Information

Martin Luther King Jr.


Martin Luther King Jr. was born in Atlanta, Georgia, on January 15, 1929. In 1964, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the youngest person ever to win that honor. In the presentation speech given by Gunnar Jahn, Chairman of the Nobel Committee, Jahn said of King,

“He is the first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence. He is the first to make the message of brotherly love a reality in the course of his struggle, and he has brought this message to all men, to all nations and races.”

Four years later, King was assassinated by James Earl Ray on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee.King's grandfather, on his mother's side, was A.D. Williams, the prominent minister of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. Michael King, born in 1897 into an impoverished family of nine children, had developed a desire to become a minister. Having begun a courtship of A.D. Williams' daughter Alberta, he was encouraged and supported by her parents in his religious quest. Michael King married Alberta Williams in 1926. Upon the death of A.D. Williams in 1931, Michael King became the minister of Ebenezer Baptist Church, making it even more successful than before. He soon changed his name to Martin Luther King Jr.Martin Luther King Jr. was the second of three children born into the family in the first four years of marriage. From his father, he learned to appreciate the need for political action as well as religious faith. King's schooling began at Yonge Street Elementary in Atlanta. Later he attended the Atlanta University Laboratory School and Booker T. Washington High School. Skipping the ninth grade and leaving high school early, King enrolled in Morehouse College while still 15 years old.Graduating from Morehouse in 1948, King next enrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania. He was senior class president of a predominantly white senior class and gave the valedictory address when he graduated with a Bachelor of Divinity degree in 1951. He proceeded to Boston University for doctoral studies and received his Ph.D. in 1955. He subsequently received 20 honorary doctorates from colleges and universities throughout the United States.In early 1952, King met Coretta Scott, the daughter of Alabama farmers. They were married in June 1953. Four children were produced by the marriage, two sons and two daughters.King had entered the ministry in 1948, but after finishing his doctorate, he accepted the position of pastor at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, where he served from September 1954 to November 1959.The turning point for King and the entire Civil Rights Movement came on December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to yield her seat on a Montgomery public bus to a white male. King and other prominent blacks in Montgomery decided that the time had arrived to take a stand. The organizers chose King to be their leader and the 381-day Montgomery bus boycott began.The boycott was challenged by the white legal system, as well as by violence. King's home was bombed on January 30, 1956. In February, 100 people were arrested for participating in a boycott, which was illegal under Alabama law. However, the boycott persisted and gradually the tide turned. The legal arguments against the boycott suffered reversals in court and the continued economic cost to the white business community led to its eventual triumph.Less than two months after the successful conclusion of the boycott, a group desiring to maintain the momentum that had been achieved formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), making King their president. The following month, he made his first international trip when he attended independence ceremonies in Ghana.Problems with the NAACP soon developed. A much more conservative organization, the NAACP opposed direct action and its head, Roy Wilkins, was concerned about the effect of a second black organization in the South.As the power of King's peaceful resistance campaigns became apparent, the white response was modified. In September, 1958, when King decided to serve a 14-day jail sentence rather than pay a $14 fine, the police commissioner paid it for him. The following year, King took a 30-day trip to India under the sponsorship of the Gandhi Memorial Trust.The SCLC was experiencing difficulties in organizing and fundraising, so in November 1959, King resigned his ministry in Montgomery and moved to Atlanta to devote his time to SCLC duties. The Civil Rights Movement gained new life in February 1960, when students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College requested to be served at a Woolworth lunch counter in Greensboro. When they were refused service, they stayed in their seats. That form of protest generated a new name, "sit-in," and sparked similar protests in other states. In order to give the student protesters their own organization, King agreed to the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, pronounced "snick") later in the year.In October 1960, King was arrested in Atlanta and sentenced to four months in the Georgia state prison in Reidsville. Presidential Candidate John F. Kennedy called King’s wife to express his support. King was released after serving eight days. The following spring, he agreed to a compromise desegregation plan for Atlanta.In May 1961, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) began Freedom Rides in the South. The riders were met with violence in Anniston and Birmingham, Alabama. That summer, a Voter Education Program was established that included SCLC and other black organizations. Voter registration efforts were carried on throughout the South with varying degrees of success.The church bombing in Birmingham in December turned King's attention to Birmingham. Protests were organized and met with the egregious behavior of Birmingham Chief of Police "Bull" Connor. King was jailed for nine days, during which he composed his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail.Following the events in Birmingham, King began to organize a massive demonstration in Washington, D.C. It finally took place on August 28, 1963, on the Capitol Mall, with a crowd of 200,000 in attendance. At that event, King delivered his most famous oration, the I Have a Dream speech. The most memorable portion of that speech began towards then end:

And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal."I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.I have a dream today!

The next few years brought mixed results. National legislation, such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, secured many of the rights that King had been fighting for, but the progress of the Vietnam War convinced King that the war must be opposed as a racist undertaking. His opposition to the war was not popular with all of his supporters. SNCC abandoned his non-violent approach in 1966, purging the organization of white members and openly advocating violence.In early 1968, King was invited to Memphis to assist the striking sanitation workers. A demonstration on March 18 was a disorderly failure, but King was trying again when he was shot on the balcony of his motel room around 5:30 p.m. on April 3, 1968.The assassination cemented King's legacy. Even though later revelations would show that his doctoral thesis was partly plagiarized and that he had indulged in numerous adulteries, he will forever be remembered for the Montgomery bus boycott, the I Have a Dream speech, his commitment to non-violent action in the struggle for black equality, and the Nobel Peace Prize he received. Since 1986, the federal government has celebrated his birthday as a national holiday.


Martin Luther King Jr.

M artin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929-April 4, 1968) was born Michael Luther King, Jr., but later had his name changed to Martin. His grandfather began the family’s long tenure as pastors of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, serving from 1914 to 1931 his father has served from then until the present, and from 1960 until his death Martin Luther acted as co-pastor. Martin Luther attended segregated public schools in Georgia, graduating from high school at the age of fifteen he received the B. A. degree in 1948 from Morehouse College, a distinguished Negro institution of Atlanta from which both his father and grandfather had graduated. After three years of theological study at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania where he was elected president of a predominantly white senior class, he was awarded the B.D. in 1951. With a fellowship won at Crozer, he enrolled in graduate studies at Boston University, completing his residence for the doctorate in 1953 and receiving the degree in 1955. In Boston he met and married Coretta Scott, a young woman of uncommon intellectual and artistic attainments. Two sons and two daughters were born into the family.

In 1954, Martin Luther King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Always a strong worker for civil rights for members of his race, King was, by this time, a member of the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the leading organization of its kind in the nation. He was ready, then, early in December, 1955, to accept the leadership of the first great Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the United States, the bus boycott described by Gunnar Jahn in his presentation speech in honor of the laureate. The boycott lasted 382 days. On December 21, 1956, after the Supreme Court of the United States had declared unconstitutional the laws requiring segregation on buses, Negroes and whites rode the buses as equals. During these days of boycott, King was arrested, his home was bombed, he was subjected to personal abuse, but at the same time he emerged as a Negro leader of the first rank.

In 1957 he was elected president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization formed to provide new leadership for the now burgeoning civil rights movement. The ideals for this organization he took from Christianity its operational techniques from Gandhi. In the eleven-year period between 1957 and 1968, King traveled over six million miles and spoke over twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest, and action and meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous articles. In these years, he led a massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention of the entire world, providing what he called a coalition of conscience. and inspiring his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”, a manifesto of the Negro revolution he planned the drives in Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters he directed the peaceful march on Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address, “l Have a Dream”, he conferred with President John F. Kennedy and campaigned for President Lyndon B. Johnson he was arrested upwards of twenty times and assaulted at least four times he was awarded five honorary degrees was named Man of the Year by Time magazine in 1963 and became not only the symbolic leader of American blacks but also a world figure.

At the age of thirty-five, Martin Luther King, Jr., was the youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize. When notified of his selection, he announced that he would turn over the prize money of $54,123 to the furtherance of the civil rights movement.

On the evening of April 4, 1968, while standing on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis, Tennessee, where he was to lead a protest march in sympathy with striking garbage workers of that city, he was assassinated.

Selected bibliography

Adams, Russell, Great Negroes Past and Present, pp. 106-107. Chicago, Afro-Am Publishing Co., 1963.

Bennett, Lerone, Jr., What Manner of Man: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Chicago, Johnson, 1964.

I Have a Dream: The Story of Martin Luther King in Text and Pictures. New York, Time Life Books, 1968.

King, Martin Luther, Jr., The Measure of a Man. Philadelphia. The Christian Education Press, 1959. Two devotional addresses.

King, Martin Luther, Jr., Strength to Love. New York, Harper & Row, 1963. Sixteen sermons and one essay entitled “Pilgrimage to Nonviolence.”

King, Martin Luther, Jr., Stride toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story. New York, Harper, 1958.

King, Martin Luther, Jr., The Trumpet of Conscience. New York, Harper & Row, 1968.

King, Martin Luther, Jr., Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? New York, Harper & Row, 1967.

King, Martin Luther, Jr., Why We Can’t Wait. New York, Harper & Row, 1963.

“Man of the Year”, Time, 83 (January 3, 1964) 13-16 25-27.

“Martin Luther King, Jr.”, in Current Biography Yearbook 1965, ed. by Charles Moritz, pp. 220-223. New York, H.W. Wilson.

Reddick, Lawrence D., Crusader without Violence: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. New York, Harper, 1959.

From Nobel Lectures, Peace 1951-1970, Editor Frederick W. Haberman, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1972

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.

* Note from Nobelprize.org: This biography uses the word “Negro”. Even though this word today is considered inappropriate, the biography is published in its original version in view of keeping it as a historical document.

Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1964

To cite this section
MLA style: Martin Luther King Jr. – Biography. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2021. Sun. 27 Jun 2021. <https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/1964/king/biographical/>

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Hero for All: Martin Luther King, Jr.

Civil Rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., never backed down in his stand against racism. Learn more about the life of this courageous hero who inspired millions of people to right a historical wrong.

A hero is born

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was born in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1929. At the time in that part of the country, segregation—or the separation of races in places like schools, buses, and restaurants—was the law. He experienced racial predjudice from the time he was very young, which inspired him to dedicate his life to achieving equality and justice for Americans of all colors. King believed that peaceful refusal to obey unjust law was the best way to bring about social change.

Marching Forward

King and his wife, Coretta Scott King, lead demonstrators on the fourth day of a historic five-day march in 1965. Starting in Selma, Alabama, where local African Americans had been campaigning for the right to vote, King led thousands of nonviolent demonstrators 54 miles to the state capitol of Montgomery.

Brave sacrifices

King was arrested several times during his lifetime. In 1960, he joined Black college students in a sit-in at a segregated lunch counter. Presidential candidate John F. Kennedy interceded to have King released from jail, an action that is credited with helping Kennedy win the presidency.

Speaking out

King inspires a large crowd with one of his many speeches. Raised in a family of preachers, he's considered one of the greatest speakers in U.S. history.

INSPIRING OTHERS

King waves to supporters from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. during the March on Washington. There, he delivered the "I Have a Dream" speech, which boosted public support for civil rights.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr, remembered

Making history

President Lyndon B. Johnson shakes King's hand at the signing of the landmark 1964 Civil Rights Act, which outlawed racial segregation in publicly owned facilities.

FAMILY LIFE

King his wife, Coretta Scott King, sit with three of their four children in their Atlanta, Georgia, home in 1963. His wife shared the same commitment to ending the racist system they had both grown up under.

A win for peace

King receives the Nobel Prize for Peace from Gunnar Jahn, president of the Nobel Prize Committee, in Oslo, Norway, on December 10, 1964.

Remembering a hero

A crowd of mourners follows the casket of King through the streets of Atlanta, Georgia, after his assassination in April 4, 1968. King was shot by James Earl Ray on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel. Americans honor the civil rights activist on the third Monday of January each year, Martin Luther King Day.

PHOTOGRAPHS BY: COURTESY THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS BEN MARTIN, TIME LIFE PICTURES / GETTY IMAGES HORACE CORT JULIAN WASSER, TIME LIFE PICTURES / GETTY IMAGES AFP, GETTY IMAGES HULTON ARCHIVE / GETTY IMAGES COURTESY ASSOCIATED PRESS COURTESY KEYSTONE / GETTY IMAGES COURTESY HULTON ARCHIVE / GETTY IMAGES


Contents

    : A section of Alabama State Route 14 is called Martin Luther King Drive, also known interchangeably as Loachapoka Road. : The portion of US 431 between Ross Clark Circle and its conjunction with US 231 is referred to as Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. : On Mobile's northside area, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue runs from Congress Street in downtown Mobile up to the intersections of Craft Highway and Saint Stephens Road. The section was formerly known as Davis Avenue from Congress Street to Bizell Avenue, and Stone Street from Bizell Ave. to Saint Stephens Road. : Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Expressway is I-85 from the Eastern Blvd to the I-65 interchange : Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Street in Scottsboro runs north–south on the northwest side of town. : In 1976, Sylvan Street was renamed Martin Luther King Street. King spent many days along Sylvan Street working for civil rights in the 1960s, especially by speaking at First Baptist Church and Brown Chapel. Brown Chapel is the background in a famous Time magazine photograph of King in the 1960s. Today, there is a monument honoring King in front of Brown Chapel. Brown Chapel was also the beginning of the route of the infamous Bloody Sunday march. Ironically, the street crosses Jefferson Davis Avenue, named after the president of the Confederacy.
    : At 95th Avenue & Maryland from 95th to 91st Avenue the road was renamed to Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard by the city of Glendale in 2016 [6] : Phoenix was one of the last major cities not to have a major street named after Martin Luther King, Jr. In 2015, a 13-mile stretch of Broadway Road in the predominately Black and Hispanic South Phoenix neighborhood was unofficially renamed Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard between 67th Avenue and 48th Street. Broadway retains its original name, as the MLK Boulevard street signs are mainly posted at intersections with a traffic light. [7] : M. L. K. Jr. Boulevard runs by the Copper Sky Recreation Center. : Martin Luther King Jr. Parkway runs east to west between Moorman and Arizona State Route 90, passing Veteran's Memorial Park. : M L King Jr. Way at the UA Tech Park at The Bridges, south of 36th Street near Kino Parkway. [8]
    : N.E. Martin Luther King Jr. Pkwy. runs approx. 0.7 mi. from S.E. 5th St. at its southern end, crossing E. Central Ave. (AR-72), to N.E. John Deshields Blvd. at its northern end. : Fayetteville City Council voted in January 2008 to officially rename Sixth Street, which passes through the city's historically black neighborhood as well as the southern boundary of the University of Arkansas campus, to Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard. Part of the road is designated as Arkansas Highway 180. : The former Honeysuckle Lane in Forrest City was renamed Martin Luther King Drive. : Sections of US 270 and US 70 are named Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Expressway. : Commerce Drive (Arkansas Highway 18 Spur) between East Highland Drive (Arkansas Highway 18) and Interstate 555 (Joe N. Martin Expressway) was officially renamed Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive in December 2019. Future extensions of Commerce Drive will be renamed in MLK's honor. An overpass on Red Wolf Blvd/Stadium Blvd (US Highway 49/Arkansas Highway 1) interchange over Interstate 555 was also named for Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in August 2011. : East and West MLK Drive runs northwest–southeast through most of Kensett. : In 1992, High Street was renamed Martin Luther King Jr. Drive. The street, which begins next to the Arkansas State Capitol building, is home to parades and community events. Martin Luther King Jr. Interdistrict Magnet Elementary School is located on the street. : US 270 Business Loop is named Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard. It becomes Oliver Lancaster Boulevard when crossing into the neighboring city of Rockport. As the cities' boundaries meet multiple times, a driver can be on MLK Jr. Blvd., then Lancaster Blvd., then back on MLK Jr. Blvd. without ever turning off the highway. : See Texarkana, Texas. : Martin Luther King Drive runs from US 70 to Mound City Road. It junctions with I-55 and I-40 and is also where all the truck stops in West Memphis are.
    : Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard travels from California Avenue south to Brundage Lane. : Martin Luther King Drive in Hayward travels north–south from Cannery Park to Winton Avenue. : Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue (shortened as Martin L. King Avenue) runs north–south in the Eastside of Long Beach between East 7th Street and East 21st Street. This portion was originally named California Avenue, although the former name is still in use Martin L. King Avenue continues as California Avenue once it enters the enclave of Signal Hill before re-entering Long Beach, retaining the original name. : In 1983, Santa Barbara Avenue in the South Region of Los Angeles was renamed Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, three years before U.S. PresidentRonald Reagan signed a law to declare Martin Luther King's birthday a national holiday. That event was celebrated by the first ever Kingdom Day Parade, years later they made the event an annual tradition. It is held on the street between Crenshaw Boulevard and Western Avenue either turning point at the Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza shopping mall. [9] Due to the length of Dr. King's name, the roadway name is often abbreviated as King Blvd. on its traffic signs and sometimes called MLK Blvd. Running east–west, MLK Boulevard begins as a major thoroughfare at Obama Boulevard (formerly Rodeo Road), running until Central Avenue. From Central Avenue, it continues as a residential street in two discontinuous segments due to the presence of Jefferson High School: between Central and Hooper Avenue, and then from Compton Avenue to Alameda Street. : A portion of Century Boulevard was renamed Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard within the Lynwood city limits.
  • Merced, California. Formerly J Street, Martin Luther King, Jr. Way is the north/south State Route 59.
    : runs east–west from a dead end as Elm Ave. then curves to run north–south as Martin Luther King Dr. and sometimes abbreviated to S M.L.K. Dr. to change name to Sutter Ave. after crossing Paradise Rd. to a dead end on the west side. and Berkeley: Grove Street, which stretched for several miles north from Downtown Oakland into North Berkeley, was renamed Martin Luther King, Jr. Way in 1983-4. Berkeley made the change by resolution of the city council on November 8, 1983. [10] The street had once represented the dividing line between neighborhoods where minorities could and could not live or buy property. The street begins shortly before Embarcadero West in Oakland near the city's port, and continues through Berkeley until crossing over Codornices Creek, where it becomes The Alameda. : In November 1993, the Riverside City Council voted to rename a portion of Pennsylvania Avenue and Box Springs Boulevard to Martin Luther King Boulevard. [11] It runs from Kansas Avenue to Interstate 215. : Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard travels from Broadway south to Franklin Boulevard. It is crossed by SR 99. It was originally named Sacramento Boulevard. :
    • Market Street was briefly renamed Martin Luther King Jr. Way in 1986, before reverting to its previous name later.
    • In 1989, a portion of SR 94 was renamed the Martin Luther King Jr. Freeway, designated between I-5 and SR 125.
    • In 2010 members of the Broadway Heights community in San Diego renamed Weston Street after King. Martin Luther King Jr. Way is a one-block street connecting Charlene and Tiffin Avenues.
      : A freeway segment of US Route 24 is named Martin Luther King Jr. Bypass. and Aurora: Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard is a major street running through the eastern part of Denver, terminating on the west at Downing Street. It is a divided parkway that was formerly East 32nd Avenue. East of Quebec Street the street shifts slightly southward into the alignment of the former East 30th Avenue, passing through the Central Park neighborhood. At its eastern terminus, it follows the south edge of Bluff Lake Nature Park and then turns south into the alignment of East 26th Avenue, straddling the border between Denver and Aurora on its final two blocks before reaching its eastern terminus at Peoria Street.
      : Martin Luther King Drive is the name for the section of Connecticut Route 71 between Main Street and Stanley Street. : Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, formerly North Frontage Road, is a westward one-way main entrance into New Haven, home of Yale University. The name was successfully dedicated in 2011 through continuous efforts by New Haven's Muslim alderman Yusuf Shah. [12][13] Exits off of I-91 and I-95 take drivers onto the boulevard into downtown New Haven, which then terminates at West River Memorial Park. The road is also designated as Connecticut Route 34. : Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive is located in South Norwalk. It is one of the busiest streets in the area and many popular places are located on it, notably the South Norwalk train station.
      : Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard begins at Federal Street as a one-way pair that passes Delaware Legislative Hall before becoming a four-lane divided highway that crosses the St. Jones River and heads east to intersect US 13 before ending at Bay Road a short distance later, where the road becomes South Little Creek Road. On January 19, 2013, the city of Dover renamed Court Street, Duke of York Street, and William Penn Street near Delaware Legislative Hall to Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard. Originally Delaware Route 8 (Division Street) was to be renamed Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, but merchants opposed. [14] : West Fourth Street is co-signed as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way. On February 28, 2020, the honorific street signs were unveiled in a ceremony. [15] : Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard connects Lancaster Avenue to Front Street, traveling from I-95 to the Wilmington Amtrak Station at US 13 Business. It provides a gateway for the New Castle County suburbs to Wilmington's waterfront, downtown, and the transit hubs from I-95. Eastbound (inbound) lanes connect with Lancaster Avenue and form part of eastbound Delaware Route 48 (with the westbound direction of the route along Second Street), and are therefore able to draw from both exit 6 off of I-95, and the surrounding urban neighborhoods of Wilmington that lie west of downtown. Westbound (outbound) lanes of MLK Jr. Boulevard terminate at, and merge directly with I-95, providing a direct link between city and highway only. Wilmington Boulevard was renamed Martin Luther King Boulevard in 1989. [16]
      : Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue is a four-block long residential street on the northeast side of Bonifay. : Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard (formerly Summit Street) is entirely former County Road 581A (Hernando County, Florida) from US 41 to US 98/State Road 50A. : Martin Luther King Jr Avenue runs north–south in Downtown Clearwater, from Harbor Drive to Jasper Street. North of the Cleveland Street intersection, it is North Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue and south of the intersection it is South Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue. : Martin Luther King Jr Avenue runs east–west in Downtown Crestview, from Lloyd Street to Main Street. The street turns into Chestnut Ave, once east of Main Street. : Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard was originally East Main Avenue from 14th Street to the Moore-Mickens Education Center. : Dr. Martin Luther King Boulevard (formerly Anderson Avenue) is Florida State Road 82, from US 41 near the Caloosahatchee River bridge east to I-75. : Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard loops around the west side of Fort Walton Beach, ending near Northwest Florida State College. : Gadsden County Road 270 is Martin Luther King Boulevard for five blocks as it passes through Gretna. : The Martin Luther King Jr. Parkway is a freeway bypass around downtown Jacksonville, carrying US 1 Alternate. area: North 62nd Street (East 9th Street in Hialeah) is called Martin Luther King Boulevard since he gave speeches all across the South, including the city of Miami. It is unknown when the road got this name. But some Hialeah residents say it was in the middle of the 1970s. : Martin Luther King Boulevard replaces parts of Cove Boulevard and State Road 77. : In the northern part of Port St. Joe, Martin Luther King Boulevard is a residential street running north–south nine blocks. It forms an extension of David Langston Drive. : 4th Street in Safety Harbor has been renamed Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Street North, although it is an east–west street running about a mile across town. : Martin Luther King Avenue runs from north to south through southwestern St. Augustine. : The St. Petersburg City Council gave Ninth Street the additional name of M.L. King Jr. Street in 1987 in 2003, the street was fully renamed Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Street. [17] : Martin Luther King Boulevard runs east from North Tamiami Trail to Tuttle Avenue. : 18th Street in Springfield is named Martin Luther King Jr. Drive. It runs north south through about two-thirds of Springfield from Washington Street on the north, to Morgan Avenue at its south end. : On April 11, 1968, one week after the assassination, Tampa became the first city to rename a street, with the city council voting unanimously "to change the name of Main Street, between North Boulevard and MacDill Avenue to Dr. Martin Luther King Boulevard in honor of the assassinated Negro leader." [18] In 1989, the name was extended further eastward to include the entire stretch of Buffalo Avenue from Drew Park to Plant City was renamed "Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard", [19][20] also designated as State Road 574. Notable attractions include Raymond James Stadium. : Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard runs north and south through Tallahassee, Florida. A portion of S. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard runs just blocks west of the State Capitol. [21] : Martin Luther King Jr. Drive runs across Tarpon Springs, from US 19 west to Whitcomb Bayou.
      : US 19 through Americus is named Martin Luther King Boulevard. The city was reluctant to grant the name, until black community leaders threatened to boycott Americus businesses. [22] : Martin Luther King Jr. Drive [22] in Atlanta (King's hometown) runs east–west through the city. Beginning at the Chattahoochee River, it continues from Mableton Parkway in Cobb County, then runs through unincorporated Fulton County before entering the city limits. In Atlanta, ML King Drive goes through the West side, West End and downtown before reaching its east end at Oakland Avenue near Oakland Cemetery. The alignment of ML King Drive follows what was originally Gordon Road (SR 139), Mozley Drive and then Hunter Street. It is a major landmark for tourism, as it borders the Atlanta University Center, a conglomerate of historically black colleges and universities that includes King's alma mater Morehouse College. : M. L. King Drive is a residential street running east-to-west nearly the entire length of Arlington. : The Dr. Martin Luther King Parkway runs alongside a park along the North Oconee River in Athens. A previous plan to rename Reese Street after King was rejected by African-American residents of Athens, who opposed having King's name associated with what they described as a "drug-infested" street. [22] : Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard serves as a connector, linking Georgia State Route 4 (known as Milledgeville Road southwest of this intersection and 15th Street/Ruth B. Crawford Highway north-northeast of it) with Old Savannah Road and Twiggs Street. : Planter Street is named Martin Luther King Drive, running east out to Old Whigham Road. : The Georgia State Route 39 bypass of Blakely is named Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard. : Georgia State Route 137 running north out of Butler is Martin Luther King Boulevard. : M.L.K. Jr. Drive is an east–west street that crosses Joe Frank Harris Parkway north of the Market Square shopping plaza. : US 278/SR 6 is named Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard between US 27 Bus. and US 27. : Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd (most of which was renamed from Brookhaven Blvd in 1978) runs from 10th Ave (where it turns into 10th St) to Lawyers Lane, in which the road turns into Brookhaven Blvd. : In Davisboro, 5th street is also marked "M. L. King Jr. Street". : Crawford Street east of Tenille Avenue becomes MLK Jr. Drive, running east–west out the east side of town. : The portion of Myrtle Street through the center of Gainesville was renamed Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard in 2000 after women activists in town petitioned for the change. Businesses along the street had blocked this change three times previously. [22] : US 41 is co-designated as Martin Luther King Jr. Parkway when it enters Spalding County from Pike County at the rural junction with County Line Road, southwest of Griffin's city limits, continuing north through the westside of Griffin, reverting to the single designation US 41 as it passes the junction with SR92 in northwest Griffin : Macon County Route 69 running west out of Ideal is named Martin Luther King Jr. Drive. : A cul-de-sac running north off Fairground Road is named Martin Luther King Drive. : US 80 is designated Martin Luther King Boulevard, south of the Ocmulgee River. : Martin Luther King Jr Drive runs east–west a mile north of the downtown area, running from Georgia State Route 22 (Glynn Street) to Elbert Street. : Montezuma boasts a Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, a residential street running for three blocks on the west side of town. : Martin Luther King Drive is a semi-rural residential street running north south between US 41 and SR 224. It continues south out of Perry as Elko Road. : Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard is a major north–south thoroughfare on the west side of Savannah, running from the Savannah River south to Exchange Street. It was renamed from West Broad Street in 1990, and was significant as being the hub of Black-owned businesses serving Savannah. Martin Luther King, Jr. is the name of the south-side section of Social Circle Highway. : when Georgia State Route 256 enter into southeast Sylvester, it is co-designated East Martin Luther King Jr. Drive. While SR 256 terminates at Sylvester's Main Street, the Martin Luther King Jr. Drive designation continues as a Sylvester residential street for a further five blocks to the west. : Martin Luther King Drive is a main residential street running north–south on the west side of Thomasville. : Martin Luther King Jr. Street is a main residential street in Thomson, running north–south, parallel to US 78. : Martin Luther King Circle is a residential cul-de-sac about 1/2 block long, off Bunche Drive. : Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard runs from the Middle Georgia State University satellite campus east to US 129. It continues as Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard east onto Robins Air Force Base.
      : Walnut Street is also named Dr. Martin Luther King Avenue in Cairo. It runs from St. Mary's Park southeast to Jefferson Avenue. : Chicago became the first city in the world to name a street after King in 1968. [3] Today, Martin Luther King Jr. Drive (formerly South Park Way, and originally Grand Boulevard) features a tribute to the Great Northern Migration (a statue honoring the tens of thousands of Blacks who migrated from the US South north to Chicago) and a Victory Monument for the Eighth Regiment (featuring a statue of a World War I Black soldier). Simply referred to as King Drive by locals, it runs from Cermak Road (22nd Street) to 115th Street in the South Side. On the Chicago grid, it runs at 400 east. : Martin Luther King Jr. Drive runs north to south through the city of Decatur, paralleling Bus. US 51, a few blocks east. : US 67 is designated as Martin Luther King Drive over most of its length. : Elgin Bypass through the city of Elgin was named by State legislators "Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Highway" in 2009. [23] : 22nd Street is named Martin Luther King Jr. Drive from Sheridan Road to Illinois Route 43 (Waukegan Road). Martin Luther King Jr. Drive is just outside of Great Lakes Naval Training Center and near Recruit Training Command (U.S. Navy boot camp). : 18th Street is named Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, forming a major north–south residential street in Springfield. : Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue runs through downtown Waukegan between Belvidere Road and Julian Street.
      : Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, formerly Guthrie Street, runs from Michigan Street to Cline Avenue. [24] : Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive in Elkhart runs east–west from Main Street to S. 6th Street. : Martin Luther King Jr Blvd. runs northwest–southeast from downtown in Evansville. The Ford Center is at the corner of MLK Jr. Blvd and Main Street. : Martin Luther King Drive runs north–south on the east side of the city, connecting Tennessee and Ohio Streets on the north with 37th Street at its south end. : Northwestern Avenue was renamed Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Street in 1985. There have been recent proposals to extend the name much further, replacing Michigan Road. [25] : Martin Luther King Drive is a one-and-a-half block residential street on the northeast side of town. : Martin Luther King Drive runs east–west in Michigan City from North Karwick Road to US 12. It forms the northern edge of Pottawatomie Park. : Since 2017, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard has followed the former St. Joseph Street from Western Avenue to Lasalle Avenue (Business US 20) and a former portion of Michigan Street from Lasalle Avenue to Marion Street. This is a part of the former northbound route of SR 933. From 2005 to 2017, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive followed the former Chapin Street from Washington Street to Lincoln Way West (Business US 20). [26]
      : Martin Luther King Jr. Parkway (formerly Harding Road) originally traveled from Madison Avenue in the North Central part of the city south to Ingersoll Avenue near Downtown. Later, a new bypass was built just south of Downtown and was also named Martin Luther King Jr. Parkway. To connect the original parkway to the new beltway, an extension of the original street was built south of Ingersoll by constructing an underpass at Grand Avenue, bridges over the Raccoon River, and a new "T" intersection at Fleur Drive and the new Martin Luther King Jr. Parkway (beltway section). A left turn (to travel eastbound) is required at Fleur Drive to continue on Martin Luther King Jr. Parkway (Fleur Drive continues south). The new beltway extension of Martin Luther King Jr. Parkway is an east–west route that currently ends at S.E. 30th Street, east of the downtown area.

    The "Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. memorial highway" includes various portions: [27]


    10 Things You May Not Know About Martin Luther King Jr.

    1. King’s birth name was Michael, not Martin.
    The civil rights leader was born Michael King Jr. on January 15, 1929. In 1934, however, his father, a pastor at Atlanta’s Ebenezer Baptist Church, traveled to Germany and became inspired by the Protestant Reformation leader Martin Luther. As a result, King Sr. changed his own name as well as that of his 5-year-old son.

    2. King entered college at the age of 15.
    King was such a gifted student that he skipped grades nine and 12 before enrolling in 1944 at Morehouse College, the alma mater of his father and maternal grandfather. Although he was the son, grandson and great-grandson of Baptist ministers, King did not intend to follow the family vocation until Morehouse president Benjamin E. Mays, a noted theologian, convinced him otherwise. King was ordained before graduating college with a degree in sociology.

    3. King received his doctorate in systematic theology.
    After earning a divinity degree from Pennsylvania’s Crozer Theological Seminary, King attended graduate school at Boston University, where he received his Ph.D. degree in 1955. The title of his dissertation was 𠇊 Comparison of the Conceptions of God in the Thinking of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Wieman.”

    4. King’s &aposI Have a Dream&apos speech was not his first at the Lincoln Memorial.
    Six years before his iconic oration at the March on Washington, King was among the civil rights leaders who spoke in the shadow of the Great Emancipator during the Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom on May 17, 1957. Before a crowd estimated at between 15,000 and 30,000, King delivered his first national address on the topic of voting rights. His speech, in which he urged America to “give us the ballot,” drew strong reviews and positioned him at the forefront of the civil rights leadership.

    5. King was imprisoned nearly 30 times.
    According to the King Center, the civil rights leader went to jail 29 times. He was arrested for acts of civil disobedience and on trumped-up charges, such as when he was jailed in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1956 for driving 30 miles per hour in a 25-mile-per-hour zone.

    6. King narrowly escaped an assassination attempt a decade before his death.
    On September 20, 1958, King was in Harlem signing copies of his new book, “Stride Toward Freedom,” in Blumstein’s department store when he was approached by Izola Ware Curry. The woman asked if he was Martin Luther King Jr. After he said yes, Curry said, “I’ve been looking for you for five years,” and she plunged a seven-inch letter opener into his chest. The tip of the blade came to rest alongside his aorta, and King underwent hours of delicate emergency surgery. Surgeons later told King that just one sneeze could have punctured the aorta and killed him. From his hospital bed where he convalesced for weeks, King issued a statement affirming his nonviolent principles and saying he felt no ill will toward his mentally ill attacker.

    7. King’s last public speech foretold his death.
    King had come to Memphis in April 1968 to support the strike of the city’s Black garbage workers, and in a speech on the night before his assassination, he told an audience at Mason Temple Church: “Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I’m not concerned about that now … I’ve seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the Promised Land. And I’m happy tonight. I’m not worried about anything. I’m not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.”

    WATCH: The Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.

    8. Members of King’s family did not believe James Earl Ray acted alone.
    Ray, a career criminal, pled guilty to King’s assassination but later recanted. King’s son Dexter met publicly with Ray in 1997 and argued for the case to be reopened. King’s widow, Coretta, believed the Mafia and local, state and federal government agencies were deeply involved in the murder. She praised the result of a 1999 civil trial in which a Memphis jury decided the assassination was the result of a conspiracy and that Ray was set up to take the blame. A U.S. Department of Justice investigation released in 2000 reported no evidence of a conspiracy.

    9. King’s mother was also slain by a bullet.
    On June 30, 1974, as 69-year-old Alberta Williams King played the organ at a Sunday service inside Ebenezer Baptist Church, Marcus Wayne Chenault Jr. rose from the front pew, drew two pistols and began to fire shots. One of the bullets struck and killed King, who died steps from where her son had preached nonviolence. The deranged gunman said that Christians were his enemy and that although he had received divine instructions to kill King’s father, who was in the congregation, he killed King’s mother instead because she was closer. The shooting also left a church deacon dead. Chenault received a death penalty sentence that was later changed to life imprisonment, in part due to the King family’s opposition to capital punishment.

    10. George Washington and Abraham Lincolnਊre the only other Americans to have had their birthdays observed as a national holiday.
    In 1983 President Ronald Reagan signed a bill that created a federal holiday to honor King. The holiday, first commemorated in 1986, is celebrated on the third Monday in January, close to the civil rights leader’s January 15 birthday.


    Martin Luther King Jr faced an assassination attempt before his death.

    One of the least known facts about Martin Luther King Jr. is that he faced an assassination attempt decades before his demise. On September 20th, 1958, Martin Luther King Jr. held a book signing at Blumstein’s department store fir his book, Stride Toward Freedom.

    During the event, Izola Ware Curry approached him and asked if he was King. Upon answering that he was, Curry plunged a letter opener right through his chest while saying that she looked for him for almost 5 years. Because of this, King spent many weeks in the hospital to recover from the incident.

    Source: Unsplash


    Early life

    Though Dr. King's name is known worldwide, many may not realize that he was born Michael King, Jr. in Atlanta, Georgia on January 15, 1929. His father, Michael King, was a pastor at the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. During a trip to Germany, King, Sr. was so impressed by the history of Protestant Reformation leader Martin Luther that he changed not only his own name, but also 5-year-old Michael’s.

    His brilliance was noted early, as he was accepted into Morehouse College, a historically black school in Atlanta, at age 15. By the summer before his last year of college, Dr. King knew he was destined to continue the family profession of pastoral work and decided to enter the ministry. He received his Bachelor’s degree from Morehouse at age 19, and then enrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, graduating with a Bachelor of Divinity degree in 1951. He earned a doctorate in systematic theology from Boston University in 1955.

    Dr. King married Coretta Scott on June 18, 1953, on the lawn of her parents' house in her hometown of Heiberger, Alabama. They became the parents of four children: Yolanda King (1955–2007), Martin Luther King III (b. 1957), Dexter Scott King (b. 1961), and Bernice King (b. 1963).


    Martin Luther King Jr’s Legacy

    By the time of Martin Luther King Jr.’s death, the civil rights movement was evolving in some ways, it seemed to be leaving him behind. New black power activists did not accept his philosophy of nonviolence as a way to achieve their goals. The FBI was breaking the power of the Ku Klux Klan, which had stood squarely in the way of racial equality. After successfully campaigning for Carl Stokes, the first black mayor of Cleveland, King was not invited to the victory celebration. The next civil rights challenges, such as fighting poverty, were more abstract compared with the clarity of issues like discrimination in hiring and the use of public amenities. These new concerns would likely have proven more difficult for him to achieve the same levels of success as he had in his previous campaigns for equality and justice. On the last Saturday of his life, he mused about quitting his full-time role in the movement, though he seemed to talk himself out of that, according to one of his fellow activists, Jesse Jackson.

    Yet, the lasting legacy of Martin Luther King Jr. as a vibrant catalyst for social change cannot be denied. Among the prominent legacies of his ability to organize and energize the movement for equality are the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. His birthday has become a national holiday, when government offices and many private businesses close to honor his memory. A portion of the Lorraine Motel, including two persevered rooms and the balcony on which he was assassinated, are part of the National Civil Rights Museum . King’s birthplace is now part of the National Park System.

    His eloquent words live on, inspiring others who see injustices and seek to change them. He had a dream, and though it is still a long way from being fully realized, the America of his racially segregated youth and that of today’s integrated society—in which a black man was elected president of the United States having served two full terms from 2008-2016—are as far apart and different from each other as the planet Mars is from Neptune. It is impossible to imagine such sweeping change would occur as quickly as it did without a leader like Martin Luther King Jr. driving it forward.


    Although we want to go back to the History of Soccer, we must bear in mind that its roots and rules were not typical of the sport we know today.

    Being Xeng-T emperor, in the 5th century, he forced the soldiers to play a ball game known as Tsú-Shú meaning Tsú: kick and Shú: ball.

    In the 2nd century b.C. in China, a game was held that consisted of disputing the ball vigorously with the rivals, and then, with the use of the feet and hands, passing the ball over a cord held by two posts, which today we know as “goal.”

    In these times it is when the raw leather is wrapped in several roots giving birth to the leather ball. Its inventor was FU-HI. It was used in the Chinese dynasty then, as training in the military fields. Even when a soldier violated the code, he was forced to dominate the ball without dropping it, if so, his punishment was dropped.

    A century later, in Egypt, the ball game is performed as a fertility ritual. This game is adopted by its neighboring towns India and Persia, obtaining the ball as the object of the game.

    We can also find in America how the Aztecs practiced for years the game called Tlachitli, which was a mix between tennis, football and basketball. In the game the use of the hands was prohibited and the losing team captain was sacrificed as part of the game.

    In 1855 Charles Goodyear built and patented the first soccer ball which consisted of a rudimentary vulcanized rubber ball.

    However, if we want to talk about the History of Soccer per se, we should talk about how the Football Association was founded in England in 1863, thus being the first governing body of that sport. Stipulating from there the rules and style of play of what is today the most famous sport in the world.

    In the year of 1900, Soccer is included in the Olympic Games and recognized as such. Later in 1902 Argentina and Uruguay meet in the first International match outside the British Isles.

    In 1904, FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) was founded in Paris, France. Who from that moment was dedicated to regulate and organize the meetings worldwide.


    Martin Luther King Jr. - History

    • Occupation: Civil Rights Leader
    • Born: January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, GA
    • Died: April 4, 1968 in Memphis, TN
    • Best known for: Advancing the Civil Rights Movement and his "I Have a Dream" speech

    Martin Luther King, Jr. was a civil rights activist in the 1950s and 1960s. He led non-violent protests to fight for the rights of all people including African Americans. He hoped that America and the world could form a society where race would not impact a person's civil rights. He is considered one of the great orators of modern times, and his speeches still inspire many to this day.

    Where did Martin grow up?

    Martin Luther King, Jr. was born in Atlanta, GA on January 15, 1929. He went to Booker T. Washington High School. He was so smart that he skipped two grades in high school. He started his college education at Morehouse College at the young age of fifteen. After getting his degree in sociology from Morehouse, Martin got a divinity degree from Crozer Seminary and then got his doctor's degree in theology from Boston University.

    Martin's dad was a preacher which inspired Martin to pursue the ministry. He had a younger brother and an older sister. In 1953 he married Coretta Scott. Later, they would have four children including Yolanda, Martin, Dexter, and Bernice.

    How did he get involved in civil rights?

    In his first major civil rights action, Martin Luther King, Jr. led the Montgomery Bus Boycott. This started when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man. She was arrested and spent the night in jail. As a result, Martin helped to organize a boycott of the public transportation system in Montgomery. The boycott lasted for over a year. It was very tense at times. Martin was arrested and his house was bombed. In the end, however, Martin prevailed and segregation on the Montgomery buses came to an end.

    When did King give his famous "I Have a Dream" speech?

    In 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr. helped to organize the famous "March on Washington". Over 250,000 people attended this march in an effort to show the importance of civil rights legislation. Some of the issues the march hoped to accomplish included an end to segregation in public schools, protection from police abuse, and to get laws passed that would prevent discrimination in employment.

    It was at this march where Martin gave his "I Have a Dream" speech. This speech has become one of the most famous speeches in history. The March on Washington was a great success. The Civil Rights Act was passed a year later in 1964.

    Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated on April 4, 1968 in Memphis, TN. While standing on the balcony of his hotel, he was shot by James Earl Ray.


    Martin Luther King Jr.
    Memorial in Washington D.C.

    Photo by Ducksters