Information

Byzantine Empire c. 460 CE



Years: c. 750 BCE - 529 Subject: Literature
Publisher: HistoryWorld Online Publication Date: 2012
Current online version: 2012 eISBN: 9780191736469

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1 &ndash Leadership

There was nothing remarkable about the emperors of the Eastern Empire during the fourth, fifth and early sixth centuries, but they were competent at least and also benefited from continuity of sorts. After the death of Theodosius I, who ruled the entire empire, in 395, the West had at least 14 emperors up to the point of Romulus Augustus&rsquo deposition. In contrast, there were only seven in the East. Critically, at least eight Western emperors were murdered while the same fate befell only the usurper Basiliscus in the East.

The main reason for this stability in the East was a clear pattern of succession. In the West, emperors were beholden to the military. Indeed, every emperor after Valentinian III&rsquos murder in 455 was installed by the army and all but Olybrius were deposed. Ricimer and Gundovald, the so-called Masters of Soldiers (magistri militum), killed at least five of these pretend emperors in a 17-year spell. While the West allowed generals to decide the administration of the empire, it was civil officials who ruled the roost in the East and these individuals were clearly more qualified to rule a kingdom.

Theodosius II was the Eastern Emperor for over 42 years, and while he is classified as ‘lazy&rsquo by many historians, he did manage to place some distance between his empire and the crumbling ruins of the West. The Eastern emperors successfully handled military threats to their crown. Leo I ‘the Thracian&rsquo for example, killed the general Aspar in 471 after the German tried to take control of the empire. Zeno was briefly dethroned by Basiliscus in January 475 but regained his empire within 19 months and murdered the usurper, along with his wife and son.

The Eastern Roman Emperors were typically men of action. Even if their decisions were not always the right ones, at least they were able to see the threat and act upon it. Western Emperors such as Honorius were completely ineffectual. Rather than take on Alaric, he decided upon the ‘strategy&rsquo of doing nothing. A. Ferrill says that Honorius doesn&rsquot deserve the criticism he gets and claims the emperor&rsquos passivity would have worked had someone not opened the gates of Rome to the Visigoths in 410. In reality, the threats the West faced in the fifth century meant they needed a brilliant leader but Majorian aside, no competent ruler ever sat on the throne. Better leadership against the imminent danger also had an impact on the respective wealth of East and West.


Founding of Constantinople

Emperor Constantine I had an elaborate vision to consolidate the Christian Church and better unite the empire. However, Rome, which was the capital of the Roman Empire, was considered to be a hindrance to achieving these objectives as it was far from the empire's frontiers, armies, and imperial courts. The empire identified Byzantium as an ideal location for a capital city and imperial residence. The site could also be readily defended and had access to the Euphrates river. As a result, the city of Constantinople was built up over a period of six years, beginning in 324 AD, and consecrated on May 11, 330 AD. Since Constantinople was to serve as the emperor’s imperial capital, Constantine I ordered the construction of architecturally stunning buildings and impenetrable walls around the city. The walls would ensure that the city could survive attacks and sieges even after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.


The First Crusade

There were multiple Crusade campaigns throughout the almost 200 year history of The Crusades. The most successful was that of the First Crusade (1096-1099). Led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Raymond of Saint-Gilles, Bohemond of Taranto and Hugh of Vermandois four large Christian armies left the capital of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople, in August, 1096, on the way to the Holy Land.

After taking Nicea, the Anatolian capital of the Seljuks, the Crusaders captured Antioch in Syria and finally Jerusalem in 1099. The success of these conquests and others allowed the Crusaders to establish permanent settlements throughout the Holy Land. These Crusader states or kingdoms were centered in Jerusalem, Antioch, Edessa and Tripoli. These new Kingdoms were fortified by formidable forts and castles. The most famous Crusader castle, the Krak des Chevaliers in Syria survives to this day.
The loss of Jerusalem after the defeat of a large Crusader army at Hattin resulted in the launch of the Third Crusade (1187-1191). The Third Crusade is perhaps history’s most famous Crusade due mainly to the charismatic leaders of the opposing Christian and Muslim forces.

Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, or to the Western world, Saladin (1137/38-1193), was the famous Kurdish leader who founded the Muslim Ayyubid Dynasty. Saladin defeated the Crusaders at the strategic battle of Hattin in 1187. Saladin consolidated control over Egypt defeating rival Muslim Fatimids and expanded his Ayyubid Sultanate to include Syria, Mesopotamia, Yemen, Hejaz and parts of North Africa.

Christian forces during the Third Crusade were commanded by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, King Phillip of France and King Richard I of England, also known as Richard the Lionheart. During the Battle of Arsuf, King Richard’s forces defeated Saladin’s army and recaptured the strategic city of Jaffa. Christian control of the area was recovered and allowed Richard to sign a peace treaty with Saladin. The Kingdom of Jerusalem was reestablished and the Third Crusade ended.

It was widely discussed and recorded throughout both the Christian and Muslim worlds that both leaders, Richard and Saladin, demonstrated noble and chivalrous behavior during their battles and consequent peace negotiations. Rather than becoming a hated figure in Europe, Saladin became a celebrated example of the principles of chivalry. Richard became a feared but respected symbol of Christian power and chivalry.

Dynastic infighting among different Muslim sultanates and the invasions of the ferocious Mongol hordes distracted Muslim forces from the remaining Crusader Kingdoms. Additionally, Christian infighting, the decline of Byzantine power, political intrigue and the decline of Papal authority impacted the fervor and power of consequent Crusader campaigns.


Comparing and Contrasting the Byzantine Empire and Western Europe

The Byzantine Empire and Western Europe originally were part of the Roman Empire, but by the Middle Ages, they were vastly different, though they shared common traits, but by the 300&aposs, the Byzantine Empire had far surpassed Western Europe in trade and economics and political unity, while both empires were having arguments over religion.

Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire had very different government structures. The Byzantine Empire was ruled by an Emperor and instead of direct rule, used civil service to effectively run the empire. This contrasted to the political structure of Western Europe which was divided into different "countries" only by which language was spoken and where the feudal system was prominent, without any centralized government until the Late Middle Ages. Although both the Byzantine Empire and Western Europe were predominantly Christian, Christianity led to a major divide between the two. Clashes between the Pope and Patriarch over who had more authority and power and over interpretation of practices within the church lead to the Great Schism. The Christian church split into the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodoxy Church. Along with religious differences, Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire had vastly different economies. European practices of manorialism lead to an agricultural based economy with little trading outside of Europe, while the Byzantine Empire became the wealthiest empire in Europe. This is because Constantinople was the bridge between Europe and the rest of the world, and became the center of east-west trade. Constantinople was the major trading stop in Europe on the Silk Road,


Social Studies

Heyooo, I’ve finished The Roman and Byzantine Empires Unit Test, and I am relatively confident in almost every answer, but I would like someone to check over my answers for me! I’ll be uber grateful!

What steps did the Roman Empire take to expand and support trade? Select all that apply.

A.**
built a vast network of paved roads

B.
raised taxes on ordinary citizens

C.**
sent its navy to clear the seas of pirates

D.
seized conquered peoples as enslaved workers

E.
opened stadiums for mass public entertainment

F.**
coined silver and gold currency

The Pax Romana began around 30 BCE with the rise of as leader of Rome and ended around 180 CE with the death of Emperor

Which phenomenon most directly led to Christianity separating from Judaism?

A.
Roman persecution

B.**
Jewish rejection of the Trinity

C.
writing of the Gospels

D.
conversion of many non-Jews

How did Jesus’s teachings reach so many people in the early Roman empire? Select all that apply.

A.
through forced conversions on the orders of the emperor

B.
through the decision of a council of bishops

C.**
through Gospels written in a language many could understand

D.
through the support of important Roman generals

E.**
through the travels of his followers on Roman roads

Read the quotation. Then use the drop-down menu to complete the sentence.
"Anyone who has two shirts should share with the one who has none, and anyone who has food should do the same."
―Luke 3:11
This quotation reflects Jesus’s teachings about

Drag and drop the items to match the holy writings of the Christian religion.
last book added to
• Gospels
o teachings of Jesus
o parables

• Epistles
o many written by Paul
o letters

• Revelation
o return of Jesus
o last book

What does this symbol represent in Christianity?

A.
the birth of the Messiah

B.
the ritual meal of the Eucharist

C.**
the death and resurrection of Jesus

D.
the love for one God above all others

Which best describes the role of the New Testament in Christianity?

A.
It is the part of the Christian scripture that repeats Jewish teachings.

B.
It is the term for the Christian Bible.

C.**
It is the part of the Christian scriptures that tells about the life of Jesus.

D.
It is the only scripture important to Christians.

What beliefs and practices do Judaism and Christianity share? Select all that apply.

A.**
ethics and right behavior

B.
Holy Communion

C.
Jesus as the savior

D.**
only one god

E.**
Old Testament

F.
New Testament

G.**
the Ten Commandments

How did geography help make Rome a site of encounter?

A.
Its proximity to other major empires encouraged alliances and exchanges.

B.
The Mediterranean Sea helped it connect with civilizations in Europe, Asia, and Africa.

C.
Its location in Central Europe made it a focal point of migration and interaction on the continent.

D.
The relatively level terrain of Europe made it easy for Romans to travel and trade across long distances.

What were gladiator games?

A.
Teams of skilled horsemen raced in chariots.

B.
Elite citizens competed in athletic games to achieve wealth and status.

C.
Aspiring politicians engaged in public debate to demonstrate their skills at oratory.

D.**
Trained slaves and criminals fought in mock battles against one another or animals.

Which fact most clearly shows the difficulty in defending the Roman empire against invasion?

A.
At its height, the empire likely had a population as high as 100 million.

B.**
At its height, the empire comprised nearly 1.7 million square miles of land and water.

C.
Over the course of its history, the Roman empire built about 55,000 miles of paved roads.

D.
The Mediterranean Sea stretches about 2,300 miles west to east and about 600 miles from Italy to the African coast.

Drag and drop events to list them in order from first (top) to last (bottom).
• Imperial Crisis leads to civil war.
• Roman forces withdraw from Britain as Goths attack Rome.
• Odoacer topples Romulus Augustus.
• Huns attack the empire and drive German peoples ahead of them.

For Rome, which was the most serious consequence of the invasion of the Huns?

A.**
The Huns conquered and overthrew the western empire.

B.
The Huns attacked the Germanic tribes, who became refugees.

C.
The Huns devastated large parts of the empire.

D.
The Huns's invasions led to inflation that wrecked the Roman economy.

Drag and drop people and elements of government and culture to match each empire. Choices may be used once or more than once.
Cyrillic alphabet added to
• Augustus

• Cyrillic alphabet
• Roman empire
o dependent on trade
o Augustus

• Byzantine empire
o Latin as main language
o Justinian
o Cyrillic alphabet

How does the work of Eastern Orthodox missionaries Cyril and Methodius show the influence of Byzantine culture on early Russia?

A.
Russian emperors took the title tsar.

B.
Russian bishops forbade the use of icons.

C.**
Russians adopted the Cyrillic alphabet.

D.
Russians began speaking and writing in Greek.

Which of the following was a major factor in the decline of the Byzantine empire?

A.
conversion of the Slavs

B.
iconoclasm

C.**
arrival of invaders

D.
recapture of Rome

Drag and drop words and phrases to complete the sentences.
Justinian’s Code added to
• patriarch
• Pax Romana
• religious
• the Apian Way
The Byzantine empire drew on the long
• legal
tradition of the Roman empire. This included the laws and edicts of former Roman emperors as well as laws from the Roman republic, such as the
• Twelve Tables
. One Byzantine
• emperor
wanted to simplify the laws so he appointed committees to go through the Roman laws and decisions. They produced a unified system of laws known as
• Justinian’s Code
.

Select the boxes to classify the beliefs and practices.
Roman Catholic Church Eastern Orthodox Church Both
Christian **
church services **
emperor as head of the church ** **
Holy Bible **
Jesus as savior **
patriarchs as equals within the church **
pope as head of the church **
no secular authority over church **

Use the drop-down menu to complete the sentence.
The Great Schism resulted most directly from the .


536 AD — the worst year in history

2020 has already been immortalised. It is a year that nobody will forget. However, when speaking of the worst year recorded in human history there are many to choose from:

The year 1349 saw the Black Death kill half the population of Europe.

In 1520 smallpox ravaged the Americas and killed between 60 and 90 per cent of the continents’ original inhabitants.

In 1918 the Spanish Flu led to the deaths of over 50 million people.

The rise of Hitler in 1933 is often claimed to be the turning point in modern history.

However, historians are unanimous in their choice. The title of the worst year in history is easily held by the year 536 AD.

Medieval historian, Michael McCormick has stated that “it was the beginning of one of the worst periods to be alive, if not the worst year.” (Science Magazine, Ann Gibbons, 2018).

The year began with an inexplicable, dense fog that stretched across the world which plunged Europe, the Middle East and parts of Asia into darkness 24 hours a day, for nearly 2 years.

Consequently, global temperatures plummeted which resulted in the coldest decade in over 2,000 years. Famine was rampant and crops failed all across Europe, Africa and Asia. Unfortunately, 536 AD seemed to only be a prelude to further misery. This period of extreme cold and starvation caused economic disaster in Europe and in 541 A.D. an outbreak of bubonic plague further led to the death of nearly 100 million people and almost half of the Byzantine Empire.

This part of the sixth century has widely been referred to as the Dark Ages, but the true source of this darkness had previously been unknown to scholars. Recently, researchers led by McCormick and glaciologist Paul Mayewski, have discovered that a volcanic eruption in Iceland in early 536 led to incredibly large quantities of ash being spread across much of the globe, creating the fog that cast the world into darkness. This eruption was so immense that it altered the global climate and adversely affected weather patterns and crop cultivation for years to come (Antiquity).


Chapter 8

Regarding Maps

1) Consider Map 8.1. Did the Ottomans become territorial heirs of the Byzantine Empire?

Yes: the contours of the Byzantine Empire at its height (Map 4.2, page 142) were nearly identical to those of the Ottoman Empire c. 1500 (with the important exception of southern Italy).

2) Consider Maps 8.2 and 8.3. Who prevailed in the first decades of the Hundred Years’ War? What does Map 8.3 tell us about English power in France in the 1420s? What would a map of this region in 1453 look like?

Map 8.2 reveals that the English prevailed in the first decades of the Hundred Years’ War. Map 8.3 shows that English power in France increased in the 1420s. In 1453, however, all English possessions on the Continent (except for a tiny bit at Calais) would have disappeared.

3) Consider Map 8.4. If you had been alive in 1476, would you have predicted a long life for the duchy of Burgundy?

It would have been hard to predict anything but glory for this duchy, which had gone from victory to victory since the mid-fourteenth century. On the other hand, you might notice that a coalition was building against it and that the duke had no son to succeed him. These might give you pause.

4) What can you say about the rule of the independent city-states of northern Italy from Map 8.5? Does the situation seem stable?

Venice, indicated by stripes, has become a land power extending nearly to Milan Florence is a Republic that has absorbed nearby cities Milan is a duchy with considerable territory. The Republic of Genoa includes Corsica. The situation is possibly stable, since the power of these city-states seems fairly equal. And, indeed, the Peace of Lodi of 1454 kept the peace for forty years.

5) Consider Map 8.6. From where did all the ships for these long-distance sea voyages depart? Why?

The ships departed from Portugal and Spain. The Portuguese royal house initiated long-distance sea voyages (for example, the one by Bartholomeu Dias to the Cape of Good Hope in 1487), but soon the Spanish house of Castile competed by supporting voyages that departed from Spain. The most famous of these was Columbus’s voyage to the west.

Regarding Plates

1) What is the theme of the woodcut in Plate 8.1? What events explain its preoccupation?

The theme of this woodcut is death. Events that may help to explain this preoccupation include the Great Famine (1315-1322) and the Black Death, which felled between one-fifth and one-half of the European population. Perhaps contemplation of the details of Christ’s death (as in Plate 8.4) led to rumination on ordinary human mortality as well.

2) Look at Plates 8.2 and 8.3. What new artistic and architectural ideals are visible here? What do art historians call this new style?

Plate 8.2 shows the biblical David as a young and beautiful boy. His graceful body is the focus, just as a young hero was the center of the Pompeiian wall painting of Theseus (see Plate 1.2 on page 34). The sculptor of David, Donatello, consciously harked back to such classical models and values. Plate 8.3 shows a building that owes little to the Gothic style that was still very popular. Its architect, Brunelleschi, strove to present a classical facade (some of his architectural motifs are visible in Plate 1.1 on page 33, another Pompeiian painting). Art historians call this new style, which emphasized the ancient values of fleshiness, grace, and proportion,“Renaissance.”

3) How is Plate 8.4 a work of Renaissance art?

The artist, Raphael, self-consciously draws upon the work of the great masters of his age–Michelangelo, Rogier van der Weyden–and of the classical past–the Meleager sarcophagus. Raphael’s bodies are emotional, fleshy, graceful, and proportional.

4) Consider Plate 8.5. How is it representative of Renaissance art? Does it draw at all on earlier precedents?

The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci takes place in a long hall reminiscent of classical architecture. The figures react emotionally to Christ’s statement that someone will betray him: there is emphasis on Christ’s earthly existence and his fleshy solidity. Although a product of the Renaissance, there were clear medieval precedents—in sculpture, as in Nicola Pisano’s scene of the Magi (Plate 7.8), and in the paintings of Giotto (Plate 7.10).

5) Why did Mehmed II choose to have his portrait (in Plate 8.6) painted by Gentile Bellini?

Mehmed saw himself as the successor of the Roman (and more recently the Byzantine) emperors and a Renaissance prince. In commissioning Bellini, he was acting like any wealthy Renaissance patron.

6) Looking at Plates 8.7, 8.8, and 8.9, discuss the varieties of art produced in the Duchy of Burgundy. Why were the visual arts so important there?

The visual arts were highly valued throughout the Middle Ages in the Renaissance they became even more important as a way for rulers and other influential people and institutions to advertise themselves. The dukes of Burgundy, whose state was patched together only by their personal rule, were particularly keen to surround themselves with pageantry and works of art that would telegraph their prestige and glory. The Alexander tapestry illustrated in Plate 8.7 was one of many that accompanied the duke on his travels, associating him with an ancient heroic ruler. The altarpiece of Plate 8.8 typifies the new expressivity that Netherlandish painters brought to religious art. Finally Plate 8.9 shows how the same immediacy and expressivity were employed in secular art.

Defining Terms

What do the following terms mean?

This Statute was issued in 1351 by King Edward III as a response to the social and economic effects of the plague in England. It forbade workers to take wages higher than those of pre-plague England, and it fined employers who offered more. The idea was to legislate against wage inflation, but the ploy did not work (see page 306).

This council met in 1414-1418 to end the Great Schism (1378-1417). It deposed the three rival popes and elected a new one, Martin V. It was also infamous for burning Jan Hus, the leader of the Czech church reform movement, as a heretic (see page 325).

The conversos were the “New Christians,” or converts, of Jewish heritage in late medieval Spain. Most came from families that had converted in the wake of the pogroms of 1391. Their worldly success and assimilation led to hostility from the Old Christians, and the Inquisition, set up in 1478, tortured and killed many (see page 327).

Literally “new devotion,” this religious movement developed in the Low Countries, the Rhineland, and northern Germany. Attracting both men and women, who lived in separate houses, it emphasized private reading and contemplation rather than public or communal religious devotion (see page 342).

The Jacquerie refers to the French peasant movement of 1358. It began in order to resist the “Free Companies”—mercenary soldiers hired during the Hundred Years’ War—which wreaked havoc on the countryside. But it soon turned into a revolt against the nobility, whom the peasants blamed for allowing the capture of the French king at Poitiers (1356) and, more generally, for leaving the countryside unprotected (see page 322).

Short-Answer Questions

1) Consider Genealogy 8.1. What does it tell us about the origins of the Hundred Years’ War?

Isabella, the daughter of Capetian King Philip IV, married King of England Edward II (1307-1327). Their son, Edward III, was in line for the French throne when Isabella’s brother Charles IV died in 1328. The French nobles awarded it instead to Philip VI, nephew of Philip IV, who became the first Valois king of France. Edward’s claims on the French throne were in large measure responsible for the outbreak of the Hundred Years’ War.

2) What were the social and economic effects of the Black Death?

The Black Death (1346-1353) killed between one fifth and one half of the European population. This led to acute labor shortages. Survivors of the plague took advantage of the situation, throwing off old servile obligations and striking favorable bargains with landlords, or joining guilds newly in need of workers. With their newfound wealth, men and women married at an earlier age than before, and, because of their sense of no tomorrow, they spent what they could on luxuries.

3) Explain why and how the Ottomans were successful in conquering Constantinople.

Long before they conquered Constantinople in 1453, the Ottomans had chipped away at most of the Byzantine Empire. Even though the Byzantines had reconstituted their state in 1261 after the devastation of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, it was fragile and divided. Byzantine factions gave the Ottomans an excuse to expand further on Byzantine soil. But even without this encouragement the Ottomans would very likely have conquered the capital. They were excellent warriors, with their Janissaries (crack armies made up of slaves), cannons, and muskets. Under Mehmed II, they had a leader who saw himself in the line of Roman emperors. When he conquered Constantinople, he considered himself its savior.

4) Why did the dukes of Burgundy, who were related to the French kings, support the English?

Philip the Bold, the first duke of Burgundy, was the brother of Valois King Charles V, but his grandson and later successors allied themselves with the English because England was the major trading partner of Flanders, an important territory and a major source of revenue for the Burgundian dukes.

5) In what ways was the Renaissance a new court style? In what ways was it a new urban movement?

Many fifteenth-century Italian cities were led by powerful lords, the signori at their courts, they cultivated Renaissance art to express their power and piety. For example, the signore of Milan Duke Ludovico il Moro was the patron of Leonardo da Vinci. But lords were not the only patrons who wanted their identities to be proclaimed by the new style. Urban institutions of all sorts were involved as well. For example, the Florentine Silk Guild sponsored the building of the Foundling Hospital by Brunelleschi.

6) How did the Great Schism (1378-1417) come about, and how was it resolved?

The scandal of the Avignon papacy was temporarily resolved when, in 1377, Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome. But a new scandal arose immediately upon his death in 1378 when two popes claimed power, one of whom remained in Rome, the other of whom went back to Avignon. This situation lasted until 1409, when the two popes were joined by a third. The crisis was resolved by the Council of Constance (1414-1418), which in 1417 deposed all the current popes and elected a new one, Martin V, who established himself in Rome.

Long-Answer Questions

1) Between 1350 and 1500, Europe was struck and bloodied by several disasters (wars, disease, famine). Yet, your textbook states, “By 1500, Europe was poised to conquer the globe.” What factors made this possible?

Some factors include:
• The economic upheaval that took place after the Black Death, while decimating the European population, allowed those who survived to amass new wealth. With it they sponsored major undertakings, such as artistic commissions and navigational experiments.
• In the aftermath of the wars super-princes came to the fore, ready to engage in high-stakes competition. Thus Portugal’s success in navigation inspired Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to find a rival seaman: Christopher Columbus.
• Technological advances (for example, the heavy galleon), the promise of great profits, and the hope of gaining glory and honor inspired rulers and adventurers to explore new horizons.
• The revival of interest in the ancient world at a cultural level encouraged people to explore new possibilities in their own world.

2) According to your textbook, “Everywhere … kings were intervening in church affairs.” What impact did this have on religion? On the papacy? On the church hierarchy in general?

Your answer might include these points:
• Royal intervention in church affairs enabled some popular religious movements to thrive, as happened at first with Wyclif and his followers.
• National churches began to form. For example, Charles VII declared himself the guarantor of church reform in France in the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438). The church hierarchy in France came to see itself more dependent on the king than on the pope.
• The papacy lost its unifying force. Theories of conciliarism—which held the church to be a corporate body—undermined the pope’s position as the source of spiritual authority.

3) What happened to turn Europeans’ passion for new goods and missionary opportunities away from the eastern trade routes fostered by the Mongols and toward the Atlantic?

Some points to consider:
• As the Mongol Empire disintegrated and the Ottomans took over the East, Europeans began to turn away from the trade routes fostered by the Mongols toward newly discovered routes.
• Even though Europeans traded with the Ottoman Empire, they saw it as an obstacle blocking the old routes to the Orient. Because they could do so, they changed their orientation to the West.
• New inventions in navigation and shipbuilding made it possible to travel faster and farther, more accurately and safely.
• The profits from cane sugar and the use of black African slave labor changed the goods for which Europeans were passionate.

4) Compare the causes and results of the various revolts in late medieval Flanders, France, and England.

Responses might include these points:
• In Flanders, the peasants were accustomed to a measure of self-government and refused to pay new taxes when they were imposed in the first quarter of the fourteenth century. They managed to remain independent of outside authority for a few years. But in 1328, they were defeated by a coalition of royal and papal forces. A few years later the weavers of Ghent revolted against their French-leaning overlords and took up the English cause. Tensions continued until Duke Philip the Good (1419-1467) allied himself with the English.
• In France, the peasant movement of 1358 resisted the Free Companies that wreaked havoc on the countryside and revolted against the nobility because they couldn’t properly secure the peace. The movement was brutally and quickly silenced.
• In England, the Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 began as a rebellion against a new poll tax and ended by demanding an end to serfdom. Although the revolt was quickly put down, the peasants gained their point, and serfdom gradually disappeared in England.
• Thus, everywhere global tensions allowed popular feeling to come to the fore.

5) Compare the causes and effects of popular religious movements in England and Bohemia.

Some considerations include:
• In England, theologian John Wyclif (c.1330-1384) argued that churchmen should have limited importance and that the laity should have more say in spiritual matters. For example, he wanted laypeople to have the right to read and interpret the Bible. At first Wyclif and his followers, later called Lollards, were embraced by the king, but soon the Lollards were declared heretics and largely suppressed during the fifteenth century.
• In Bohemia, Wyclif’s writings found an adherent in Jan Hus, who shaped Wyclif’s arguments to local needs. Arguing against the power of churchmen in Bohemia, Hus called for a reformed church based on the community of believers rather than the church hierarchy. Hus was burned as a heretic and the Hussites were persecuted. Nevertheless, many were protected by the Bohemian nobility. The movement ended with the creation of a Bohemian church, with its own special liturgy for the Mass.
• Thus, in both places, initial support from powerful elites helped give both Lollards and Hussites considerable importance.


4 View from Europe

The Western Church in Rome viewed this iconoclasm as undue Islamic influence on the Byzantines, and thus it contributed to their view of the Byzantines and Muslims as equally foreign. By the 11th century the Eastern and Western churches had split, and Constantinople was viewed by the Latin West as a foreign power with a foreign religion. Western Europeans not only invaded Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade of 1204, but they also offered little assistance when Constantinople was later besieged by the Turkish armies in 1453.


Watch the video: Crisis of the Third Century - Roman Emperors - Real Faces - Decius - Hostilian - narrated (January 2022).