Information

Bosnia & Herzegovina



History

After the Dayton Peace Accords brought an end to the war of 1992-1995, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) stood at a crossroads: the path of peace and reconciliation on one side the path to ethnic division and conflict on the other. The country’s stability was and remains critical for the future of Europe and for U.S. interests in the region. To this end, the United States has sought to help BiH develop the foundations for a pluralistic and democratic society and a robust and growing free-market economy.

Countering corruption remains a key challenge and is closely linked to the continued need for reconciliation. Politicians often use fear of other ethnic groups as a means of cloaking continued corruption. USAID programs focus on assisting BiH to achieve the economic and social reforms needed to implement the EU Reform Agenda.

Response: Rebuilding and Reintegration

The first decade after the war saw significant progress, from the rebuilding of BiH’s infrastructure to the establishment of state-level judicial institutions. Immediately after the war, USAID began targeted infrastructure projects to help restart businesses and assist citizens in returning to normal lives again. USAID assistance was instrumental in the repair of border bridges and large power plants. USAID also supported reconstruction and repair of water systems, schools, health clinics, roads, and power infrastructure–1,600 projects in all–and provided small grants and loans to enable minority refugees to return to their homes.

USAID’s initial business development loan program helped private businesses restart operations and provide jobs for citizens, and the reflows funded numerous other areas, such as deposit insurance, public sector accounting, agriculture production, and bank supervision, which stabilized and restored public confidence in the banking system. To ensure free and fair postwar elections, USAID provided training for citizens and election administrators, and provided domestic observers. USAID assistance also helped establish BiH’s first private, independent television network.

Since those first 10 years, USAID has continued to promote the rule of law and improve the effectiveness and responsiveness of institutions of governance improve the business environment and contribute to sustainable economic growth and assist BiH in becoming a more tolerant and pluralistic society. More recently, it has worked to help BiH increase its contributions to regional and global security.

Progress: Democratic and Economic Development on the EU Path

Since 1996, the U.S. Government, primarily through USAID, has provided more than $1.7 billion in assistance to support democratic, social, and economic progress in BiH and to advance the country toward its goal of Euro-Atlantic integration. BiH has made progress in re-building lives and infrastructure to allow citizens to enjoy an improved standard of living.

USAID’s economic development programs have promoted a competitive, market-oriented economy, with private sector-led job growth and improved governance for business activity. This includes support to targeted sectors in the economy—agriculture, wood and metal processing, textile, logistics/transport and tourism—as well as loan guarantee programs with commercial banks to unlock much-needed financial capital. On economic governance, USAID has helped BiH improve fiscal coordination and compliance at all levels of government. USAID has assisted BiH to establish a more transparent, modern system of direct taxation and collection of social benefits to create a more business-friendly environment. USAID has also promoted energy efficiency and improved energy policy to help BiH maximize its potential as a net energy exporter and to increase competition.

USAID’s democracy and governance assistance has helped BiH develop more functional and accountable institutions that meet citizens’ needs. Assistance has increased citizen participation in political and social decision-making through activities that strengthen the role of civil society. USAID has also assisted elected representatives to develop, draft, advocate and implement legislation and improve their responsiveness and accountability to their constituent. To support the rule of law, USAID projects have strengthened legal systems to provide transparent access to justice for all citizens.

To build trust across communities and at the national level, USAID’s reconciliation programs have engaged citizens from all walks of life – political, government, religious, and education officials, youth, women, religious communities, associations of war victims, and civil society groups – and provided opportunities for these BiH leaders and citizens to challenge their own beliefs then start transforming their communities.

USAID assistance is essential to ensuring BiH continues to advance and move beyond its complicated history to take its place alongside its Balkan neighbors as a member of the EU.


A Short History of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country with one of the richest history in the world. It was called Illyricum in ancient times when the Illyres or Illyrians (warlike Indo-European tribes) replaced the Neolithic population. Celtic migrated to the country and disposes some Illyrians and mixed with the natives in the 4th and 3rd centuries. Romans conquered the country in the late 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. Christianity entered the region in the end of the 1st century. The region of Dalmatia and Pannonia were included in the Western Roman Empire when the Roman Empire splits. The Ostrogoths conquered the region in 455 and embraced other tribes like the Alans and Huns. Emperor Justinian and the Byzantine Empire conquered the land in the late 6th century. Then Slavs invaded the Eastern Roman Empire in the 6th and 7th centuries settling it now as Bosnia and Herzegovina and the surrounding lands.

The first notable Bosnian ruler was Ban Kulin that strengthened the country&rsquos economy over nearly 3 decades and maintained peace and stability through out the country. The Ottoman Empire conquest of Europe in the first half of the 15th century posed a major threat to the Balkans. Bosnia fell in the year 1463 followed by Herzegovina in the year 1482. It marked a new era in the country that introduced another cultural, political, and religious framework.

Austria-Hungary was given the mandate to occupy and govern Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878 after the nearby countries fought, which aided by the Russians, the Ottoman Empire. The country was officially one of the 6 constituent republics that were established at the end of the war. The establishment was the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes that later changed to Yugoslavia. When the Germany occupied Yugoslavia in the World War II, Bosnia and Herzegovina were made part of Nazi-controlled Croatia. Bosnia and Herzegovina declared there independence from Yugoslavia in Dec. 1991.


Bosnia & Herzegovina - History

Bosna River at Mostar

The name Bosnia Herzegovina has been used as a regional designation, but Herzegovina has never had any precisely defined borders of its own. The region was simply called "Bosnia", until the Austro-Hungarian occupation at the end of the 19th Century.

The name "Bosnia" most probably comes from the name of the Bosna River, which was referred to in the Roman Era by the name "Bossina".

-- Roman Province of Illyricum

The earliest population of this region was known in ancient times as the Illyrians. Conflict between the Illyrians and Roman Republic began in the 3rd Century BC, during the Punic Wars, but Rome did not complete the annexation of the region until AD 9, during the reign of Emperor Augustus. During the early Roman Imperial period, Latin speaking settlers from all over the Roman Empire settled among the Illyrians, and Roman soldiers were often encouraged to retire there. By the third Century, many of the descendants of these Romanized Illyrians had joined the Roman military and had risen through the ranks to eventually become generals and even Roman Emperors!

  • Trajan Decius (ruled 249-251)
  • Hostilianus (ruled 251)
  • Claudius II (ruled 268-270)
  • Quintillus (ruled 270)
  • Aurelian (ruled 270-275)
  • Probus (ruled 276-282)
  • Diocletian (ruled 284-305)
  • Maximianus (ruled 286-305)
  • Galerius (ruled 305-311)
  • Constantine the Great (ruled 306-337)
  • Maximinus (ruled 308-313)
  • Jovian (ruled 363-364)
  • Valentinian I (ruled 364-375)
  • Valens (ruled 364-378)
  • Gratian (ruled 375-383)
  • Valentinian II (ruled 376-392)
  • Marcian (ruled 450-457)
  • Anastasius I (ruled 491-518)
  • Justin I (ruled 518-527)
  • Justinian I (ruled 527-565)

Overlapping dates from the late 3rd Century through the late 5th Century reflect the fact that at the time there were two Roman Emperors, one for the Western Empire and one for the Eastern Empire.

Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Illyrians were conquered by Slavic invaders. The Slavic invaders brought their tribal culture and pagan religion along with them, and today, quite a few place names have Slavic pagan origins. For example, Mt. Perun was named after the Slavic god of thunder and lightening. Eventually, the Slavic settlers and the Illyrians were all Christianized. The Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire regained control over the region, which continued through the 10th Century.

From the 10th Century, Bosnia Herzegovina was split between the Principalities of Serbia and Croatia, then they became a disputed territory between the Byzantine Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary (Huns). Finally, in the 14th Century, Bosnia became an independent Kingdom.

The Kingdom of Bosnia survived until the 15th Century, when the Byzantine Empire collapsed, with the fall of Constantinople, and the Ottoman Turks began their invasion of Europe.

Ottoman (Turkish) Empire (at its greatest extent)

The Ottoman Empire's annexation of Bosnia marked significant changes in the region's political and cultural landscape. Bosnia was incorporated as a province of the Ottoman Empire, and it was allowed to retain its historical name and territorial integrity, a unique case among the Turkish controlled states in the Balkans.

Within Bosnia the Turks introduced a number of key changes in the territory's social and political administration, including a new landholding system, a reorganization of administrative districts, and a system of social differentiation, based on class and religious affiliation. A number of cities were also established during Turkish rule, including Sarajevo and Mostar, which grew into regional centers of trade and urban culture.

The three centuries of Ottoman rule also had a drastic impact on Bosnia's population make-up, which changed several times as a result of military conquests, frequent wars with European powers, forced migrations, and epidemics. A native Slavic-speaking Muslim community emerged and eventually became the largest of the religious groups. Though Christianity was protected by imperial decree, Christian worship was not encouraged, and most of the Christian churches in Bosnia Herzegovina were closed.

The 18th and 19th Centuries were marked by military failures, numerous revolts within Bosnia Herzegovina, and several outbreaks of the plague. Agrarian unrest eventually sparked the Herzegovinian Rebellion, a widespread peasant uprising, in 1875. This rebellion quickly spread to several Balkan states, as well as to the European imperial powers, a situation which led to the Congress of Berlin and the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.

Austro-Hungarian Empire with Bosnia

Per the terms of the Treaty of 1878, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was awarded the military and administrative occupation of Bosnia Herzegovina. Though, technically, Bosnia was still considered a province of the Turkish Empire, it was now controlled by the imperial government in Vienna.

Austro-Hungarian authorities embarked on a number of social and administrative reforms which were intended to make Bosnia and Herzegovina into a "model colony". With the aim of establishing the province as a stable political model that would dissipate rising South Slav nationalism, Austro-Hungarian rule did much to codify laws, introduce new political practices, and provide for modernization. The Austro-Hungarian Empire built the three Roman Catholic churches in Sarajevo, and these three churches are among only 20 Catholic churches that remain in the state of Bosnia.

External matters began to affect the Bosnian Protectorate and its relationship with Austria-Hungary. A bloody coup occurred in Serbia, on June 10, 1903, which brought a radical anti-Austrian government into power in Belgrade. Serb attempts to foment agitation followed, advocating a unified South Slavic state, ruled from Belgrade. Also, a revolt in the Ottoman Empire in 1908 raised concerns that the Istanbul government might seek the outright return of Bosnia Herzegovina. These factors caused the Austrian-Hungarian government to seek a permanent resolution of the Bosnian question, sooner, rather than later.

On October 6, 1908, the Austro-Hungarian Empire seized the Turkish province of Bosnia, and it officially became a province of Austria-Hungary in 1909. Political tensions got progressively worse, and on June 28, 1914, a Serb nationalist assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo – the event that led to World War I.

After World War I, Bosnia Herzegovina joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which eventually became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.


The History of Bosnia & Herzegovina

A timeline mapping the history of Bosnia & Herzegovina.

SLAVIC HERITAGE

The Slavs spread to inhabit the Balkans during the 6th century. South Slavic ethnic groups lived mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a minority present in other countries of the Balkan Peninsula, including Serbia, Montenegro, and Croatia. Bosnia eventually became contested between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Byzantine Empire.

OTTOMAN RULE

After the death of Tvrtko I, and the subsequent collapse of the Kingdom of Bosnia, Murat I began his conquest of Bosnia. The Ottomans brought significant changes to the region, particularly with the introduction of Islam. By the early 1600s, almost two thirds of the population was Muslim. 

OTTOMAN EMPIRE FALLS

The Turkish revolution of 1908 to overthrow the Sultan’s autocratic power resulted in the imminent demise of Ottoman rule. Upon hearing that the Turk troops were marching on Istanbul, Abdul Hamid II surrendered. He was confined to captivity in Salonica until 1912, when he was returned to captivity in Istanbul.

FIRST BALKAN CRISIS

Following Bulgaria’s declaration of Independence from the Ottoman Empire, on the 6th of October 1908, the Austro-Hungarian Empire announced the annexation of Bosnia. As a direct violation of the Treaty of Berlin, this led to political uproar. The reaction towards the annexation of Bosnia would later prove to be a contributing cause to World War I.

BALKAN LEAGUE

An alliance was formed against the Ottoman Empire by Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia. The League managed to obtain control over all European Ottoman conquests. However, the differences between the allies soon resurfaced and the League promptly disintegrated. Soon thereafter, Bulgaria attacked its allies, instigating the Second Balkan War.

FRANZ FERDINAND KILLED

In June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated, alongside his wife. Shot dead by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, the political motive behind the assassination was simple: to break off Austria-Hungary’s South-Slav provinces, so that they could become part of Greater Serbia or Yugoslavia. The attack led to the outbreak of World War I.

EMPIRE COLLAPSES

At the end of World War I, Emperor Franz Joseph I’s Austro-Hungarian empire collapsed. This was owing to the growing opposition parties who supported the separatism of ethnic minorities, and opposed the monarchy as a form of government. In 1918, Bosnia became part of The Kingdom of Croats, Serbs and Slovenes, later renamed The Kingdom of Yugoslavia.


Famous Birthdays

    Husein Gradaščević, Bosniak general, born in Gradačac, Bosnia and Herzegovina (d. 1834) Omar Pasha [Michael Lats], Croatian governor/viceroy of Bosnia/Iraq

Gavrilo Princip

1894-07-25 Gavrilo Princip, Bosnian-Serb assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, born in Obljaj, Bosnia (d. 1918)

    Alija Izetbegović, Bosniak politician (d. 2003) Michael Rose, British army officer, born in British India Radovan Karadžić, Serbian-Bosnian politician Zdravko Čolić, Yugoslav-Bosnian singer, born in Sarajevo, FPR Yugoslavia Duško Tadić, Bosnian Serb politician and war criminal, born in Kozarac, Bosnia and Herzegovina Dino Merlin, Bosnian singer and songwriter, born in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Nele Karajlić, Bosnian singer (Zabranjeno pušenje), born in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Maja Tatić, Serbian-Bosnian singer, born in Belgrade, SFR Yugoslavia Hasan Salihamidžić, Bosnian soccer utility (42 caps Bayern Munich, 234 games, sporting director), born in Jablanica, Bosnia & Herzegovina Sead Ramović, German-born Bosnian footballer Deen [Fuad Backović], Bosnian singer and fashion designer, born in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia Nedžad Sinanović, Bosnian basketball player, born in Zavidovići, Bosnia and Herzegovina Mija Martina, Bosnian singer (Eurovision 2019 - "Ne Brini"), born in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina Robert Rothbart, Bosnian-Israeli Basketball Player Marija Šestić, Bosnian singer (Rijeka bez imena), born in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia

Austro-Hungarian rule

Administratively, Bosnia and Herzegovina was placed under the joint Austrian-Hungarian Ministry of Finance in Vienna. Many, predominantly Muslims (perhaps 100,000), emigrated, especially to Turkey. The Austrians modernized administration, the judiciary, communications and business, but did not implement any land reform. Many peasants were still alive to the great estates of the Muslim landowners.

The Austrians developed forestry and mining ( coal, copper, chrome, iron ). In 1913, there were 65,000 industrial workers in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Austrians let the three faiths govern themselves and have their own schools, but the Catholics were favored. In 1882, the Muslims gained their own religious rule under a leader (travel-ul-ulema). The Muslims tried to maintain their privileges by cooperating with the Austrians, and there were only scattered approaches to resistance.

Austrian-Hungarian Minister Benjámin Kállay, who administered Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1882-1903, developed the idea of ​​a Bosnian nationality of its own to counter Serbian and Croatian nationalism. But the influences from Serbia and Croatia were too strong. The relationship between Austria-Hungary and Serbia was aggravated by “Pig War” in 1906. Ungtyrkernes revolution in 1908 also contributed to Austria-Hungary’s decision to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina on 5 October the same year. The annexation led to fierce protests in Serbia, forming secret organizations, including “Association or Death” (called ” The Black Hand “), operating in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The annexation also led to an international crisis.

In 1909, Austria-Hungary and Turkey signed an agreement that gave Austria-Hungary full right over Bosnia-Herzegovina, but left Sandžak Novi Pazar to Turkey. Internally in Bosnia-Herzegovina, conditions were somewhat improved under Liberal Minister Baron Burián (1903-1912).

In 1910, Bosnia and Herzegovina became a separate administrative province with a provincial government in Sarajevo. A parliament was established and the Muslims, Serbs and Croats had their political parties. In Serbia and Croatia, anti-Austrian sentiment grew, and many advocated for South Slavic cooperation.



The Ottoman Empire was formed,by Bulgaria Greece Montenegro and Serbia, The League overcame all European Ottoman victories. However, differences between the allies soon recovered, and the league quickly dispersed. Shortly afterwards, Bulgaria attacked its allies, provoking other allies in the Balkan war.


At the end of World War I, Emperor Frances Joseph I ruled Austria’s Hungarian Empire. This was caused by growing opposition parties that supported the separation of ethnic minorities, and opposed the monarchy as a form of government. In 1918, Bosnia became part of the Kingdom of Croats, Serbs and Slovens, later renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

Bosnia-related


After the collapse of Yugoslavia, Croatia became, an independent state in 1941, and as a result Bosnia was annexed. However, during World War II, the Croats split on one side supporting the independent state of Croatia, and on the other the creation of Communist Yugoslavia.

Tattoo Libraries Bosnia And Herzegovina

In 1941, German forces annexed Hungary and Italy, invading Yugoslavia. Josip Brooks Tattoo urges all citizens of Yugoslavia to unite against the opposition. Tattoo supporters succeed in liberating the area. After World War II, tattoos were submitted, to the temporary government of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia in Belgrade.


2001 - 2002

FedEx begins operations in Finland, Sweden and Denmark.

FedEx begins operations in Norway.

The launch of a direct flight from Cologne to Memphis increases freight capacities from Europe to the US by 20%.

FedEx Corp. acquires ANC, a domestic express company in the United Kingdom. The company, now rebranded as FedEx Express UK, enables FedEx to serve the entire UK domestic market and is run as a wholly owned subsidiary of FedEx Express Europe.

FedEx Express acquires the Hungarian express company Flying Cargo Hungary Kft.

FedEx Express and Modec Electric Vans launch 10 new innovative battery powered vehicles for use across three FedEx Express London depots reducing FedEx carbon footprint by 90 tons of carbon per year.

FedEx Express also launches 10 hybrid Iveco electric commercial vehicles in Milan and Turin, Italy.

FedEx Express finalises a major expansion project at the Roissy-Charles de Gaulle hub, making it the second largest hub after Memphis (US).

FedEx Express introduces FedEx International Economy ® service for less time-sensitive shipments from more than 90 countries/territories around the globe.

FedEx Express opens a new, state-of-the-art hub at the Cologne/Bonn airport becoming the company’s new Central and Eastern European gateway and FedEx largest solar-powered hub worldwide.

FedEx Express launches an important new connection between Asia and Europe, with a direct roundtrip flight operating five days a week between Hong Kong and Paris – the first provider to offer a next-business-day service from Hong Kong to Europe.

FedEx Cares Week, a coordinated volunteer effort, begins in Europe. Since its US inception in 2005, the initiative has expanded to more than 40 countries/territories.

FedEx Express strengthens its commitment to the environment by opening a state-of-theart, eco-sustainable distribution centre in Machelen, Belgium.

FedEx Express launches new green delivery initiative in France by introducing seven electronically assisted tricycles for package deliveries and collections in three separate districts in Paris.

FedEx Express opens a new station in Belfast and launches a new daily flight offering next-day service to Europe and the East Coast of the US, as well as a two-business-day service to Asia and the rest of the US.


The History of Bosnia & Herzegovina

A timeline mapping the history of Bosnia & Herzegovina.

SLAVIC HERITAGE

The Slavs spread to inhabit the Balkans during the 6th century. South Slavic ethnic groups lived mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a minority present in other countries of the Balkan Peninsula, including Serbia, Montenegro, and Croatia. Bosnia eventually became contested between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Byzantine Empire.

OTTOMAN RULE

After the death of Tvrtko I, and the subsequent collapse of the Kingdom of Bosnia, Murat I began his conquest of Bosnia. The Ottomans brought significant changes to the region, particularly with the introduction of Islam. By the early 1600s, almost two thirds of the population was Muslim. 

OTTOMAN EMPIRE FALLS

The Turkish revolution of 1908 to overthrow the Sultan’s autocratic power resulted in the imminent demise of Ottoman rule. Upon hearing that the Turk troops were marching on Istanbul, Abdul Hamid II surrendered. He was confined to captivity in Salonica until 1912, when he was returned to captivity in Istanbul.

FIRST BALKAN CRISIS

Following Bulgaria’s declaration of Independence from the Ottoman Empire, on the 6th of October 1908, the Austro-Hungarian Empire announced the annexation of Bosnia. As a direct violation of the Treaty of Berlin, this led to political uproar. The reaction towards the annexation of Bosnia would later prove to be a contributing cause to World War I.

BALKAN LEAGUE

An alliance was formed against the Ottoman Empire by Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia. The League managed to obtain control over all European Ottoman conquests. However, the differences between the allies soon resurfaced and the League promptly disintegrated. Soon thereafter, Bulgaria attacked its allies, instigating the Second Balkan War.

FRANZ FERDINAND KILLED

In June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated, alongside his wife. Shot dead by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, the political motive behind the assassination was simple: to break off Austria-Hungary’s South-Slav provinces, so that they could become part of Greater Serbia or Yugoslavia. The attack led to the outbreak of World War I.

EMPIRE COLLAPSES

At the end of World War I, Emperor Franz Joseph I’s Austro-Hungarian empire collapsed. This was owing to the growing opposition parties who supported the separatism of ethnic minorities, and opposed the monarchy as a form of government. In 1918, Bosnia became part of The Kingdom of Croats, Serbs and Slovenes, later renamed The Kingdom of Yugoslavia.