in 1946. She received one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

Seaplane Tenders (Destroyer) (Note: All of these ships were WWI era “four piper” destroyers converted to Seaplane Tenders in the 1920s and 1930s)

Hulbert (AVD-6) Hulbertwas undamaged during the attack and spent 1942-1943 conducting support missions for flying boats. Reclassified DD-342 she was used as an escort and plane guard for new Escort Carriers at San Diego until the end of the war. She was decommissioned in November 1945 and sold for scrap in 1946. She received 2 battle stars for her WWII service.

USS Thornton

*Thornton (AVD-11) Thornton contributed her guns to the defense of Pearl Harbor and served in varying locales in the Pacific supporting the operations of flying boats. She was lost during the Okinawa invasion when collided with Ashtabula (AO-51) and Escalante (AO-70). Her starboard side was severely damaged. She was towed to Kerama Retto. On 29 May 1945 a board of inspection and survey recommended that Thornton be decommissioned, beached stripped of all useful materiel as needed, and then abandoned. She was beached and decommissioned on 2 May 1945. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 13 August 1945. In July 1957, Thornton’s abandoned hulk was donated to the government of the Ryukyu Islands. She received 3 battle stars for her WWII service.

Ammunition Ship

Pyro (AE-1) Pyro was undamaged in the attack and served the war transporting ammunition to naval bases around the Pacific. She was decommissioned in 1946 and scrapped in 1950. She was awarded one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

Ramapo (AO-12) Ramapo was not damaged at Pearl Harbor and due to her slow speed was regulated to fuel transport operations between the Aleutians and the Puget Sound. She was decommissioned in 1946 and transferred to the Maritime Administration.

*Neosho (AO-23) Undamaged during the attack her Captain alertly moved her from her berth near Battleship Row to a less exposed part of the harbor. She operated with the carrier task forces and was heavily damaged at the Battle of Coral Sea by Japanese aircraft. Her crew kept her afloat for 4 days until she was discovered and her crew rescued before she was sunk by gunfire from USS Henley on 11 May 1942. Neosho was awarded 2 battle stars for her WWII service.

Repair Ships

Medusa (AR-1) Medusa was undamaged at Pearl Harbor and spent the war throughout the South Pacific repairing numerous vessels damaged in combat. After the war she served to prepare ships for inactivation before being decommissioned in 1947 and turned over to the Maritime Administration. She was scrapped in 1950. She received one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

USS Vestal after the attack

Vestal (AR-4) Vestal was damaged while moored adjacent to USS Arizona. Repaired following the attack Vestal served throughout war in the Pacific and was vital during the critical days of 1942 when she and her crew performed valiant service on major fleet units damaged during the Guadalcanal campaign and actions around the Solomon Islands. Carriers Enterprise and Saratoga, battleships South Dakota and North Carolina, cruisers San Francisco, New Orleans, Pensacola and St. Louiswere among the 5,603 jobs on 279 ships and 24 shore activities that she completed in a 12 month tour at Espiratu Santo. She would continue to perform this level of service the remainder of the war. During a stint at Ulithi she completed 2,195 jobs for 149 ships including 14 battleships, 9 carriers, 5 cruisers and 5 destroyers. She continued her vital work even after the war into 1946 when she was finally decommissioned. She was sold for scrap in 1950. She received 1 battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

Rigel (AR-11) Rigelwas at Pearl Harbor completing her transformation from Destroyer Tender to Repari Ship. She incurred minor damage and she served throughout the war conducting vital repairs to numerous ships. She was decommissioned and transferred to the Maritime Administration in 1946. Her ultimate fate is unknown. She was awarded 4 battle stars for her WWII service.

Submarine Tender

USS Pelias with 5 Submarines

Pelias (AS-14) Undamaged during the attack Peliassupported submarine squadrons based in the Pacific throughout the war. She was placed in commission in reserve 6 September 1946, and in service in reserve 1 February 1947. On 21 March 1950 she was placed out of service in reserve but later performed berthing ship duty at Mare Island until she decommissioned 14 June 1970. She was scrapped in 1973.

Submarine Rescue Ship

Widgeon (ASR-1) Widgeon conducted salvage, rescue and fire fighting operations on the sunk and damaged battleships on battleship row. During the war she served as the duty submarine rescue ship at Pearl Harbor and San Diego. After the war she supported the Operation Crossroads. She was decommissioned and sold for scrap in 1947. She received on battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

Hospital Ship

Solace (AH-5)Solace was undamaged in the attack and provided medical care to many of the wounded after the attack. She served throughout the war caring for the wounded and dying in the Gilberts, the Marshalls, Guam, Saipan, Palau, Peleliu, Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Solace was decommissioned at Norfolk on 27 March, struck from the Navy list on 21 May, and returned to the War Shipping Administration on 18 July 1946. She was sold to the Turkish Maritime Lines on 16 April 1948 and renamed SS Ankara, rebuilt as a passenger liner. SS Ankara was laid up in 1977 and scrapped at Aliaga, Turkey, in 1981. Solace received seven battle stars for World War II service.

Vega (AK-17) Vega was at Honolulu offloading ammunition when the attack occurred. She served in the Aleutians and in the Central Pacific during the war. Decommissioned and scrapped in 1946. She received 4 battle stars for her WWII service.

General-Stores-Issue Ships

Castor (AKS-1) Castor was strafed by Japanese aircraft during the attack but suffered little damage. She would go on to an illustrious career in WWII, Korea and Vietnam before being decommissioned 1968 and scrapped in Japan in 1969. She was awarded three battle stars for World War II service, two for Korean War service and six campaign stars for Vietnam War service.

USS Antares

Antares (AKS-3) Antares was at the Pearl Harbor entrance and spotted a midget submarine. She reported the contact to the USS Ward which sank the sub. During the war Antares made many supply runs in the Pacific and was at Okinawa. Sailing from Saipan to Pearl Harbor she was attacked by the Japanese submarines I-36, whose torpedoes missed their target and the kaiten-carrying I-165.She opened fire on one of the subs forcing it to dive. She was decommissioned in 1946 and sold for scrap in 1947. She was awarded 2 battle stars for her WWII service.

Ocean-going Tugs

Ontario (AT-13) Undamaged at Pearl Harbor Ontario would support operations in the Pacific throughout the war. She was decommissioned in 1946 and sold in 1947. She received one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

Sunnadin (AT-28) Undamaged in the attack she operated at Pearl Harbor for the duration of the war. She was decommissioned in 1946 and transferred to the Maritime Administration. Her final disposition is unknown. She was awarded one battle star for her service during the Pearl Harbor attack.

Keosanqua (AT-38) Keosanqua was at the Pearl Harbor entrance preparing to transfer a tow from the USS Antares. She took the tow to Honolulu during the attack. She operated at Pearl Harbor and in the Central Pacific conducting towing operations. She was decommissioned in 1946 ransferred to the Maritime Commission 11 July for disposal, she was sold the same day to Puget Sound Tug & Barge Co., Seattle, Wash. Resold to a Canadian shipping firm in 1948, she was renamed Edward J. Coyle. In 1960 she was renamed Commodore Straits.

*Navajo (AT-64) Navaho was 12 miles outside Pearl Harbor entrance when the attack occurred. She operated in the South Pacific until 12 December 1942 when she was torpedoed and sunk by the Japanese submarine I-39 while towing gasoline barge YOG-42 150 miles east of Espiritu Santo, 12 December 1943 with the loss of all but 17 of her crew of 80. She earned 2 battle stars for her WWII service.

Miscellaneous Auxiliaries

USS UTah AG-16

*Utah (AG-16 ex-BB-31) Sunk at her moorings and righted 1944 but not raised, wreck is now a memorial at Ford Island.

USS Argonne as a Submarine Tender

Argonne (AG-31) A former Submarine Tender, Argonne was undamaged during the attack and served in a variety of capacities during the war supporting operations in the Pacific. For a time she was Admiral Halsey’s flagship as Commander Southwest Pacific in 1942 during the Guadalcanal Campaign. On 10 November 1944, Argonne lay moored to a buoy in berth 14, Seeadler Harbor, when the ammunition ship Mount Hood (AE-11) blew up, 1,100 yards away causing damage to her and other ships which she assisted after the explosion. She was decommissioned in 1946 and transferred to the Maritime Administration. She was scrapped in 1950. Argonne was awarded one battle star for her service at Pearl Harbor.

.

USS Sumner (ex-Bushnell)

Sumner (AG-32) Sumner was undamaged during the attack and was redesignated as a Survey Ship AGS-5. She was damaged by a Japanese shell off Iwo Jima on 8 March 1945. She was decommissioned in 1946 and transferred to the Maritime Administration. She was awarded 3 battle stars for her WWII service.

Share this:

Like this:


Construction and career [ edit ]

Mugford, named for James Mugford, was laid down 20 December 1917 by Union Iron Works Company, San Francisco, California launched 14 April 1918 sponsored by Mrs. George H. Fort and commissioned 25 November 1918, Lt Comdr. John H. Everson in command.

Mugford joined the fleet for winter exercises off Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in January 1919, then sailed north for operations along the coast between New York and Massachusetts until 21 November, when she left Newport for San Diego, arriving 22 December. Here she became tender to a seaplane division, and during the pioneering days of naval aviation cruised with her charges on exercises along the California coast, visiting the Panama Canal Zone in December 1920 and January 1921.

Mugford was decommissioned at San Diego 7 June 1922, and was sold for scrap to Schiavone-Bonomo Corporation, New York City, in 1936.


Mugford History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

Mugford is an ancient Norman name that arrived in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. The Mugford family lived in Mogford, Somerset. The parish no longer exists.

Set of 4 Coffee Mugs and Keychains

$69.95 $48.95

Early Origins of the Mugford family

The surname Mugford was first found in Somerset where they held a family seat as Lords of the Manor of Farrington Gurney. Conjecturally they are descended from Azelin who held this manor from the Bishop of Coutances at the time of the taking of the Domesday Book survey in 1086 A.D.

Coat of Arms and Surname History Package

$24.95 $21.20

Early History of the Mugford family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Mugford research. Another 55 words (4 lines of text) covering the year 1700 is included under the topic Early Mugford History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Unisex Coat of Arms Hooded Sweatshirt

Mugford Spelling Variations

Norman surnames are characterized by a multitude of spelling variations. The frequent changes in surnames are largely due to the fact that the Old and Middle English languages lacked definite spelling rules. The introduction of Norman French to England, as well as the official court languages of Latin and French, also had pronounced influences on the spelling of surnames. Since medieval scribes and church officials recorded names as they sounded, rather than adhering to any specific spelling rules, it was common to find the same individual referred to with different spellings. The name has been spelled Moggs, Muggs, Muckford, Muckeford, Muckeforde, Muckforde, Moggeford, Mucksford, Mucksworth, Mucksworthy, Mugford, Mugglesworth, Mogford, Mogworthy, Mogsworthy and many more.

Early Notables of the Mugford family (pre 1700)

More information is included under the topic Early Mugford Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Mugford migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Mugford Settlers in United States in the 20th Century
  • Alfred Mugford, aged 32, who landed in America from Liverpool, in 1907
  • Mary E. Mugford, aged 35, who immigrated to the United States from Weston, England, in 1907
  • Richard Mugford, aged 30, who settled in America from Weston, England, in 1907
  • Allie Mugford, aged 22, who settled in America from St. John's, Newfoundland in 1909
  • Daniel John Mugford, aged 20, who landed in America from Boscastle, England, in 1911
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Mugford migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Mugford Settlers in Canada in the 17th Century
  • John Mugford, who settled in Port de Grave, Newfoundland in 1784 but the property had been in the family since 1680 [1]
Mugford Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
Mugford Settlers in Canada in the 20th Century
  • Ethel Mugford, aged 23, who settled in St. John's, Newfoundland, in 1915
  • Blanche Mugford, aged 20, who settled in North Sydney, Nova Scotia, in 1916

Mugford migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Mugford Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • William Mugford, aged 29, a farm servant, who arrived in South Australia in 1851 aboard the ship "Omega" [2]
  • Charles G. Mugford, aged 24, a labourer, who arrived in South Australia in 1856 aboard the ship "Lord Hungerford"
  • Miss Elizabeth Mugford, (b.1837), aged 20, Cornish schoolmistress departing from Plymouth on 29th September 1856 aboard the ship "Thomas Arbuthnot" arriving in Geelong, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia on 23rd January 1857 [3]
  • Miss J. Mugford, (b.1856), aged Infant, Cornish settler born aboard the ship "Thomas Arbuthnot" arriving in Geelong, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia on 23rd January 1857 [3]
  • Miss Jane Mugford, (b.1838), aged 19, Cornish housemaid departing from Plymouth on 29th September 1856 aboard the ship "Thomas Arbuthnot" arriving in Geelong, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia on 23rd January 1857 [3]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Mugford (post 1700) +

  • Harold Sandford Mugford (1894-1958), English recipient of the Victoria Cross for his actions in World War I
  • James E. Mugford, American Republican politician, Candidate for U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania 4th District, 1976 [4]
  • James Mugford (1749-1776), American captain in the U.S. Continental Navy, eponym of the USS Mugford (DD-105) and the USS Mugford (DD-389)

Related Stories +

The Mugford Motto +

The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Cura pii diis sunt
Motto Translation: Pious men are a care to the gods.


USS Mugford (DD-105), 1920 - History

FLUSH DECKERS IN COMMISSION, 1920&ndash1939

The number of active destroyers had already peaked at 268 in June 1921. Along the way, in 1919&ndash20, Waters decommissioned for five months and then returned to service. Also, in August 1920, fourteen hulls were converted as fast minelayers.

EARLY LOSSES

  • On 26 February off Balboa, Panama Canal Zone, Woolsey was run down and cut in half by SS Steel Inventor.
  • On 1 December in heavy fog, DeLong ran aground and was wrecked at Half Moon Bay, California, south of San Francisco.
  • On the 16th off New Jersey, Graham was damaged beyond repair in collision with SS Panama.

Salvaged, both the latter ships decommissioned the following March.

PEACETIME DECOMMISSIONINGS

ON STATION AROUND THE WORLD

  • To the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea, where they were confronted with widespread humanitarian calamities: the evacuation in 1920 of nearly 150,000 White Russian refugees from the Crimea to Constantinople the escorting of grain ships during 18 months in 1921 and 22 in an effort to relieve the great Russian potato famine and the evacuation of 200,000 ethnic Greeks and Armenians to Greece at the close of the Greco-Turkish war.
  • To Asia, where they supported American interests in China and in 1923 provided relief for an earthquake that decimated Tokyo, Japan.

THE POINT PEDERNALES DISASTER

1930 REHABILITATION PROGRAM

SCRAPPED OR SOLD

RECOMMISSIONED

100 Maury
102 Mahan
276 McCawley
277 Moody
278 Henshaw
280 Doyen
282 Toucey
285 Case
286 Lardner
289 Flusser
290 Dale
291 Converse
292 Reid
293 Billingsley
294 Charles Ausburn
295 Osborne
298 Percival
299 John Francis Burnes
300 Farragut
301 Somers
302 Stoddert
303 Reno
304 Farquhar
305 Thompson
306 Kennedy
307 Paul Hamilton
308 William Jones
313 Zeilin
315 La Vallette
316 Sloat
319 Kidder
321 Marcus
322 Mervine
323 Chase
324 Robert Smith
325 Mullany
326 Coghlan
327 Preston
328 Lamson
329 Bruce
330 Hull
331 Macdonough
332 Farenholt
333 Sumner
334 Corry
335 Melvin

1930 REHABILITATION PROGRAM

COAST GUARD DESTROYERS

In 1935, a year after returning from her Coast Guard service, Semmes was converted as a submarine test ship (AG 24). Operating thereafter from Key West, Florida, she continued in this service throughout World War II.

1936 FORCE REDUCTION

As a result of this program (partially offset by some recommissionings) plus the loss due to collision of Smith Thompson in 1936, the total number of flush-deckers dropped from 200 (102 in commission) at the beginning of 1936 to 172 by May 1937. The decommissioning of Walker in March 1938 and Taylor in December brought the active and reserve force down to 170 (78 in commission).

1936&ndash9 SOLD, SUNK OR SET ASIDE

NEUTRALITY PATROLS

Immediately it moved to activate every additional escort vessel available. Fifty-four of the 92 mothballed flush-deckers recommissioned during the last four months of 1939 and by September 1940, when transfer of fifty &ldquodestroyers for bases&rdquo to the UK and Canada began, &ldquored lead row&rdquo was empty.

Sources: Destroyer History Foundation database and Dickey, A Family Saga.


Top questions about AncestryDNA

Your privacy is our highest priority. We use industry standard security practices to store your DNA sample, your DNA test results, and other personal data you provide to us. In addition, we store your DNA test results and DNA sample without your name or other common identifying information. You own your DNA data. At any time, you can choose to download your DNA Data, have us delete your DNA test results as described in the Ancestry® Privacy Statement, or have us destroy your physical DNA saliva sample. We do not share with third parties your name or other common identifying information linked to your genetic data, except as legally required or with your explicit consent.

For more information on privacy at AncestryDNA, see the Ancestry Privacy Statement and visit our Privacy Center.

AncestryDNA is a cutting edge DNA testing service that utilizes some of the latest autosomal testing technology, our patented Genetic Communities™ technology, and the largest consumer DNA database to revolutionize the way you discover your family history. This service combines advanced DNA science with the world's largest online family history resource to estimate your genetic ethnicity and help you find new family connections. It maps ethnicity going back multiple generations and provides insight into such possibilities as what region of Europe your ancestors came from or whether you’re likely to have Southeast Asian heritage. AncestryDNA can also help identify relationships with unknown relatives through a dynamic list of DNA matches.

Your AncestryDNA results include information about your geographic origins across 1,000+ regions and identifies potential relatives through DNA matching to others who have taken the AncestryDNA test. Your results are a great starting point for more family history research, and it can also be a way to dig even deeper into the research you've already done.

AncestryDNA is a simple saliva test you can do in the comfort of your own home. Once you order, you will receive the AncestryDNA kit in the mail in a matter of days. Your AncestryDNA kit includes full instructions, a saliva collection tube, and a prepaid return mailer (so you don't have additional costs to return your DNA.) After returning your sample by just dropping it in the mail, your DNA is processed at the lab. You then receive an email notifying you that your results are ready to explore on the AncestryDNA website.

Click here to find out how our enhanced ethnicity estimates give you an even more detailed picture of your origins.


ジョン・ヘンリー・タワーズ

“ジャック”こと、ジョン・ヘンリー・タワーズは1885年1月30日、ジョージア州ロームに生まれる。祖父はアメリカ連合国陸軍の連隊長で、父もアメリカ連合国陸軍の騎兵隊に所属していた経験があり、いわゆる「軍人一家」の家庭であるが、タワーズが生まれたころには農具販売業を営んでいた [2] 。はじめは軍人ではなく技師を志し、ジョージア工科学校に進学するも、寄宿舎の同居人の態度にたまりかねて退学し、海軍兵学校(アナポリス)に改めて進学する [3] 。1906年にアナポリスを卒業し、卒業年次から「アナポリス1906年組」と呼称されたこの世代の同期には、フランク・J・フレッチャー、ジョン・S・マケイン・シニア、オーブリー・フィッチ、ロバート・L・ゴームレーらがいる [4] [注釈 1] 。1908年に少尉に任官したタワーズは戦艦「ケンタッキー」乗り組みを経て、1911年に戦艦「ミシガン」乗り組みとなり、弾着観測を担当する [3] 。アメリカ戦艦の一種の特徴だった籠マストの頂部から観測を行うのがタワーズの役目だったが、高い場所とはいえ観測できる範囲には限度があった [3] 。タワーズは、弾着観測に関する疑問の答えを、当時は創世記の段階だった「航空」に求めた。

1911年6月27日、パイロットを志願したタワーズは ハモンズポート (英語版) にあるヘリング・カーチス社のカーチス飛行学校に入学する [6] 。講師はカーチス自身であり、タワーズは1911年8月より、カーチスやエリソンの指導の下、海軍第1号機である カーチス A-1型水上機 (英語版) を使ってパイロットとしての訓練を受ける。また、カーチスが学校を挙げてノースアイランドに行き、カーチス A-1型水上機の改善を行った際にも同行した。1911年10月にはカーチス A-1型でアナポリスと オールド・ポイント・コンフォート (英語版) 間112マイルの距離を、122分で踏破する新記録を樹立。1912年秋、タワーズはアナポリスに設置される最初の海軍航空隊の設営を監督した。同じ1912年10月6日にはガソリンタンクを増設したカーチス A-2型で、6時間10分35秒のアメリカの航続時間新記録を達成し、12月にかけてはチェサピーク湾上空を飛んで、潜航中の潜水艦を発見するテストを行った。1913年に入り、グアンタナモ湾で行われた艦隊演習に参加したタワーズは航空機の偵察、爆撃および写真偵察の分野での可能性をテストし、研究した [6] 。

1913年5月8日、中尉に昇進したタワーズはカーチス飛行艇を使い、ゴッドフリー・シャヴァリア少尉(アナポリス1910年組 [7] )とペアを組んでワシントン海軍工廠を出発してポトマック川、チェサピーク湾を経由しアナポリスに到着する全行程169マイルの飛行を行った [8] 。しかし、1カ月後の6月20日、タワーズはアクシデントに見舞われる。この日、タワーズはパイロットとしてではなく乗客として ウィリアム・ビリングスレイ (英語版) 少尉(アナポリス1909年組 [9] )が操縦する ライト (英語版) 水上飛行機に乗っていた。しかし、水上飛行機がチェサピーク湾上空を飛行中に乱気流に巻き込まれて急降下し、ビリングスレイは機外に放り出されてアメリカ海軍航空隊初の死者となってしまった。タワーズも座席から放り出される寸前だったが、とっさに翼支柱をつかんで、機がチェサピーク湾に不時着水するまでその態勢を保った。事故後、タワーズはカーチスに事故の状況を話し、また報告書にしたためた。このときの報告書などが元となり、パイロットや乗客を安全に保護するシートベルトなどの安全装置が考案された。

1915年1月、海軍はパイロットの登録を公式に開始し、タワーズは1914年にさかのぼって海軍パイロット第3号として登録された [11] 。少佐に昇進したタワーズは海軍省航空課に配属され、1917年にはパイロット徽章の作成を担当した [12] 。徽章の配布は1918年1月19日から始まり、タワーズはこの時点でワシントンD.C.にいた海軍パイロットの中で、もっとも古参で、かつ高位に位置していた [12] 。

第一次世界大戦 編集

その間の1914年8月、タワーズは第一次世界大戦勃発後のロンドンに海軍駐在武官として赴任し、1916年秋に帰国するまでその任にあった。帰国前の8月、タワーズはレジナルド・R・ベルナップ大佐率いる海軍の代表団の一部として、装甲巡洋艦「メンフィス」 [注釈 2] に乗ったヘンリー・S・ブレッキンリッジ陸軍次官補率いる救援隊のドミニカ共和国進出を支援したが、その際にフレデリック・トゥルビー・デイヴィソン指導の下でイェール大学で組織された学生による航空部隊「 ファースト・イェール・ユニット (英語版) 」を参加させている。ファースト・イェール・ユニットは後年、アメリカ海軍航空隊に人員を送り込むようになる。

大西洋横断飛行 編集

1919年5月8日、ニューヨークの ロックアウェイ海軍航空基地 (英語版) に3機の カーチス NC (英語版) が待機した。NC-1、NC-3およびNC-4である。タワーズはNC-3の機長を務めた。3機はケープコッド、チャタム、ハリファックスを経て5月15日にニューファンドランド島 トレパッシー (英語版) に進出。翌5月16日、3機はアゾレス諸島への飛翔を開始した。しかし、NC-1とNC-3は濃霧に悩まされて荒れる波の上への着水を余儀なくされ、NC-1は浸水甚だしく再度の飛翔はならず、クルーはギリシャ貨物船「イオニア」に収容された [14] 。タワーズのNC-3も52時間に及ぶ苦闘の末、アゾレス諸島ポンタ・デルガダからおよそ200マイルの地点より再度飛翔し、ポンタ・デルガダに到着したものの、ここから先に進むことはかなわなかった。何事もなかったNC-4はアゾレス諸島での休息ののち、5月27日にリスボンに到着して大西洋横断飛行を完成させた。タワーズ自身の大西洋横断飛行は成功しなかったものの、リーダーシップが評価されて海軍十字章が授与された。

モフェットと航空局 編集

第一次世界大戦終結後にしばしの平和な時代が訪れたころ、タワーズは海軍航空の重要性を説いて回ったり、上述の大西洋横断飛行などの実行や先駆的な開発などで事実上の海軍航空隊の第一人者的存在にはなっていた。しかし、海軍内での航空の立場はまだまだ弱かった。1919年秋、タワーズは敷設艦「 アローストック (英語版) 」 (USS Aroostook, CM-3) の副艦長となり、1922年冬から1923年にかけては駆逐艦「 マグフォード (英語版) 」 (USS Mugford, DD-105) の艦長を務める。そして、「アローストック」乗り組み時代の1920年夏、演習で「アローストック」と顔合わせした戦艦の艦長によって、アメリカ海軍での海軍航空の立場が大きく動き出そうとしていた。その艦長が、「アメリカ海軍航空隊の父」モフェットである。モフェットは戦艦「ミシシッピ」艦長としてサンディエゴ沖で演習に参加していたとき、「アローストック」指揮下の水上機が弾着観測を行ない、その働きによって訓練が上手く行った。モフェットはこの一件で、航空観測の重要性を実感したのである [15] 。

1921年9月、海軍省内に航空課を格上げする形で航空局が創設され、3月以来航空課長で少将に昇進したモフェットが初代局長となる [16] 。しかし、この段階ではタワーズは航空局とはあまり関わっておらず、「アローストック」や「マグフォード」での勤務、ペンサコーラの海軍飛行学校副校長を経て1923年3月から1925年9月にかけて、ロンドン、パリ、ローマ、ハーグおよびベルリンのアメリカ大使館付駐在武官を歴任する。この二度目の駐在武官時代、タワーズはセンピル教育団の一人と話す機会があったが、その者曰く、「日本人の練習生は皆下手だ。とてもいいパイロットにはなれない」 [17] 。駐在武官の勤めを終えて帰国したタワーズは、ここで航空局に配属される。配属早々、1925年9月3日に墜落した海軍飛行船「シェナンドー」の事故調査委員会メンバーとなった。

翌1926年、中佐となっていたタワーズは空母「ラングレー」の副長に就任。モフェットの腹積もりでは、タワーズを本来は艦長に据えたかったが、中佐は大型艦艦長の役職ではなかった [17] 。またこの年、モフェットは潜水艦部門から一人の大佐を航空に引っ張ってくる。この大佐がアーネスト・キング(アナポリス1901年組)で、巡洋艦艦長を希望していたが空きがなかったことと、当時の海軍航空部門でもっとも高位の士官だったのが中佐のタワーズだったこともあり、モフェットの勧めで水上機母艦「 ライト (英語版) 」 (USS Wright, AV-1) 艦長に就任し、ペンサコーラに赴いて航空免許の取得を行った [18] 。ちなみに、当時の「ライト」副長はエリソンだった。「ラングレー」副長時代のタワーズは、アメリカ海軍航空戦隊の最初の司令官である ジョゼフ・M・リーヴス (英語版) 大佐(アナポリス1894年組 [19] )の下で空母運用の研究に取り組み、搭載機の増加や給油システムの改善に取り組んだ [20] 。また、タワーズはこの「ラングレー」副長時代に初めて一般の航空機の操縦を手がけ、着艦をこなせるようになった [21] 。タワーズは翌1927年1月に「ラングレー」艦長に昇格し、1928年8月まで務める。その間の1927年12月、「ラングレー」で火災事故が発生し、給油系統から艦載機に燃え移るほどの火災に対してタワーズは、乗員の総力を挙げて消火にあたり、最悪の事態を回避することに成功して「冷静かつ勇敢に火災事故に対処した」と賞賛された。なお、「ラングレー」艦長時代の1928年2月27日にエリソンが航空事故で殉職し、パイロット免許第2号保持者だったジョン・ロジャース(アナポリス1903年組)も、エリソンに先立つ2年前の1926年に事故死していたので、この時点で第3号のタワーズが海軍パイロット中の最古参者となった [22] 。

航空局長争い 編集

1928年8月、タワーズは航空局に戻り、計画課長に就任。これと前後して、モフェットはキングを空母「レキシントン」艦長として推薦するが採用されず、その代わりに航空局次長に据えた [23] 。しかし、キングを次長にしたモフェットのこの人事は失敗に終わる [23] 。モフェットとキングはことごとく意見が対立し、タワーズともそりが合わなかった [23] 。上とも下ともうまくやっていけなかったキングは辞任を余儀なくされ、ノーフォークの海軍航空隊司令となって航空局から去っていった [23] 。1929年4月、タワーズは航空局次長となるが、これは海軍省始まって以来の若い次長だった [23] 。また、モフェットがロンドン海軍軍縮会議(1930年)に出席した際には、局長代理となった [24] 。このあたりからタワーズとモフェットの結びつきが深まるが、同時にキングを始めとして周囲から「野心家」として警戒されるようになる [25] 。

この頃のタワーズは、モフェットがそうであったように人集めと政治活動に努めた。前者に関しては計画課長の後任にリッチモンド・K・ターナー(アナポリス1908年組)を据え、ペンサコーラ海軍飛行学校の第1期生でもある [26] マーク・ミッチャー(アナポリス1910年組)も計画課に入れた [27] 。1931年6月に航空艦隊司令官ハリー・E・ヤーネル少将(アナポリス1897年組 [4] )の下で参謀長に就任すると、ここではアーサー・W・ラドフォード(アナポリス1916年組)やフォレスト・シャーマン(アナポリス1918年組)を参謀として航空艦隊に引き入れた [27] 。このような人集めを行っているうちに、自然とタワーズを祀り上げる「閥」ができあがり、主に若年からのパイロット出身者の間から「クラウンプリンス」的な扱いをされるようになる [28] 。後者の政治活動では、モフェットの勧めでカール・ヴィンソンら有力議員と昵懇の仲となり、航空産業界にもしきりに顔を出すようになっていった [29]

1932年2月、タワーズは陸海軍合同演習でハワイ奇襲を立案する。「レキシントン」と「サラトガ」に日曜日に乗じてハワイに接近させ、荒天と夜闇をついて奇襲には成功したが、陸上機と潜水艦の反撃を受けて損害を出す、と判定された [30] 。続く大演習 第13次フリート・プロブレム (英語版) では空母同士の戦いを繰り広げた [31] 。ハワイ奇襲演習は後年、日本海軍の真珠湾攻撃という形で大規模になって「模倣」されることとなった。ところで、この演習時の「レキシントン」艦長はキングだった。回り道の末に空母艦長の座が巡ってきたキングは、モフェットの勧める「サラトガ」艦長は航空艦隊司令部が同居しているため敬遠し、かつて願っていた「レキシントン」艦長の座を射止めていたのである [32] 。フリート・プロブレムが終わって「サラトガ」がオーバーホールに出たため、航空艦隊司令部は偵察艦隊に移る「レキシントン」を仮住まいとしたが、ここでタワーズとキングは「レキシントン」艦内で顔を合わせるたびに火花を散らす不仲ぶりを公にさらけ出すこととなってしまった [31] 。

門外漢ながら海軍航空のために1921年以来航空局長として辣腕を振るったモフェットは、平時の定年の時が迫っていた。モフェットが政治活動を活発に行っていたのも、海軍航空の立場を大きくするためという理由の他に、生粋のパイロットであるタワーズに局長の座を禅譲するという伏線があった。タワーズが局長になるためにはハードルがいくつかあったが、とにもかくにも局長になるには年齢が若すぎ、しかも、局長ポストの少将に平時進級で昇進するまでには時間があった [33] 。この点では、同じように航空局長を狙っていたキングは少将に昇進しており、一歩有利だった [33] 。モフェットやヴィンソン、航空産業界、パイロット出身者の後援があるタワーズと、いわゆる「制服組」の後援を得たキングの航空局長争いは、1933年4月4日に起こった飛行船「アクロン」 (USS Akron, ZRS-4) の墜落事故でモフェットが殉職したことにより事実上決着した。タワーズは有力後援者を失い、モフェットが心血を注いで作り上げた政界の後ろ盾も空しく立場を弱体化させていった [34] 。さらに、人事面でモフェットと角を突き合わせていた航海局は航空局に「復讐」を行う。航海局長 フランク・B・アパム (英語版) 少将(アナポリス1893年組 [35] )はキングを航空局長として推薦し、海軍作戦部長 ウィリアム・プラット (英語版) 大将(アナポリス1889年組 [36] )の支持も得られたため、クロード・スワンソン海軍長官はこれを受けてフランクリン・ルーズベルト大統領にキングを航空局長として推薦し、許可された [37] 。こうして、モフェットの後釜争いはキングの勝利に終わった。

航空局長 編集

タワーズはキングとの航空局長争いについて知人に対し「海軍の古い連中はモフェットの死を大いに利用した」などと愚痴ったが、やがてプラットの次の作戦部長である ウィリアム・スタンドレイ (英語版) 大将(アナポリス1895年組 [38] )に「次がある」と慰められ、スタンドレイやアパムの次の航海局長ウィリアム・リーヒ少将(アナポリス1897年組)の勧めで 海軍大学校 (英語版) 上級課程を受講する [39] 。海軍大学校卒業後はサンディエゴの海軍航空基地司令を経て、1936年6月には航空艦隊司令官 フレデリック・J・ホーン (英語版) 中将(アナポリス1899年組)の参謀長に復帰 [1] [40] 。1年後の1937年6月には「サラトガ」の艦長の職を、前任者のウィリアム・ハルゼー大佐(アナポリス1904年組)から引き継いだ [41] 。1938年1月に航空艦隊司令官がホーンからキングに代わると、タワーズとキングのいさかいが今度は「サラトガ」艦内で再発し、1938年7月にタワーズが航空局次長に再任されて「サラトガ」を去るまで続く [41] 。そして1939年6月1日、タワーズは少将に昇進して航空局長に就任する [41] 。

タワーズは航空局長としてまず、海軍の航空機調達計画を策定させる。タワーズの計画指導の下、海軍の保有機数は1939年の時点では約2,000機だったものが、1942年には39,000機にまで増大した。また、規則正しいパイロット育成プログラムを打ちたて、後方担当のパイロット資格を持つ予備役がその育成にあたることとされた。人材の確保も、タワーズの局長在任中におよそ100万名を数え、そのうちの4分の3が高いレベルを保ったと評価された。1939年9月1日の第二次世界大戦勃発を経て、翌1940年8月22日、海軍長官の下に新たに航空担当次官が設けられ、ジェームズ・フォレスタルが就任する [42] 。もっとも、自身もかつてはパイロットだったフォレスタルは、航空に関する事項のほとんどをタワーズに一任させた [43] 。新しい後援者を得たタワーズはこうして海軍航空隊の規模拡大を推し進めたが、一方で新たな軋轢と遺恨を生み出すことにもなった。

モフェット以来、航空局では人材育成の理想像として「アナポリス卒業後はすぐにペンサコーラ(飛行学校)入りさせ、卒業後は航空関連のポジションに就かせるべきだ」という考えを持っていた [44] 。パイロットは水上艦乗員とは「育て方」が違うから、というのが理屈であったが、人事担当の航海局としては人員を根こそぎ航空に持っていかれたり、訓練を別扱いするわけにもいかなかった [44] 。当時の航海局長はチェスター・ニミッツ少将(アナポリス1905年組)であったが、しばしばタワーズのメディアや議員を使った攻撃に悩まされており、タワーズを敬遠するようになっていった [44] 。また、キングとの軋轢と遺恨も再燃する。航空を含めた海軍行政部門は海軍省の仕事であって海軍作戦部の仕事ではなかったが、大将昇進を経て、真珠湾攻撃によるアメリカ参戦後に合衆国艦隊司令長官兼作戦部長となっていたキングはこれが気に入らなかった。キングはルーズベルトに、海軍作戦部に行政部門への指揮権限を与えるよう要請したが、法律上の問題があって実現しなかった [45] 。しかし、代わりに「キングに非協力的な局長は更迭する」という言質をもらった [45] 。キングは、今まで以上にフォレスタルを初めとする政治家連中と親しくしているタワーズを、理由をつけてワシントンから放り出すことを画策する [46] 。

太平洋戦争 編集

1942年10月6日、タワーズは中将に昇進。これと前後して太平洋艦隊内に太平洋航空部隊が創設された。太平洋航空部隊は前線担当ではなく後方部門をもっぱら担当し [46] 、フィッチや、皮膚病の療養から戻ってきたハルゼーが部隊を一時的に指揮していた [47] 。フィッチが南太平洋戦線に赴くことになって司令官ポストに空きができると、キングはこれ幸いとばかりにタワーズをフィッチの後任に据えて、体よくワシントンからつまみ出すことに成功した [47] [48] 。タワーズの後任には、マケインが就いた [49] 。タワーズは、1942年9月15日に伊号第一九潜水艦(伊19)の雷撃で、艦長を務めていた空母「ワスプ」を失って待命状態だったシャーマンを参謀長にして太平洋航空部隊司令官としての任務を始める [50] 。航空戦に必要不可欠な空母、航空機、パイロットおよび関連物資を絶えず調達し、パイロット育成を監督。また、最終的に日本を降伏させ、アメリカを勝利に導く戦略の考案を手伝った [51] 。一連の働きが評価され、タワーズは殊勲章とレジオン・オブ・メリットを受章した。

しかし、タワーズは後方で黙々と任務を遂行するような人物ではなかった。1943年に入り太平洋艦隊では部隊の再編成が行われ、ハルゼーの南太平洋部隊は第3艦隊と呼称されるようになり、中部太平洋方面にいた艦艇を集めた部隊は第5艦隊と呼ばれるようになった [52] 。第5艦隊は、将来的には空母を主力とした大部隊となり、中部太平洋方面で日本軍を打ち負かすための艦隊に位置づけられていた [53] 。このような部隊の性格から、海軍将官の間では、新しい部隊を指揮するのは航空出身者ではないかという噂が流れるようになったが、詳細はキングや、キングへの進言者となるだろう太平洋艦隊司令長官のニミッツが握っていた [54] 。タワーズの持論では、「空母部隊は攻撃の主軸であり、副次的に上陸部隊支援や航空兵力を持たない部隊への支援に任じるべき」、「その司令官には高度に訓練された航空専門の士官をあてるべき」としており、司令官人選に関するヤーネルの質問にもそのように回答している [55] 。タワーズは間髪入れず、自分を第5艦隊の司令長官か、最低でも指揮下の空母任務部隊司令官にするよう盛んに運動を行うが、タワーズとキングが不仲であることを承知し、航海局長時代にタワーズに幾度となく煮え湯を飲まされたニミッツからしてみれば、この運動は問題外だった [56] 。ニミッツは、自分の参謀長だったレイモンド・スプルーアンス少将(アナポリス1907年組)を第5艦隊司令長官とし、指揮下の空母任務部隊司令官には、かつてタワーズの下で勤務したことのある、航空に「経験の深い」チャールズ・A・パウナル少将(アナポリス1910年組)を据え、タワーズの願望を一蹴した [57] [58] [59] 。スプルーアンス自身もこの決定には驚いたが、パイロット出身者たちはさっそく、「スプルーアンスはせいぜい見張り役がふさわしい」などと批判に精を出した [60] 。タワーズとニミッツの、人選に関する激論も収穫なく終わったが、のちに態度を軟化させてシャーマンをニミッツの航空参謀として転出させることは同意し、ニミッツもまた航空関連の助言者としてタワーズを重く用いるようになる [61] 。この態度の変化が、一つの更迭劇を生む。

1943年12月5日、パウナル率いる第50.1任務群はクェゼリン環礁を空襲し、所在の日本軍に打撃を与えた(マーシャル諸島沖航空戦)。タワーズらパイロット出身者の不平不満をよそに、スプルーアンスとパウナルは1943年8月31日の南鳥島攻撃を皮切りに、ウェーク島、ギルバート諸島を連続攻撃して経験を積み重ねた。11月のガルヴァニック作戦ではタラワの戦いで手痛い損害があったものの占領には成功し、クェゼリン攻撃を終えて帰投するまでの間、損害らしい損害は空母2隻損傷だけだった。しかし、一連の攻撃は空母艦長などからは評価されなかったばかりか、逆にパウナルの消極的な面が批判の的となった。艦長連中曰く、パウナルは「パイロット救助に尽くさなかった」、「攻撃が不徹底だった」、「空母任務部隊を指揮を執ったことを後悔する発言を行った」、そして「自分が戦死したときの覚書をわざわざ作った」 [62] 。不満はタワーズに伝えられ、タワーズ自身がかねがねパウナルの指揮ぶりに不満があったので、ニミッツに対してパウナルの更迭を進言した [63] 。そして12月末、ニミッツはタワーズ、太平洋艦隊参謀長チャールズ・マクモリス少将(アナポリス1912年組)およびシャーマンと協議を行い、スプルーアンスに何も知らせずパウナル更迭を決定する [64] 。更迭を決定したとなれば、その後任を決めなければならない。候補は第38任務部隊を率いて1943年11月のラバウル空襲を成功させていた「テッド」ことフレデリック・C・シャーマン少将(アナポリス1910年組)、アルフレッド・E・モントゴメリー少将(アナポリス1912年組)、マケイン、そして生粋のパイロットであるミッチャーらの名前が挙がった [65] 。このうち、マケインはキングの子飼いで当面手放す気がなく [66] 、航空経験が長くないが空母艦長や空母任務群経験のあるテッド・シャーマンと、航空経験が長く空母艦長の経験があるが空母任務群経験のないミッチャーに絞られた [66] 。決め手は、タワーズがテッド・シャーマンを「自己中心的で寛容でないため、搭乗員にきわめて不人気。有能ではあるが部下が心から忠誠を尽くそうとしないので、高級指揮官には不適」であると評したことで、ニミッツはミッチャーをパウナルの後任に据えた [66] 。

この決定にスプルーアンスは怒りを見せた [64] 。スプルーアンスはパウナルの一連の働きには満足しており [64] 、その後任がミッドウェー海戦の一件 [67] 以来嫌っていたミッチャーだったのが気に食わなかった [68] 。スプルーアンスは、この更迭劇がタワーズやその一派による陰謀だともみなしており、もともと嫌っていたタワーズをいっそう憎んだ [68] 。スプルーアンスのタワーズへの憎悪は、続くクェゼリンの戦いに関する作戦計画の論争にも影響し、タワーズがガルヴァニック作戦での空母任務部隊の用法を批判すれば、スプルーアンスは次の作戦でも同じ用法で行くとして意見がかみ合わなかった [69] 。度重なるタワーズの口出しにたまりかねたスプルーアンスは、次のように書き残した。

1944年1月、サンフランシスコでのキングとニミッツの会談で、二つの決定が出される。一つは主要な艦隊や部隊の司令官が水上艦出身者なら参謀長は航空出身者とし、司令官が航空出身者なら参謀長は水上艦出身者という原則であり、もう一つがタワーズの太平洋艦隊副司令官兼太平洋区域副司令官への就任だった [71] 。後者は、フォレスタルの要望によるものだった [72] 。航空部門でのニミッツの助言者としての役割がいっそう大きくなったタワーズではあったが、6月19日から20日のマリアナ沖海戦は、タワーズがスプルーアンスに噛み付く機会を再び与えることとなった。海戦では、スプルーアンスは指揮下の第58任務部隊の行動に慎重さを求め、6月20日になって索敵機が小沢治三郎中将の第一機動艦隊を発見したときは、彼我の距離は相当離れていた。ミッチャーは攻撃隊の発進を命じたが、距離が離れていたことにより決定的な打撃を与えられず、また第58任務部隊自体も大きく混乱した。アンチ・スプルーアンスの面々は機を逃さず一斉に批判を行い、これに対してキングなどスプルーアンスの擁護者連中は反論を行った [73] 。タワーズは、スプルーアンスを更迭して自分を第5艦隊司令長官にするようニミッツに進言したが [74] 、何も起こらなかった。この後、太平洋艦隊司令部がグアムに前進したため、タワーズがハワイ方面での最高位の将官となった [75] 。

タワーズが艦隊を率いる最大のチャンスは、同期の「失態」により訪れた。ハルゼーの下で空母任務部隊を率いていたのはミッチャーとマケインだったが、マケイン指揮下の第38任務部隊は、1944年12月のコブラ台風と1945年6月のヴァイパー台風 [76] で戦わずして大きな損害を蒙っていた。台風被害を受けるたびに査問委員会が開かれ、ハルゼーとマケインを更迭すべしという意見が出されていた [77] 。キングは査問委員会の意見には同意していたが、ハルゼーの更迭は国民的英雄に傷をつけ、日本を喜ばすだけだとして更迭には反対し、フォレスタルも同意した [77] 。このこともあってハルゼーは二度の査問委員会の末に二度とも首がつながったが、マケインに二度目の情けはなかった [78] 。マケインは事実上、ヴァイパー台風の件で更迭されることとなり、タワーズがその後任となった [79] 。7月15日、交代が公式に発表され、タワーズは正式に第二空母機動部隊司令官(第38任務部隊司令官)となり、マケインは待命ののちオマール・ブラッドレー陸軍大将の下で退役軍人局勤務とされた [80] 。同じ日の発表ではテッド・シャーマンが、海軍作戦部入りするミッチャーに代わって高速空母機動部隊司令官(第58任務部隊司令官)になることも発表された [81] [82] 。来るダウンフォール作戦では、これまで司令部の異動のみで中身は同じだった第38任務部隊と第58任務部隊が、名実とともに別個の任務部隊として行動することとなっていた [81] 。これまでタワーズの要望を拒否し続けたキングとニミッツが、ここにきてタワーズに艦隊を指揮させることにした理由ははっきりしないが、不仲のキングがタワーズの第38任務部隊司令官就任に許可を出したのは事実である。当時、第38任務部隊は日本本土への攻撃を行っている最中であり、8月14日にエニウェトク環礁に帰投の予定だった [83] 。カレンダーどおりならば、タワーズは8月14日にマケインから第38任務部隊の指揮を引き継いで戦闘に加わるはずだった [84] 。しかし、8月11日に日本がポツダム宣言受諾をスイスを通じて連合国側に通報したことを知ったハルゼーは、日本の降伏近しとして任務部隊のエニウェトク帰投を取り消し、引き続き日本近海に居座った [85] 。そして8月15日、日本が降伏して戦争が終わった。

戦後 編集

戦争が終わり、第38任務部隊は東京湾に入る。タワーズは9月1日以降に第38任務部隊の指揮を執ることになっていたが、9月1日より前にはマケインの旗艦である空母「シャングリラ」に乗り込み、「自分のほうが先に中将に昇進した」という理由でマケインの中将旗を下ろして自分の中将旗を掲揚させた [75] 。9月2日の降伏文書調印式の参列ののち大将に昇進し、11月7日に太平洋艦隊司令長官に転出したスプルーアンスの後任として第5艦隊司令長官に就任、戦艦「ニュージャージー」に大将旗を掲揚した [86] 。次いで1946年2月1日、海軍大学校校長に就任したスプルーアンスの後を継いで太平洋艦隊司令長官となり、空母「ベニントン」を旗艦とした。この1946年、ハリー・S・トルーマン大統領により統合軍計画が承認され、太平洋艦隊はアメリカ太平洋軍の指揮下に入ることとなった。1947年1月1日、タワーズはアメリカ太平洋軍の初代最高司令官に就任し、太平洋艦隊司令長官の職と兼任した。2月28日付でルイス・デンフェルド大将(アナポリス1912年組)に職を譲って退任したあと、海軍長官になっていたフォレスタルの要請により アメリカ海軍将官会議 (英語版) の議長を務め、この職を最後に1947年12月1日に退役した。

退役後のタワーズは1949年にパンアメリカン航空副社長となり [87] 、パシフィック・ウォー・メモリアル総裁にも就いた。1950年に勃発した朝鮮戦争では、所有するDC-4を動員してアメリカ陸軍の兵士を日本へ輸送した [87] 。半世紀近くにわたってアメリカ海軍航空隊の成長を見守ったタワーズは1955年4月30日、ニューヨークのジャマイカ地区にあるセント・オールバンズ病院にて死去。70歳没。タワーズはアーリントン国立墓地に埋葬されている。

その他 編集

1961年、アメリカ海軍航空隊およびアメリカ海兵隊航空隊の全パイロット中の最先任者かつ連続的な現役勤務を行った者に授与される グレイ・イーグル・アワード (英語版) が海軍航空隊創設50周年を期して創設された際、タワーズは海軍パイロット免許第3号保持者として、エリソンが殉職した1928年2月27日から退役した1947年12月1日までの期間に対して受章した。1966年には アメリカ国立航空殿堂 (英語版) に名を連ね、1973年には国際航空宇宙殿堂、1981年には 海軍航空名誉殿堂 (英語版) 、2004年にはジョージア州航空名誉殿堂に名を連ねた。

チャールズ・F・アダムズ級ミサイル駆逐艦の一艦として1961年に就役した「 タワーズ (英語版) 」 (USS Towers, DDG-9) はタワーズを記念して命名され、ベトナム戦争に参加した。また、アポロ17号で月面のクレーターの一つにタワーズの名が付され [88] 、フロリダ州ジャクソンビルにある ジャクソンビル海軍航空基地 (英語版) の滑走路には「タワーズ・フィールド」があり、故郷ロームにあるリチャード・B・ラッセル地方空港の管制塔にもタワーズの名前が冠せられている [89] 。


USS Mugford (DD-105)

USS Mugford (DD-105) amerykański niszczyciel typu Wickes będący w służbie United States Navy w okresie po I wojnie światowej. Patronem okrętu był James Mugford.

Stępkę okrętu położono 20 grudnia w stoczni Union Iron Works Company w San Francisco. Zwodowano go 14 kwietnia 1918, matką chrzestną była George H. Fort. Jednostka weszła do służby 25 listopada 1918, pierwszym dowódcą został Lt Comdr. John H. Everson.

"Mugford" dołączył do floty w czasie zimowych manewrów w pobliżu zatoki Guantanamo na Kubie w styczniu 1919. Następnie popłynął na północ w celu przeprowadzenia operacji wzdłuż wybrzeża pomiędzy Nowym Jorkiem a Massachusetts, do 21 listopada. Wtedy opuścił Newport i popłynął do San Diego, gdzie dotarł 22 grudnia. Tam był używany jako tender dla dywizjonu wodnopłatowców i w czasie początków rozwoju lotnictwa morskiego uczestniczył w jego operacjach podczas ćwiczeń w pobliżu wybrzeża Kalifornii. Odwiedził strefę Kanału Panamskiego w grudniu 1920 i styczniu 1921.

Został wycofany ze służby w San Diego 7 czerwca 1922 i sprzedany na złom firmie Schiavone-Bonomo Corporation z Nowego Jorku w 1936.

Ten artykuł zawiera treści udostępnione w ramach domeny publicznej przez Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.


In 1961, Towers was posthumously designated the second recipient of the Gray Eagle Award, as the most senior active naval aviator from 1928 until his retirement. He was enshrined in the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1966, the International Aerospace Hall of Fame in 1973, the Naval Aviation Hall of Honor in 1981 and the Georgia Aviation Hall of Fame in 2004.

USS Towers (DDG-9), a guided missile destroyer that saw action in the Vietnam War, was named in his honor. A crater on the moon was named in his honor by the Apollo 17 Mission [ 9 ] Towers Field at Jacksonville Naval Air Station in Jacksonville, Florida is named for him as is the air field at Richard B. Russell Regional Airport, Rome, Georgia. [ 10 ]


Watch the video: playing on USS Mugford DD-389 and more on a random round of leyte gulf day 2 (January 2022).