Information

Lucius D. Clay


General Lucius DuBignon Clay was the commander of U.S. He later became a successful business executive and political advisor to Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy.Early daysThe son of Sarah Francis and Senator Alexander Stephens Clay, Lucius was born in Marietta, Georgia, on April 23, 1897. As a youngster, he thrived on the Southern way of life.The U.S. Military Academy at West Point quickly became Clay's goal in life. Shortly after graduating on June 12th, 1918, Clay was made captain, and was assigned to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The immediate promotion to captain was part of the remedy for low numbers of Army officers at the time. World War I ended in November 1918 before Captain Clay could reach Europe.In September 1918, Clay married Marjorie McKeown, the daughter of a wealthy button factory owner. and Frank, who also would become general officers.Glimmers of greatnessBeginning in 1933, Clay spent four years in Washington, D.C., organizing and managing New Deal public works projects. During his childhood, Clay had spent considerable time in Washington; his father was a friend of then President Theodore Roosevelt. The assignment proved to be congenial for Clay, who worked easily with "New Dealers" and members of Congress.In 1937, Clay was transferred to the Philippines, where he worked with General Douglas MacArthur and his chief of staff, Dwight D. Eisenhower. A year later, Clay left the military to become the district engineer at Denison, Texas, where he was in charge of the design and construction of the Red River Dam.Then in 1940, as the United States teetered on the edge of World War II, Clay re-entered the Army where he was appointed to the Airport Approval Board. He was then promoted to brigadier general in March 1942.While serving at that post, the general requisitioned 50 million field jackets, 299 million pairs of pants, 2.3 million trucks, 88,000 tanks, 178,000 artillery pieces, and billions of rounds of ammunition. As a result of his tireless character, Washington soon took notice.General Eisenhower called on General Clay after the D-Day invasion at Normandy. With Cherbourg (principal port of entry for Allied supplies) in war-torn shambles, Eisenhower asked Clay to "clean things up." Clay doubled the flow in one day and had supplies moving rapidly toward the front before leaving three weeks later.Given General Clay’s determined ability to manage resources, workers, and industrial production, General Eisenhower chose him to serve as Deputy Governor of Germany (1945 to 1947).Berlin AirliftAfter World War II, Germany was divided into four occupation zones. The western sectors of Berlin were controlled by the United States, Great Britain and France, and the eastern sector was occupied by the Soviets.On June 23, 1948, in a gambit to control all of Berlin, the Soviet Union cut surface traffic — all roads, water routes and railways — to and from West Berlin. Without them, West Berliners would have to submit to Soviet control or starve.As Germany’s newly appointed deputy governor, General Lucius Clay took little time to secure the permission of President Harry S. Truman to airlift supplies into the city at a feverish pace. Clay declared, "They can’t drive us out short of war."On June 25, at a rate of 140,000 tons of supplies a month, General Clay ordered Operation Little Lift, as well as Operation Vittles.* Crews on American C-47s and other aircraft conducted round-the-clock delivery missions, landing at Tempelhof airfield in West Berlin. For nearly 11 months, the planes took off from or landed at the airfield approximately every three minutes.General Clay directed some 277,800 flights, carrying 2.3 million tons of food and fuel to West Berlin. It had been the crowning match of men and mission.Clay was declared a hero in West Germany and in the United States, where he received a ticker-tape parade below towering buildings in New York City. Berliners renamed the "Kronprinzenallee," a street in front of the former U.S. Headquarters in Berlin-Zenlendorf, "Clayallee."RetirementGeneral Clay had attained the rank of full general and retired within days after the lifting of the blockade. He also played a major role in forming the Clay Committee, which helped to establish the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956.The "Berlin Hero" also played a part in Eisenhower's successful presidential campaign. He remained a trusted advisor to the president through the end of his second term, and would render a similar service to Eisenhower's successor, John F. Kennedy.In 1961, while residing in West Germany as President Kennedy's personal representative, Clay took steps to bolster the morale of West Berlin's citizenry confronting the erection of the Berlin Wall.From his home in New York City, Clay was active in local affairs. Lindsay appointed him to head a Public Development Corporation to revitalize the city's industry. Later, he served on the City Charter Revision Commission.

A man of honor

General Lucius D. Clay died in 1978, just shy of 81 years of age. He was survived by his wife Marjorie, sons General Lucius D. Clay Jr., of the Air Force and Major General Frank B. Clay of the Army (both retired). Lucius Clay was buried at West Point.A humble tribute to a great man is found at the foot of General Clay's grave. It is a plaque lying flush with the ground, placed there by the citizens of Berlin, the city he and his airmen rescued from starvation or communism. The plaque bears a few bracing words:

Wir dankendem Bewahrerunserer Freiheit."We thank the Defender of our Freedom."

*The coal delivery operation to West Berlin.


Lucius D. Clay

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Lucius D. Clay, in full Lucius DuBignon Clay, (born April 23, 1897, Marietta, Georgia, U.S.—died April 16, 1978, Cape Cod, Massachusetts), U.S. Army officer who became the first director of civilian affairs in defeated Germany after World War II.

Clay graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York (1918), and served in army engineer assignments before becoming head of the first national civil airport program (1940–41). Soon after the U.S. entrance into the war (December 1941), he became a leading production and supply specialist and was placed in charge of the army procurement program (1942–44).

In 1945 Clay was assigned by Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt to be deputy military governor in Germany under Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Two years later he was elevated to commander in chief of the U.S. forces in Europe and military governor of the U.S. Zone in Germany. During these demanding years, he had to gauge the requirements of food and shelter for a devastated civilian population and, simultaneously, supervise a de-Nazification and de-industrialization program that would harmonize with the postwar recovery of Germany’s neighbours. In 1948–49 his administration was marked by the successful Allied airlift of food and supplies into Berlin during the Soviet blockade of that city.

Following his retirement in May 1949 Clay entered private business and became active in politics as a supporter and adviser of President Eisenhower (1953–61). In 1961 and 1962 Pres. John F. Kennedy asked Clay to serve as his personal representative in Berlin, with the rank of ambassador, to help deal with the critical situation that had developed among the four occupying powers concerning that city’s future status.


Clay, Lucius

Clay, Lucius (1897�), army general and diplomat.Born in Marietta, Georgia, Clay graduated from West Point in 1918 as a military engineer. His career departed from the routine with assignments to the International Naval Conference in Brussels in 1934 and to the staff of Gen. Douglas MacArthur in the Philippines in 1937.

During World War II, Clay became deputy director of the Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion (1944). In 1945, he served briefly as deputy to Gen. Dwight Eisenhower, and then as deputy military governor of the U.S. zone in Germany. From 1947 to 1949 he served as commander of U.S. forces in Europe, and as U.S. military governor in Germany. Clay won acclaim for his direction of operations including the Berlin Airlift in the American response to the Soviets' blockade of the western access routes to Berlin in 1948�. His determination and his blunt criticism of the Soviets made him a symbol of the U.S. support for West Berlin. He retired from the army as a full general in May 1949, and served as chairman of the board of Continental Can Company from 1950 to 1962.

At the time of the Berlin Wall crisis of 1961, President John F. Kennedy recalled Clay to active duty to symbolize U.S. commitment to the city. Clay served from September 1961 to May 1962 as Kennedy's personal representative in Berlin, with the rank of ambassador. The crisis reached a flashpoint in October 1961, when, with Kennedy's permission to take a strong stance, Clay ordered ten M� tanks to the entrypoint of the wall, 𠇌heckpoint Charlie,” where they were met with a similar Soviet armored force. Kennedy made a secret appeal to Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev to defuse the crisis, and both sides withdrew their tanks after the show of force.
[See also Berlin Crises Germany, U.S. Military Involvement in.]

Lucius D. Clay , Decision in Germany , 1950.
Lucius D. Clay , The Papers of General Lucius D. Clay: Germany 1945� , 2 vols., ed. Jean Edward Smith, 1974.
John H. Backer , Winds of History: The German Years of Lucius DuBignon Clay , 1983.

John Whiteclay Chambers II

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The U. S. Headquarters compound was named in honor of the dynamic and widely respected postwar military goyernor, General Lucius D. Clay who helped to direct the rebuilding of the city and who served during the crisis of the Berlin Blockade and Airlift (1948-49).

The Clay Headquarters compound was built for the German Air Force in the years 1936-38. Originally it was pne of seven Luftwaffe district headquarters, Luftgaukommando III, reporting directly to the Air Minister (Goering). In 1943, the seven air-defense districts on German soil were Consolidated into one Luftgaukommando-Mitte, headquartered on the same site. The new command was responsible for the air defense of the German homeland, including control of air defense artillery. Contrary to persistent belief, it was never Marshall Goering's headquarters.

The U. S. Army took control of the compound July 7, 1945, when Army Engineers surveyed it for damage which was slight. Subsequently, the property was confiscated under Allied Law No.52, which pertains to properties of the "former German Reich." By the end of 1945, the U. S. Military Government for Germany had established its headquarters on the site.

The Military Government ended in 1949 with the establishment of the Allied High Commission for Germany in Bonn. Since 1949 the Clay-allee compound has headquartered the three elements of the United States Command Berlin.


Lucius D. Clay - History

To execute the Nunn amendment US. Army Forces Command and U.S. Army, Europe, and Seventh Army agreed to a plan for organizing a mechanized infantry brigade and an armored brigade for Europe, which were known as Brigade-75 and Brigade-76 . Under the plan the headquarters and a support battalion for each brigade were to be stationed in Germany while the infantry, armor, and field artillery battalions, engineer companies, and cavalry troops from the United States were to rotate every six months. No provisions were made for dependents to accompany the soldiers since they were to be away from home on temporary duty for only 179 days. The short duration of the assignment was to be a cost-saving measure, which indirectly also attacked the balance of payment problem between the United States and its allies, and a morale booster.

To support the rotation of Brigade-75, the first unit in the program, the Army selected the 2d Armored Division, at Fort Hood, Texas. Between March and June 1975 the 3d Brigade, 2d Armored Division , deployed to Germany, with its headquarters at Grafenwoehr and its elements scattered at various training areas. A few weeks before each unit departed Fort Hood, Forces Command activated a similar unit, including Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 4th Brigade, 2d Armored Division, to maintain the three-brigade structure of the division in the continental United States. During the deployment the Army Staff approved a request from Forces Command to use a battalion from the 1st Cavalry Division, rather than have all elements from the 2d Armored Division, in order to reduce personnel turbulence in the 2d. Because of the shortage of tank crews, the Army changed Brigade-75 from an armored to a mechanized infantry unit. Another factor in the decision to deploy a mechanized brigade was the shortage of tanks resulting from U.S. replacement of tanks the Israelis had lost in their 1973 war against the Arabs. In September 1975 the first rotation of brigade elements between Germany and Fort Hood began.

Forces Command selected the 4th Infantry Division to support Brigade-76 and in December 1975 activated the 4th Brigade, 4th Infantry Division , at Fort Carson, Colorado. The following year the brigade moved to Germany. To lighten the burden of the 4th Infantry Division at Fort Carson, a mechanized infantry battalion from the 1st Infantry Division at Fort Riley was included in the rotation scheme. Following the procedure used to send Brigade-75 to Europe, new organizations were activated in the 1st and 4th Infantry Divisions to maintain their divisional integrity.

As elements of the 3d Brigade, 2d Armored Division, and the 4th Brigade, 4th Infantry Division, rotated, the Army monitored the effect on the budget, readiness, and morale. Evidence soon suggested that the rotation of the brigades improved neither cost effectiveness nor readiness. Therefore, the Army decided that the brigades would be assigned permanently to US. Army, Europe, and Seventh Army. The reassignment of the 4th Brigade, 4th Infantry Division, took place in the fall of 1976. At that time the 3d Battalion, 28th Infantry, the element of the 1st Infantry Division supporting the brigade, was reassigned to the 4th Infantry Division.

Plans originally called for the 2nd Armd Div to send a brigade headquarters and headquarters company as well as a support battalion on a permanent change of station (PCS) basis. Maneuver and some of the support units making up the mechanized infantry brigade would be deployed on a temporary basis and were scheduled to rotate with like units from the US every 179 days.

Brigade 75 was to consist of two mechanized infantry battalions, one tank battalion, one field artillery battalion, an armored cavalry troop, and an engineer company in addition to the brigade headquarters and additional support units.

Advance parties began arriving in early March 1975. They drew equipment (485 wheeled, 411 tracked and 7 special vehicles) from pre-positioned sites operated by the 5th (Pirmasens), 6th (Miesau), 7th (Idar Oberstein) and 8th (Kaiserslautern) Combat Equipment Companies.

We left in March for New Jersey -- got bag lunches.

The C1-4 was the plane, seats facing the rear of the plane, crates of M-16s stacked to the top. At 30,000+ feet we damn near froze.

My unit, 1st Battalion, 50th Mech Infantry, 2AD replaced 1/41 Mech Inf Bn at Camp Poellnricht, Hohenfels troop training area fall 1975 to winter 1976.

I was in HHC as a medic with company commander CPT Van Searcy and 1SG Bert Moore.

It was cold and I have vivid memories of working my heinie off in the motor pool as the outgoing unit had trashed the M113 tracks we had and all our money went for parts instead of training.

Weekends were nice as we&rsquod get a 2½-ton truck ride to Parsberg where we could catch the train for Nuremberg on the weekends we weren&rsquot in the woods.

The 2nd Armored Division (Forward), formerly the 3rd Brigade, 2nd Armored Division, is derived from the 41st Armored Infantry Regiment, which was constituted on 15 May 1917, and organized on 20 June 1917, at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. The 41st Infantry was inactivated on 22 September 1921, at Camp Meade, Maryland. Twenty years later the 41st Infantry Regiment (Armored) was assigned to the 2nd Armored Division. Subsequent redesignations were:
Headquarters, Reserve Command, in 1946
Headquarters Company, Combat Command C in 1949 and
Headquarters Company, 3rd Brigade in 1963.

For a short period after the war, the 41st remained in Europe. By March 1946, the Division was settled at Fort Hood, Texas. In May 1951, the 2nd Armored Division was again sent to Europe with the then Combat Command stationed at Baumholder, Germany. In January 1958, the unit was returned to Fort Hood, Texas. In October and November 1963, the 3rd Brigade earned high praise during the NATO exercise "Big Lift." In 1964, the Brigade maneuvered in the large scale U.S. exercise "Desert Strike" and in 1965, participated in the Joint Task Farce exercise "Silverhand."

During the years of the Vietnam War, the Brigade acted as a training base for replacements. In 1972, the Brigade participated in the Joint Task Force exercise "Gallant Hand 72."

In January and February 1973, the Brigade was airlifted to Germany to participate in exercise "REFORGER IV." In April 1973, the Brigade participated in exercise "Gallant Hand 73."

Beginning in March 1975, the 3rd Brigade , 2nd Armored Division, was stationed at Grafenwoehr-FRG, and rotated 29 battalions, 19 separate companies, a total of over 21,000 soldiers, to FRG, as part of " Brigade 75 ." In July 1978 in ceremonies conducted in Grafenwoehr the 3rd Brigade was redesignated as the 2nd Armored Division (Forward) . During Autumn Forge '78 the Division Forward participated in exercise "Saxon Drive" in northern Germany.

On October 1978, in ceremonies conducted at newly named and constructed Lucius D. Clay Kaserne, Minister of Defense of FRG, Dr. Hans Apel turned over the Kaserne to U.S. Secretary of Defense, Dr. Harold Brown. In a phased deployment, members of the 2nd Armored Division (Forward) moved to the Kaserne from October 1978 to 14 March 1979.

In September 1979 the Division (Forward) participated in the 1st German Corps FTX "Harte Faust." During REFORGER 80 the 2nd Armored Division (Forward) briefly reverted to its prior designation of the 3rd Brigade of the 2nd Armored Division.

The colors of 1st Bn, 14th Field Arty and 2nd Bn, 50th Inf will be formally retired during ceremonies on Sept. 30 and Oct 6. As part of the Regimental Manning System these units will become 4th Bn, 3rd Field Arty and 4th Bn, 41st Inf.

One omission I've noted in the organization: there was also the 588 Military Intelligence Detachment , which was later re-designated the 588th MI Company. (There is a mention of the 588th in the article you've cited from the "2AD Dispatch").

The company comprised approximately 120 soldiers, divided into:
Electronic Warfare Platoon
Ground Surveillance Radar Platoon
Maintenance Platoon
Counter-Intelligence Section
Headquarters/Service Platoon

I was the Platoon Sergeant of the EW platoon for most of the period I was in Garlstedt. The company was housed at Clay Kaserne in barracks shared with D Co, 17th Engineer Bn, and we shared a motor pool with 2/66 Armor.

I was re-assigned to the Intelligence School at Ft. Devens, MA in May, 1989 and don't really know what became of the unit, I presume it was de-activated with the rest of 2AD(FWD).

Who says bears always hibernate in cold weather?

People who hunt bears will tell you different. Bears are active all year so are the "Bear Hunters." It doesn't matter how cold it gets.

When the "Bear Hunters" of the 588th MI Co . conducted "live environment" training recently, they were stalking the real world Soviet bear near the Inter-German border.

Sgt. Jon M. Farrand, voice signal interceptor (98G), is team chief of the Voice Collection Team. His site is the side of a mountain, where the wind is howling and the rain is falling.

From here the team operates the TRQ-32 , more affectionately called the Turkey-32. The "Turkey" is a system that picks up radio transmissions from the Bear's den across the Inter-German Border.

"The 'Turkey' intercepts voice communication for deciphering," said Farrand.

"It operates in the HF (high frequency) and VHF (very high frequency) ranges.

"I have six people in my team here. We do passive and active intelligence gathering. Passive is when we intercept transmissions and gather intelligence with a clear focus on the self-defense of our forces. Last year during FREE LION we had an enemy artillery unit up against us. They had targeted an element of 1-41 Infantry. Before they could fire, we relayed the information. The infantry relocated and buttoned up, saving a lot of our soldiers. That's what we're here for.

"In the active mode, we use direction finding (DF) to fix enemy locations and plan strikes against the bad guys," added Farrand. DF enables 588th MI to determine the direction of the emitter of a radio signal.

Radio intercepts aren't the only duties of the soldiers while on the site.

"We normally pull radio watch and perimeter guard," said Spec. Jack C. Johnson, also a 98G, "and operate the TRQ-32, for periods of three hours each. After that, we continue to improve our position."

Johnson says he's learned a few things on this exercise. "I've learned how to maintain the Turkey-32, how to determine problems and fix them," he said. "I've learned how to make conditions in the field more livable, how to keep the mud and rain out.

"Sometimes we wargame, think about hypothetical situations, like what if the bear ever came across the border? We get with the other teams and discuss our analyses and solutions," Johnson went on.

Other team members had similar thoughts on how they spend their time.

"We learn how to overcome and deal with problems associated with the 'Turkey,'" said Spec. Edward A. Smith. "If we can do some of those things for ourselves, it saves time. We don't have to rely on the technicians as much," he said.
"We couldn't do it without our NCOs and 'techs' (technicians)," Smith said. "Those guys make it possible to do the job."

Those "techs" are Tactical Intercept Systems Repairmen and they fix the "Turkeys." They learn how at a 50-week school at Fort Devens, Mass. They also repair the Pirahna and MLQ-34 jammers.

"If I'm called to a site, I'm the first one to determine where the problem is," said Spec. William J. Willoughby. "I'm the first-line troubleshooter.

"In garrison, I maintain and keep the systems up," he continued. "I'm also trained in how to operate the systems, so I can tell if the operator is utilizing the system correctly.

"I've learned a lot of field expedient repairs in the field. It's here that the systems are placed under greater stress," Willoughby said. So what is done with all the information that is collected?

It's passed to the "nerve center" of the Collection and Jamming platoons. What leaves here is the information that the company commander and commander of the Division (Forward) must have to accomplish their mission.

"I advise the 98Gs on the field sites what to collect and what they should be looking for," said Sgt. Wesley A. Kuemmel, also a 98G. "This place is a lot like a TOC (Tactical Operations Center). We task teams and receive reports from our sites.

"Ninety percent of the unit communication comes here," he added. Another part of the TCAE is the SCIF
(Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility).

"We follow every movement of the enemy on maps, 24 hours a day," said Sgt. John H. Geskey. Security is tight. Access to the SCIF is severely limited.

"If you don't have a top secret (background investigation) clearance and aren't on the access roster, you don't get in," Geskey stated.

What makes the 588th MI able to track the bear is teamwork, excellent equipment, and officers and NCOs dedicated to their mission.

2AD ends 52 year history at LDCK

By Staff Sgt. John Brooks
Assistant Editor

The history of 2nd Armored Division (Forward) is rather short when compared to some unit histories, but is a significant part of the larger legacy of 2AD, the longest continuously active armored division in the U.S. Army.

In 1975, in a move to strengthen the NATO alliance, soldiers from the 2nd Armored Division at Ft. Hood, Texas, were organized into a rotational brigade, known as Brigade '75 . With the exception of the headquarters company and support battalion, each unit was to serve in Germany for six months, after which they would rotate back to Ft. Hood and be replaced with fresh 2AD troops. The new brigade was stationed in Grafenwoehr, Germany, through 1976 when it was stationed in Osterholz county and designated as 2AD (FWD), a new member of the Northern Army Group.

The kaserne 2AD (FWD) called home, Lucius D. Clay Kaserne in Garlstedt, was constructed from 1977 to 1979 as a joint effort of the German and U.S. governments. When completed, rotation of the units from Ft. Hood stopped and 2AD (FWD) moved to its permanent home. Stationing of 2AD (FWD) at the new kaserne was completed in 1979.

In 1983, 2AD (FWD) joined in the conversion to Division '86 and the regimental system. The 2nd Battalion, 50th Infantry and 1st Battalion, 14th Field Artillery were redesignated as 4th Battalion, 41st Infantry and 4th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery, respectively, joining 2nd Battalion, 66th Armor Regiment and 3rd Battalion, 41st Infantry in their regimental affiliation to 2AD at Ft. Hood, Texas.

The command gained air power when its ground cavalry troop was replaced by Delta Troop, 2-1 Cavalry (Air), in 1984.

COHORT rotations began
Another first for 2AD (FWD) was the battalion rotation in June, 1986. The division was the first European unit to participate in battalion COHORT rotations when 3-41 INF departed for Ft. Hood and 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment joined 2AD (FWD). The division's second and final battalion level COHORT brought 3rd Battalion, 66th Armor Regiment to LDCK and sent 4-41 to Ft. Hood. The 588th Military Intelligence Company was another recent addition to 2AD (FWD) in 1987.

When Delta Troop, 2-1 CAV was inactivated in October, 1990, 2AD (FWD) was equipped with a new set of eyes and ears: the brigade scout platoon. The brigade scout platoon is a light-fighting unit made mobile through the use of ballistic-armed HMMWVs, the only mobile scout platoon in the U.S. Army.

On November 8th, 1990, 2AD (FWD) was identified as one of the units from Europe that would comprise VII Corps and move to Saudi Arabia to take part in the liberation of Kuwait. Between the latter part of November, 1990, and early January, 1991, the unit deployed to Southwest Asia its equipment transported mainly by ship, and the majority of its soldiers by air.

In late January, 1997, 2AD (FWD) became the 3rd brigade of the 1st Infantry Division and moved across Saudi Arabia and attacked through Iraq and into Kuwait where the 100-hour war ended. HHC 2AD (FWD) Military Policemen were the first U.S. MP unit to cross into Iraq, entering enemy territory during the Battle of Norfolk, and the last to leave after the 100 hours of the war. Lacking sufficient support of any kind, the 22 MPs processed and held over 600 prisoners during their first 24 hours in Iraq.

Assisted in Provide Comfort
Between the cease-fire and the official end of the war in April, 2AD (FWD) took part in security operations to ensure peace in Kuwait.

The Division then redeployed to Saudi Arabia where some of its soldiers established and ran three refugee camps near Raffia, Saudi Arabia. 2AD (FWD) relief workers processed over 22,000 Iraqi refugees between April 15 and May 10. After turning the camps over to the Saudi Arabian government, 2AD (FWD) continued redeployment to Germany. Completing the mission, 2AD (FWD) soldiers returned to Garlstedt to stand ready as part of the United States Army, Europe.

On September 1, 1991, 2AD (FWD) officially became 2nd Armored Division (-) after 2AD at Ft. Hood was inactivated. Currently, 2AD(-) is in the process of fulfilling its final mission drawdown. Due to the restructuring of the U.S. Army, both here and at Ft. Hood, 2AD has been ordered off the active duty roles, ending more than 50 years of continuous active service.

Hell on Wheels!
Soldiers in 2nd Armored Division often ask where the nickname "Hell on Wheels" originated.

The 2AD nickname came from Haynes W. Dugan, a 2AD public affairs officer at Fort Benning, Ga., who used "Hell on Wheels" in a story about 2AD's participation in a parade in 1941. Patton then selected it for wearing under the division patch.

After several years of wearing it, Army officials decided in 1954 that "Hell on Wheels" on the uniform was not in good taste. The division commander at that time argued that "hell is not in itself necessarily a profane word, nor is its use in poor taste, except with improper connotations, neither of which, it is believed, are applicable in the case of the motto `Hell on Wheels'."

The nickname battle continued until April 1963, when Department of the Army finally gave approval for soldiers to wear the "Hell on Wheels" patch on their uniforms.

By Jeanie Kitchens
2AD Dispatch Editor

The very first issue of the 2AD (FWD) newspaper, published Feb. 1, 1979, was called The Newspaper. A contest was conducted to name the paper, and Spec. Paul G. Samson, assigned to the 159th Medical Detachment (Air Ambulance), came up with the winning name, The Forward Edge.

Celebrity visits
On Aug. 16, 1985, Brig. Gen. William Streeter Jr. took command of 2AD (FWD), and Debbie Boone performed that night at the Patton Combined Club, singing "You Light Up My Life." In September of that year, Applekorn appeared in his first rodeo and the dollar had climbed to well over DM 3.

In March, 1986, the newspaper format changed again, adding regular columns which included the Edge of Excellence column for awards and promotions. Also in March, 3rd Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment turned in their M-113s for M-2 Bradley Fighting Vehicles. In April 1986, the Dallas Cowboys' Cheerleaders put on a show at the gym and Spec. David Anderson, assigned to 2nd Battalion, 66th Armor Regiment, was the first customer to bite into a burger at Clay Kaserne's new Burger King.

During March of 1987, over 3,000 2AD (FWD) soldiers battled Grafenwoehr's most frigid winter weather in history to participate in Iron Forge '87. In July, 2AD (FWD) lost their mascot when Applekorn died and in November 1987, soldiers of 2-66 Armor switched over to the new M1A1 tanks.

January 1988 found the Forward Edge wearing yet another new nameplate and having News Briefs as a standard page one column. In the March 25 issue, a photo of David Hartman, formerly of "Good Morning America," was featured on the front page along with a story about his visit during Iron Forge '88.

In June 1988, 4th Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment returned to Fort Hood, Texas and 3rd Battalion, 66th Armor Regiment took their place in Garlstedt. Lucius D. Clay Kaserne celebrated its 10th anniversary in October 1988, and the Forward Edge put out a special anniversary issue.

The Forward Edge became a hit in April 1989, with their "Letters from home" and "Postcards from Graf' sections during Iron Forge '89. In June, Co. C, 3-66 Armor won the Canadian Army Trophy for the Northern Army Group team and in July, Brig. Gen. Jerry R. Rutherford came on board as new commander.

The year 1990 brought a more modern design to the Forward Edge and the April 20 debut of the Mad Bomber. In October, the Forward Edge was named the best Army authorized newspaper in USAREUR for the second time and by the end of November, the newspaper was publishing information to help the soldiers prepare for deployment to Saudia Arabia.

In 1991, during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, the Forward Edge became a weekly newspaper, printing news and stories transmitted electronically from the desert. By the end of May, 2AD (FWD) soldiers had returned from the war and the Forward Edge returned to biweekly publication.

Deactivation and drawdown
With the deactivation of 2AD at Fort Hood, 2AD (FWD) was redesignated 2AD (-) in September 1990, which resulted in a contest to rename the paper. Maj. Norman Balliet, HHC, 2AD (-), submitted the winning entry renaming the paper the 2AD Dispatch.

Rumors that 2AD (-) would draw down were confirmed in February 1992 when the official announcement was made. At that time, the 2AD Dispatch returned to a weekly publication schedule to help inform soldiers and their families on how to prepare for their big move.


BOOK REVIEW : The Bureaucrat Who Got Patton His Tanks : LUCIUS D. CLAY An American Life <i> by Jean Edward Smith</i> Henry Holt: $29.95 812 pages

He was a new type of soldier, a master of warfare at mid-century. One of a remarkable band of similar men and women, he was a chair-borne bureaucrat, the great, often-scorned weapon that assured the Allied victory in World War II.

No battlefield honors for men such as Lucius D. Clay, West Point 1918, first in English and history, 128th out of 137 in military conduct.

Instead, autocratic, independent Lucius Clay found his way into the Corps of Engineers, and ultimately to Washington. There he dealt with a pork-barrel Congress, scattering vast river, harbor and dam projects about the country. He cooperated generously with the New Deal’s Civilian Conservation Corps and Works Progress Administration in civilian relief--and gained even more experience in managing huge enterprises.

(According to one of his sponsors, then-Sen. James Byrnes: Were Clay given six months, “he could run General Motors or U.S. Steel.”)

For 20 years, Clay and a small group of like-minded men gathered those political and managerial skills necessary to mobilize an army of 9 million when the nation finally roused itself to the menace of Hitler.

No Patton here. Only the deputy director of war mobilization who got Patton his tanks, Eaker his bombers, and Bradley, Clark and MacArthur their Jeeps and C-rations. This is dull stuff, but it was that very logistical capacity of the United States that won the war.

Still, logistics is not the sort of thing to transfix a biographer for the two decades that University of Toronto political scientist Jean Edward Smith has spent on this book. Rather, it is Clay’s tenure as military governor of Germany in the immediate postwar era, during four years of increasing Cold War tension, of Berlin blockade and airlift, that will assure the general as permanent a place in history as any man gets.

Not for nothing did the citizens of Berlin place at the foot of Clay’s grave at West Point a tablet that read: Wir danken dem Bewahrer unserer Freiheit (We thank the defender of our freedom).

A justly large part of Smith’s story then is given over to the remaking of Germany in a democratic image. And if Clay gets more credit as proconsul than he might deserve, well, Smith would not be the first biographer to enhance his subject’s image.

Some of that burnishing strains the record, however. Clay triumphs, in Smith’s account, because everyone else--the State Department, George C. Marshall, Dean Acheson, George Kennan, among others--is flawed, or weak, or conniving.

Similarly, Smith maintains that Clay “was not a militant cold warrior” but a keen student of geopolitics who believed that “the celebrated architects of Cold War containment were purchasing Allied unity at Germany’s expense.” (Indeed, Clay fixed a great deal of the blame for the failure of four-power government in Germany on the condemnatory French, not the war-weary Soviets.)

Be that as it may, it was this same general who on March 5, 1948, sent a calculated, back-channels cable to Washington warning that war “may come with dramatic suddenness.” The Clay cable triggered real alarm in the Truman Administration, and impelled a series of rearmament measures.

Yet Clay did not believe a word of his telegram he made the assertion merely to goose a congressional committee into approving a budget bill the Army favored. It was not the last time a self-serving military officer exceeded his authority, then pleaded innocence.

Nor would this be the last time Clay influenced world affairs. Indeed, one might have wished Smith had devoted more attention to the later, political Clay. By then president of Continental Can Corp., Clay played a pivotal role in making his friend Dwight David Eisenhower the 34th President of the United States.

Clay, Tom Dewey and Herbert Brownell shaped Eisenhower’s pre-convention strategy and candidacy. Again, Smith may give too much credit to the politically adept Clay--at Ike’s expense--but he lays open Clay’s largely hidden role.

Clay the soldier, the diplomat, the politician, are all here in Smith’s sometimes cumbersome biography, a book flawed, like its subject, but a worthwhile addition to the record of our times.

Next: Jonathan Kirsch reviews “The Other California: The Great Central Valley in Life and Letters” by Gerald W. Haslam (Capra Press).


Holocaust Denial: Frau Ilse Koch and General Lucius Clay

Ilse Koch (pronounced "loch") is the most famous of all Germans accused of having committed atrocities during the war. She was the wife of the commandant of the Buchenwald camp. She was twice convicted in post-war trials, once by an international court and once by her own country. The chief charges against her were cruelty to inmates, including murder, but what she is best-known for is the making of human-skin ornaments, including the lampshades of which we've all heard.

It is well-documented that such ornaments did exist there's no question but that someone made them out of human skin. When one can see a book whose cover is tanned skin with a decorative tattoo on it, there's little question that the skin was human. If one has any doubt as to the origin of the substance, one should examine the forensic report conducted on some of the skin. It concludes, based on microscopic examination and the placement of the nipples and navel, that the skin was certainly human.

Various Holocaust-deniers, however, have attempted to cast doubt upon the existence of this skin, and upon the guilt of Ilse Koch in particular. Arthur Butz writes:[1]

The tattooed skin was undoubtedly due to the medical experiment role of Buchenwald. As remarked by [Christopher] Burney [a former inmate], when a Buchenwald inmate died the camp doctors looked his body over and if they found something interesting they saved it. It is fairly certain that the collection of medical specimens thus gathered was the source of the tattooed skin and the human head that turned up at the IMT as "exhibits" relating to people "murdered" at Buchenwald. [. ]

. in 1948 the American military governor, General Lucius Clay, reviewed her case and determined that, despite testimony produced at her trial, Frau Koch could not be related to the lampshades and other articles which were "discovered" (i.e. planted) in the Buchenwald commandant's residence when the camp was captured in 1945. For one thing, she had not lived there since her husband's, and her own, arrest in 1943. Also her "family journal," said to be bound in human skin, and which was one of the major accusations against her, was never located, and obviously never existed.

Already we have two explanations of the human-skin ornaments. It is interesting to note that they are mutually exclusive. On the one hand, according to Butz, the ornaments unquestionably did exist, since tattooed skin was produced at the IMT, though it is "fairly certain" that the "medical specimens" were simply cut from the corpses of inmates who died naturally. On the other hand, the ornaments were "planted" by the Allies.

Butz cannot have it both ways. He can claim that Ilse Koch is innocent because the ornaments came from inmates who died of natural causes and not murder or, he can claim that the ornaments were forgeries, planted by the Allies to incriminate the Nazis. To claim both is ludicrous. Yet this is exactly what he does.

Butz's book was one of the earlier attempts at Holocaust denial, and later efforts would refine it to a great degree. Such refinement is clearly demonstrated by following deniers' claims about Ilse Koch. In fact, in the same year that Butz's book was published, 1976, General Lucius Clay gave an interview at the little-known George C. Marshall Research Foundation, in which he indicated that he believed that the human-skin ornaments were not in fact made of human skin, but rather of goat skin. Mark Weber, now the Editor of the Journal of Historical Review, became aware of this interview some years later, after Clay had died (in 1978). He obtained a transcript, with the aid of Robert Wolfe of the National Archives, now retired, who incidentally is strongly opposed to Holocaust-denial. In 1987, Weber published his findings in an article in the Journal of Historical Review[2]

Armed with this "new" evidence, deniers began to play down Butz's claim that Koch should be considered innocent because the human-skin ornaments were merely "medical specimens." After all, this is the weaker argument if one grants the courts' determinations that the human-skin ornaments existed, and further grants the courts' rulings that Koch was guilty of murder on separate counts, then it is an academic point whether the skin came from inmates who died naturally or violently. It better rehabilitates the image of Nazism to say that the Allies framed Ilse Koch -- so this is the tack which deniers began to take. Theodore J. O'Keefe later published a pamphlet entitled "The 'Liberation of the Camps': Facts vs. Lies," which used the Clay quotation, and repeated Weber's claim that the human-skin ornaments never existed or were planted by the Allies. Bradley R. Smith's original campus advertisements, purchased in student newspapers in 1991, carried the Clay quotation and implied Weber's claim.[3] Later, deniers began to quote from Jean Edward Smith's Lucius D. Clay: An American Life[4] , in which Clay repeated the goat skin claim (but also contradicted himself, as we shall see).

In any case, the claim that "the collection of medical specimens thus gathered was the source of the tattooed skin" was quietly forgotten.

Furthermore, the unspoken implication in these articles is that one should not merely disbelieve that Ilse Koch specifically was involved in atrocities, but that one should disbelieve all Nazi atrocities. This is obviously an irrational leap of logic. To obtain a clear picture, it is necessary to see why General Clay was incorrect in his assertion that the ornaments were not made of human skin. The explanation is fairly simple, but in the interest of providing a through refutation, we will examine the historical record with some thoroughness (and in roughly chronological order).

Leniency for Koch

General Clay did indeed feel, in 1948, that Ilse Koch had been unjustly sentenced to a life term the previous year by the international American military court. On September 16, he commuted that sentence to four years' time. As he explained on September 23rd: "There was no convincing evidence that she selected inmates for extermination in order to secure tattooed skin or that she possessed any articles made of human skin."[5]

That was reported in the New York Times, Sept. 24, 1948, p. 3. On the next day, the paper quoted Secretary of the Army Kenneth C. Royall: "Mr. Royall's final word on the fate of the woman who was accused of atrocities, including the use of tattooed human skin to make household articles, was that such charges had not been proved." [6]

The sentence-reduction was unpopular, and it was questioned whether she could be retried or resentenced. The U.S. government gave up after a while, declaring that it would wash its hands of the matter. Eventually, she was tried by a German court on charges of her having abused and killed German inmates her previous trial had included only inmates of other nationalities. In this second trial, she was convicted and sentenced to life, again. She spent the rest of her life in prison until she committed suicide in 1967. It appears that the reason General Clay concluded that sufficient evidence had not been presented is that a crucial piece of evidence was missing. According to a witness, her family album was bound in skin from a man's chest with a prominent tattoo of a four-masted ship[7] The album, which Koch insisted was bound only in black cloth, was never found.

Additional atrocity charges might have been brought against her in the first trial, but for a technicality in the conduct of the prosecution. This conduct was, in fact, incorrect. A U.S. prosecutor explained, in the Times on October 15th: [8]

The making of lampshades and novelties from human skin and other mass atrocities committed by her could not be judicially established because the majority of Ilse Koch's crimes were committed during the period which the American Army, in violation of Law No. 10, refused to include in its trials. [9]

Law No. 10 indicated that the Allies would consider all crimes committed between1933 and 1945. The order was apparently given by Colonel C.E. Straight and Colonel A.H. Rosenfeld to ignore all Buchenwald crimes committed before Pearl Harbor, though the camp had existed for four years prior.

A week later, General Clay commented on this matter:[10] "My examination of the record, based upon reports which I received from the lawyers, indicated that the most serious charges were based on hearsay and not on factual evidence. For that reason the sentence was commuted." He went on to say:

I hold no sympathy for Ilse Koch. She was a woman of depraved character and ill repute. She had done many things reprehensible and punishable, undoubtedly, under German law. We were not trying her for those things. We were trying her as a war criminal on specific charges.

Note that General Clay makes reference to the fact that he is relying upon the "reports which [he] received from the lawyers." This becomes important later.

In the last days of 1948, a Senate investigation into the Koch case, begun only four days after the commutation of her sentence in September, was completed. The excerpts from that report printed in the Times regarding human-skin atrocities are as follows:[11]

Tattooed skin was carefully cut from bodies of dead inmates, tanned and used for a variety of pseudo-scientific and decorative purposes.

.

As to the human-skin aspects of this case, there is no doubt that tattooed human skin was scraped, tanned, and dried by the pathological departments at Buchenwald. Numerous witnesses testified as to its existence, and three samples of it and a shrunken human head were placed in evidence. These same samples were made exhibits at the hearings before this subcommittee.

One defense witness (Wilhelm) testified that a lamp had been made of skin to his knowledge, and offered hearsay evidence to the fact that Ilse Koch had ordered and had been delivered a lampshade of this sort.

Prosecution witnesses (Titz and Froeboess) testified that they had seen the accused in possession of a skin lampshade, a skin-bound album, and a pair of gloves of human skin. Two defense witnesses (Wilhelm and Biermann) and one prosecution witness (Sitte) testified, from hearsay, that she had possession of articles made of human skin.

The chief witnesses [sic] for the accused was Ilse Koch herself, who specifically denied the charges brought against her and the testimony of the witnesses who had appeared against her.

Secretary Royall, whose previous comment on the subject had been that the tattoo charges "had not been proved," reversed his opinion in the testimony he gave to the committee:

Kenneth C. Royall, Secretary of the Army, said he found it difficult to "understand why they were for reduction in sentence." He admitted military authorities ""may have made a mistake."

The subcommittee also reviewed General Clay's decision to commute the sentence. This provides us with some of the most interesting material, a brief glimpse into why Clay made the decision he did. According to the Times:

In assailing reduction of the sentence originally given to Frau Koch, who was accused of having men killed so that their tattooed skin might be made into lampshades or other useful curios, the committee expressed the opinion that American military authorities "rendered in good faith" a decision that "no doubt appeared to them to be a proper decision."

But it expressed amazement that the "only written justification" in existence at the time the order was signed by Gen. Lucius D. Clay, the United States Military Commander in Germany, was an "incomplete recapitulation of the evidence" by two civilian attorneys who made a preliminary review.

This document stated that, while Frau Koch did encourage, aid and participate in the common Nazi design, the extent and nature of her participation did not warrant imprisonment for life.

General Clay never disputed any of the above, at least not publicly. Three months later, he announced that it had been decided that she could not be tried by American military courts, and that the trial by German authorities was under consideration.[12]

A few years later, he commented tangentially on the Senate committee's conclusions in his book Decision in Germany: [13]

Among the 1672 trials was that of Ilse Koch, the branded "Bitch of Buchenwald," but as I examined the record I could not find her a major participant in the crimes of Buchenwald. A sordid, disreputable character, she had delighted in flaunting her sex, emphasized by tight sweaters and short skirts, before the long-confined male prisoners, and had developed their bitter hatred.

Nevertheless these were not the offenses for which she was being tried and so I reduced her sentence, expecting the reaction which came. Perhaps I erred in judgment but no one can share the responsibility of a reviewing officer. Later the Senate committee which unanimously criticized this action heard witnesses who gave testimony not contained in the record before me. I could take action only on that record. [Emphasis added.]

Frau Koch was indeed later indicted and convicted by the German court.

Clay would later state that the German court "had clear jurisdiction." [14]

She was sentenced to life for: "one count of incitement to murder, one of incitement to attempted murder, five of incitement to severe physical mistreatment of prisoners, and two of physical mistreatment."[15]

The court found no proof that anyone at Buchenwald had been murdered for his tattooed skin, but it expressed no doubt that skin lampshades had been made and that human heads had been shriveled and preserved at the camp.

Let's briefly recapitulate, at this point.

It has never been questioned, not even by Frau Koch or her lawyers, whether or not human-skin lampshades were made at Buchenwald. The only question has been whether Koch herself actually participated in their manufacture. This is an important point. Three samples of such artifacts were placed into evidence, and were also viewed by the Senate subcommittee.

Two witnesses testified that they themselves had seen Frau Koch in possession of human-skin artifacts. Clay may not have been aware of these witnesses, because he said that the testimony regarding the "most serious charges" was entirely hearsay. Whether that referred to the human-skin charges is unknown. It would seem likely that the charges for murder would be the "most serious charges."

In any case, the attorneys who reviewed the evidence for Clay produced, according to the Senate subcommittee, an "incomplete recapitulation of the evidence."

In other words, Clay was misinformed by his assistants, and Clay went on to write shortly thereafter that "he could take action only on that record" which he was presented with. This is a key point. It is also important to note that this fact is readily available to anyone who simply browses Koch-related stories in the newspapers of the era, or looks up Clay's Decision in Germany.

The German court failed to convict Koch on the charge that she had selected prisoners to be murdered for their skins, but that same court said that there was "no doubt that skin lampshades had been made."

History offers little more about Ilse Koch during her subsequent imprisonment over the next two decades. She committed suicide in 1967. But in 1976, General Clay was supposed to be a speaker at a conference at the George C. Marshall Research Foundation in Virginia. In poor health, he sent last-minute regrets. A month later, he and General Mark W. Clark gave videotaped interviews to a member of the Foundation.

According to Mark Weber, the transcripts of those interviews reveal that General Clay reaffirmed his position of twenty-eight years earlier:[16]

We tried Ilse Koch. . She was sentenced to life imprisonment, and I commuted it to three years. And our press really didn't like that. She had been destroyed by the fact that an enterprising reporter who first went into her house had given her the beautiful name, the "Bitch of Buchenwald," and he had found some white lampshades in there which he wrote up as being made out of human flesh.

Well, it turned out actually that it was goat flesh. But at the trial it was still human flesh. It was almost impossible for her to have gotten a fair trial.

Similar words were said to Jean Edward Smith in the interview he took:[17]

That was one of the reasons I revoked the death sentence of Ilse Koch. There was absolutely no evidence in the trial transcript, other than she was a rather loathsome creature, that would support the death sentence. I suppose I received more abuse for that than for anything else I did in Germany. Some reporter had callled her the "Bitch of Buchenwald," had written that she had lampshades made out of human skin in her house. And that was introduced in court, where it was absolutely proven that the lampshades were made out of goatskin.

It should be noted that Smith characterized Clay's memory as "extraordinary," saying he "could recall cables twenty-five years old, almost verbatim. No detail was too small to be filed away in his recollection." [18]

But notice the discrepancies: in the Foundation interview, Clay stated that the lampshades were still considered human at the trial. In the Smith interview, he stated that the trial proved " absolutely" that they were not (Presumably he was not aware of the forensic evidence proving that the skin was human.).

Also, in the Foundation interview, he could not even recall how many years he had reduced her sentence to (four).

It is important to realize that the Frau Koch affair, though big news in the media, was of very little concern to General Clay. His responsibility was to manage the rebuilding of the entire U.S.-occupied German nation between 1945 and his retirement in May 1949. With tens of millions of people to look after, he can be excused for overlooking the details about one war criminal. In Decision in Germany, he makes a point of mentioning that Koch's trial was only one of the 1,672 Dachau trials which he oversaw as reviewing officer. Her irrelevance to his life can be seen in John Backer's biography, Winds of History: [19] nowhere in this book's 300 pages is she even mentioned.

The actual transcripts of the trial are, of course, the only way to settle the question. Obtaining these transcripts is not an easy undertaking. Anyone who wishes to assist in this effort is invited to contact this author.

The important thing is not so much what Holocaust-deniers are saying about Ilse Koch and General Clay as what they are not saying. They went to the trouble of digging up an interview at an obscure research foundation from 1976, enlisting the assistance of a senior archivist at the National Archives to do so. Yet they forgot to mention the important evidence, much more easily uncovered, which indicates that the statements made in this interview (and later in Smith's book) are incorrect or ill-informed.

They failed to mention that the trial which Clay reviewed did not cover the full period during which Koch was at the camp. Nor did they mention that Clay was incompletely informed by his assistants, and that he admitted as much in his 1950 book, saying: "I could take action only on that record."

There was no mention of a Senate investigatory committee which saw, with their own eyes, the very same "three samples" of "tattooed human skin" that Clay says don't exist.

They forgot to mention the conclusion that the subcommittee reached: that "there is no doubt" that human skin was tanned at Buchenwald. They forgot to mention that there is a forensic report which, based on microscopic analysis and the placement of nipples and navel, concludes that the skin is indeed human.

No mention that the same German court that found her innocent of the charge of murdering anyone for tattooed skin, also declared it indisputable that human-skin artifacts were made. And all that information is much more readily available than the transcripts of an obscure interview by an obscure organization conducted 28 years after the fact.

Since Holocaust-deniers have gone to so much trouble to find evidence which vaguely supports their thesis, and have not lifted a finger to reveal the evidence to the contrary, the logical conclusion is that they are dishonest.

Readers interested in contemporary accounts of Frau Koch's story may wish to consult the New York Times articles reference herein especially: 4/12/45 p. 5 7/11/47 p. 6 8/13/47 p. 14 8/15/47 p. 5 (first sentencing) 9/28/48 p. 3 (commutation) 9/29/48 p. 14 10/1/48 p.11 10/8/48 p.10 10/9/48 p. 3 10/15/48 p. 310/18/48 p. 22 10/22/48 p. 5 12/27/48 pp. 1,12 (Senate Inquiry report)3/23/49 p. 21 10/18/49 p. 11 11/29/50 p. 22 and 1/16/51 pp. 1,8.

Notes

    Butz, A. The Hoax of the TwentiethCentury , (1976), pp. 42-43) Weber, M., "Buchenwald: Legend and Reality," Journal of Historical Review Vol. 7, no. 4, (1987) Smith, B.R. Advertisement in campus newspapers (1991). Smith J. E., Lucius D. Clay: An American Life , (1990) New York Times (NYT) , Sept. 24, 1948, p. 3. NYT , Sept. 25, 1948, p. 6. NYT , Oct. 1, 1948, p. 11. NYT , Oct. 15, 1948, p. 3. NYT , Oct. 1, 1948, p. 11. NYT , Oct. 22, 1948, p. 5. NYT , Dec. 27, 1948, p. 12. NYT , Mar. 23, 1949, p. 21. Clay, L., Decision in Germany (1950), p.254 Smith, J. E., Op. Cit., p. 301. NYT , Jan. 16, 1951, p. 1. Weber, M., Op. Cit. Smith, J. E., Op. Cit., p. 301. Smith, J. E., Op. Cit., p. xi. Backer, J., Winds of History

Appendix: Documents Concerning Ilse Koch. Reprinted by permission from the author.


Discussion on how to govern Germany began as early as November 15, 1943, when officials from the Soviet Union, England, and the United States met together in England for a short conference. 1 While there, participants divided post-war Germany into zones, and split up zonal governing responsibilities amongst themselves. They created a Berlin based central body called the Control Council to coordinate intra-German Allied governing policy.2 While this political structure seemed practical on paper, it created problems in practice.

Although aware the Control Council would face daunting challenges and conflicting political ideologies, President Franklin D. Roosevelt considered it the best chance for facilitating cooperation with the Soviet Union. On March 26, 1945, he assigned Clay as deputy Military Governor of the American zone in occupied Germany. In this post, Clay’s charge was significant his job description included administrating the American zone and representing U.S. interests on the Control Council.

Did Lucius Clay mismanage the situation? Answering this question required asking four questions. First, what was Clay’s opinion of the situation before arriving in Germany? Second, who influenced Clay’s initial decisions and what were the opinions of other contemporary leaders? Third, what factors should have warned Clay that a Control Council government with the Soviet Union would not work? Finally, why did Clay persist in efforts to establish a successful Control Council relationship with the Soviets?

My answers to these four questions established that Clay had indeed mismanaged U.S. dealings with the Soviet Union on the Control Council. In fact, at the end of his first year as military Governor of Germany, Clay accurately described his administration over the American zone when he said, “Much has been accomplished.”3 But he also accurately described his success in representing U.S. foreign policy interests when he wrote the State Department saying, “I am not an empire builder.”4 Clay’s skills were in domestic, not in foreign affairs. He skillfully handled German domestic affairs, but mishandled foreign policy dealings with the Soviet Union. Most significantly, Lucius Clay mismanaged American quadripartite relations with the Soviets.

Clay’s mismanagement cost the United States much in the Cold War. Under Clay’s leadership, the United States withdrew its troops from Eastern Germany. This withdrawal allowed the Soviets to establish their western border in East Germany and shifted the playing field further to the West than it otherwise would have been. Moreover, Clay’s leadership method of appeasement led the Soviets to think that aggressive acts on their part would be met by appeasing acts by the U.S. Thus, the Berlin Blockade and propaganda attacks on Western Germany followed.

I became interested in Clay’s management of Sino-American relations in 1945 while researching the specific causes of the Cold War. Although my research did explicate Clay’s dealings with the Soviet Union further research is needed to fill in the picture. The French perspective on Control Council relations with the Soviets affected Clay’s dealings and has yet to be explicated. Also, the Soviet outlook on Control Council dealings needs to be analyzed.


Lucius D. Clay - History

Military Government

Looking for more information from military/civilian personnel assigned to or associated with the U.S. Army in Germany from 1945 to 1989. If you have any stories or thoughts on the subject, please contact me .


1946 aerial view of the area occupied by the Office of Military Government (US) in Zehlendorf

Oral History Interview with Lucius D. Clay

General Lucius D. Clay was deputy military governor, Germany (U.S.) in 1946 and commander in chief, U.S. Forces in Europe and military governor, U.S. Zone, Germany, between 1947-49.

The Truman Library has a copy of an oral history session conducted by Richard D. McKinzie on July 16, 1974 with the retired general. A transcript of the tape-recorded interview is available on-line.


E1F3 (E 204) Bavarian Regional Military Government
located at M 27, 11 Holbein Strasse

F1H2 (E 205) Upper Bavaria District Military Government
located at M 2, 6 Sophienstrasse

F1F3 (F 213) Munich City Military Government
located at Munich Rathaus

H2F3 (G 237) Munich County Military Government
located at M 8, 11 Maria-Theresienstrasse

38th AAA Brigade
located at Renatenheim, M 19 8 Jagdstrasse


Interstate Highway System Begins

1956
Congress authorizes the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways. Eventually, I-35 and I-94 link urban and rural Minnesota, while metropolitan multi-lanes connect suburb with city, home with work and shopping.*

To understand the largest infrastructure project in American history that began construction on August 13, 1956, one needs to backtrack to the beginning of President Eisenhower’s career. The young Eisenhower observed a convoy of vehicles and made study of their 56 day journey across the breadth of America. These findings pointed to the necessity of an efficient road system for the benefit of American citizens, their businesses, and for our military and national defense.**

Eisenhower’s goal spanned several administrations, numerous studies, and various iterations before it could be fulfilled. The timeline below shows some of the major steps.

1922- General John J. Pershing established the the first defensive network using existing roads. It became known as the “ Pershing Map”.

1938- President Franklin Roosevelt gives a hand-drawn map of eight proposed superhighway corridors to Thomas MacDonald head of the Bureau of Public Roads. Macdonald’s study of these corridors is refined by Herbert S. Fairbank into the first practical study of the interstate highway system entitled “Toll Roads and Free Roads”.

1944- The “ Federal Aid Highway Act” authorized construction of a system approximately forty thousand miles, but did not provide funding.**

1952-1954- President Eisenhower tapped General Lucius D. Clay and the Clay Committee to develop the interstate highway plan. This lead to standardizations of materials, techniques, and designs. It sought to connect all metro areas in the United States with populations exceeding 50,000 people. It also necessitated a Federal Tax on gasoline which provided about 90% of the hefty $25 billion price tag. ($1092B in today’s dollars.)

So now we have a snapshot of what happened nationally, but how did this epic construction project impact Minnesota? We in the Twin cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul became a very important crossroads for vacationers, and commerce. Interstate 35 connects Duluth, Minnesota and the harbor on Lake Superior with a primary north-south artery of the system connecting with Loredo, Texas a massive 1556 mile (2504km) corridor. We are also home of Interstate 94. This critical road connects the eastern branch of the Great Lakes in Port Huron, Michigan and terminates in Billings, Montana some 1585 miles (2551km) later. It’s the primary east-west branch of the Interstate system for the northern portion of the U.S.

Now we turn from history-past to addressing our G-d who lives and reigns in the Eternal Present. We remember You, Adonai, and just a few of the ways You made a way and a road for the nation of Israel. I recall how often the prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah spoke of roads.

Isaiah
“And the king of Assyria sent the Rabshakeh from Lachish to King Hezekiah at Jerusalem, with a great army. And he stood by the conduit of the upper pool on the highway to the Washer’s Field.” Isaiah 36:2 ESV

“A voice cries: “In the wilderness prepare the way of the LORD make straight in the desert a highway for our God.” Isaiah 40:3 ESV

“And it shall be said, “Build up, build up, prepare the way, remove every obstruction from my people’s way.” Isaiah 57:14 ESV

“Go through, go through the gates prepare the way for the people build up, build up the highway clear it of stones lift up a signal over the peoples.” Isaiah 62:10 ESV

Jeremiah
“Thus says the LORD: “Stand by the roads, and look, and ask for the ancient paths, where the good way is and walk in it, and find rest for your souls. But they said, ‘We will not walk in it.’” Jeremiah 6:16 ESV

“But my people have forgotten me they make offerings to false gods they made them stumble in their ways, in the ancient roads, and to walk into side roads, not the highway,…” Jeremiah 18:15 ESV

“Set up road markers for yourself make yourself guideposts consider well the highway, the road by which you went. Return, O virgin Israel, return to these your cities….” Jeremiah 31:21 ESV

(
“In those days and in that time, declares the LORD, the people of Israel and the people of Judah shall come together, weeping as they come, and they shall seek the LORD their God.
They shall ask the way to Zion, with faces turned toward it, saying, ‘Come, let us join ourselves to the LORD in an everlasting covenant that will never be forgotten.’”
Jeremiah 50:4-5 ESV

Let us sit awhile with You, and remember that You are the Lord of Logistics. (Sorry we forget about Your miraculous relocation of the nation of Israel: out of Egypt, through the Red Sea, and through incredibly arid and dangerous climes. Oh, and with the most formidable army in the world in pursuit!? When there is no way, there is Yah’s-way!) You make us alive, and have given every creature some mode of transportation that suits them. Yet, You care about things as practical as our Interstate system in little “flyover” Minnesota. Again, what say You about the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956?

We thank You for the epic dreams of our forbearers: General Pershing, FDR, Mac Donald, Fairbank, and General Clay! Acknowledging their planning and administration, we thank You for the tens of thousands of men and women who realized this vision. We praise You for the music of heavy machinery doing good work: excavators, backhoes, bulldozers, graders, dump trucks, loaders, and rollers! We remember all of those who burned up in the summers, worked in muddles in the spring rains, and froze in the winters. They got the job done, and did it well! We applaud them and Your approval of their efforts begun in 1956!

Our state is more secure in it’s defenses because they laid this road! Our economy is vastly improved because of the increase in interstate trade, and the reduction of the price in transportation costs to the end user of virtually every product or food some years have seen a 35% increase in local economies because this system exists! Our people have enjoyed the pleasure of freedom of movement: they have seen more beauty through camping and RV travel, they can visit family across the US in a few days, and they do so in safety with easy navigation!

Yet, my mind moves to the spiritual and relational impact of our Interstates. How does this network of roads impact us past? We acknowledge to You the pride of colossal construction. Where have we offended You in this?

To commence, we see the temptations unique to our citizens that come with great freedom. Because it is possible to see more, do more, and trade more we have too often taken the bait. We have not exercised self-control in our transportation businesses, to and from work, or even on vacation. Something deep in us drives us beyond a reasonable stopping point. Will You take these attachments and idolatries both past and present-tense up, out, and onto the Cross of Christ?

Next, I pray about our ease of movement and its’ disruption of our connection to Your land. How many human and creaturely lives were disrupted because I-35 crossed their paths? How many farms were cut in half? How many animals found their pathways to food or water blocked? How many neighbors were bifurcated by this road eating at least a 272ft wide path through their neighborhood?

Granted Lord, change is neither necessarily good nor bad, but I remember this fact to You something whole was split in two. For some good reason, You saw fit to give us a yearning for home. Humans everywhere desire a place unique to them and their families. It just seems that the more we move, it may have tainted our desire to stay.
Do we look to “the open road” myths because our hearts have detached from our homes, our friendships and marriages, and inwardly from even ourselves? Do we bustle about to expand the territory of our businesses because we cannot stop on our inward scenic overpass, take in a breathtaking view of our accomplishments, and say “I’m good.”?

Lord, as this fabulous Interstate System is a metaphor for connection, there are are a few declarations I want to pronounce with You over this epoch. By the Cross of Christ, by the Blood of Christ and His Resurrection, and by the Eternal Word I want to declare my agreement with You, Isaiah, and Jeremiah over the entire “National System of Interstate and Defense Highways”, from 1956 to the present, and into Your eternal now to ‘join ourselves to the LORD in an everlasting covenant that will never be forgotten’. May the detached coasts inside be connected! Reknit the neural pathways of our minds, drive us to new habits, and bathe us in new ways of thinking! Be the defender of our hearts against evil, and help us take in the beautiful, the good, to put the rag-top down and go crusin’ with You!


Jean Edward Smith Papers

The Jean Edward Smith Papers are housed in 10 boxes and span 12.0 linear feet. Historian Jean Edward Smith amassed these materials for his full-length biography of Lucius D. Clay entitled "Lucius D. Clay: An America Life" (New York: Holt, 1990). Cooperating with his biographer on this project, Clay exchanged correspondence with Smith, recounted key events, agreed to take part in numerous oral history interviews, and provided access to key documents. The correspondence between Clay and Smith represents the highlight of this collection. The archive includes more than twenty original letters to Smith written and signed by Clay in reference to various episodes in Clay's career, along with numerous letters from Smith to Clay. A small number of original letters sent to Clay by notable individuals, such as Konrad Adenauer, Omar Bradley, James F. Byrnes, Douglas MacArthur, and Sam Rayburn, is also present. Smith's extensive research files contain materials of worth to diplomatic and military historians. Of note is a wealth of duplicated correspondence between Clay and both James F. Byrnes and Dwight D. Eisenhower. Some correspondence refers to Clay's involvement with war production during World War II, his role in the Bay of Pigs prisoners' ransom, and important events in his life. Some attention is given to the Berlin airlift. Smith's files also contain genealogical material on Clay, manuscripts of Smith's biography, thirty transcripts of Smith's interviews with Clay, more than twenty transcripts of Smith's interviews with other individuals, programs of special interest relating to Clay's career, newspaper and periodical clippings about Clay, and photographs of Clay. The Georgetown University Library, Special Collections Division holds other colletions relating to the diplomatic history of Germany. The James D. Mooney Papers provide documentation of Mooney's informal diplomatic contacts in 1939-40 with Adolph Hitler and the Nazi government. The George C. McGhee Papers chronicle the career of the an American ambassador who served in West Germany from 1963-1968. The bulk of the Lucius D. Clay Papers are housed at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. Another group of his papers, dating from 1950 to 1978, are deposited at the Marshall Foundation in Lexington, Virginia. Jean Edward Smith's interviews with Clay are stored at both the Columbia University Library and the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library.

SYNOPSIS: The Jean Edward Smith Papers are arranged into twenty (20) series as described below:

SERIES 1 - Correspondence from Lucius Clay to J.E. Smith. Contains over twenty letters sent by Clay to Smith, mostly referring to events and people in Clay's past. Placed into twenty-one folders. Arranged chronologically.

SERIES 2 - Correspondence from Lucius Clay to individuals. More than twenty letters from Clay to notable people, including James F. Byrnes, William H. Draper, Jr., Ferdinand Eberstadt, Sam Rayburn, and Brehon Somervell. Series consists of twenty-five folders. Arranged alphabetically by correspondent.

SERIES 3 - Correspondence from Lucius Clay - Chronological. Outgoing correspondence from Lucius Clay , dated 1940-1971, stored in seventeen folders, and arranged chronologically. Mostly photocopies.

SERIES 4 - Correspondence from Lucius Clay - Subject. Clay correspondence regarding the Bricker Amendment, Denison (Red River) Dam, and highways. Date span: 1941-1957. Arranged alphabetically by subject.

SERIES 5 - Correspondence to Lucius Clay from Individuals. Incoming correspondence to Lucius Clay from notable individuals, including Konrad Adenauer, Omar Bradley, James F. Byrnes, Douglas MacArthur, and Sam Rayburn. Arranged into eighteen folders alphabetically by correspondent.

SERIES 6 - Correspondence to Lucius Clay - Chronological. Incoming Clay correspondence, dated 1942-73, sorted into twenty-eight folders, and arranged chronologically. Mostly photocopies.

SERIES 7 - Correspondence to J.E. Smith from Individuals. Contains letters to Smith from notable individuals, mostly regarding setting up oral history interviews. Forty-seven folders. Arranged alphabetically by correspondent.

SERIES 8 - Correspondence to J.E. Smith - Chronological. Contains incoming correspondence to Jean Edward Smith regarding his research for his biography of Lucius Clay. Arranged chronologically.

SERIES 9 - Correspondence from J.E. Smith to Lucius Clay. Typed letter carbons from Smith to Clay regarding Smith's biographical research about Clay. Arranged chronologically.

SERIES 10 - Correspondence from J.E. Smith - Chronological. Outgoing correspondence from Smith seeking biographical information about Lucius Clay. Correspondents include past associates of Clay, libraries, and interviewees. Arranged chronologically.

SERIES 11 - Correspondence from J.E. Smith - Subject. Contains outgoingcorrespondence from Smith about various subjects. Correspondents include librarians, archivists, and publishers. Arranged alphabetically by subject.

SERIES 12 - Miscellaneous Correspondence. Consists of photocopied correspondence dated 1938-70 relating to the career of Lucius D. Clay. Correspondents include James F. Byrnes, Henry L. Stimson, Herbert Hoover, and Dwight D. Eisenhower. Arranged chronologically.

SERIES 13 - Lucius D. Clay Documents. Contains documents relating to the career of Lucius D. Clay, including his army efficiency reports, a few speeches, and some awards. Arranged chronologically.

SERIES 14 - Clay Family Documents. Contains Lucius D. Clay genealogical material. Of note: Senator Alexander Stephens Clay correspondence (photocopies) and Clay family bibliographical information. Arranged in rough chronological order.

SERIES 15 - J.E. Smith Manuscripts - Contains typed, edited manuscripts of Jean Edward Smith's biography "Lucius D. Clay: An American Life." Arranged by draft and then chronologically by chapter. Also includes several manuscript essays by Smith and handwritten notes by him.

SERIES 16 - Interview Transcripts. Consists of ninety folders holding typed interview transcripts of oral history interviews conducted by Jean Edward Smith. Over thirty interviews of Lucius D. Clay are present, along with dozens of others with key individuals who knew Clay, such as Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., Robert Lovett, John J. McCloy, and Robert Murphy. Arranged alphabetically by interviewee.

SERIES 17 - Printer Matter. Contains printed matter relating to the career of Lucius D. Clay. Includes several programs honoring Clay, in addition to newspaper and periodical clippings dating from 1930-87. Programs appear first. Periodical clippings appear second, arranged chronologically.

SERIES 18 - Photographs. Contains sixty-one photographs of Lucius Clay. Notably, Clay appears in photos with Robert D. Murphy, Robert L. Patterson, Walter Kerr, Thomas E. Dewey, Richard M. Nixon, Dean Acheson, Harry Truman, and Henry Kissinger. Many of the Clay photos date to the period between 1945 and 1949 when Clay was posted in Germany. Also contains many non-Clay photos, mostly of his wife Marjorie McKeown Clay. Clay photos appear first in the series. Non-Clay photos appear second.

SERIES 19: Audio Cassettes. Consists of twenty-six audio cassettes of interviews conducted by Jean Edward Smith for his biography on Lucius D. Clay. Arranged alphabetically by interviewee.

SERIES 20: Oversized. Contains oversized materials among the papers of Jean Edward Smith, including a few photographs of Lucius D. Clay and a few muniments.

ABBREVIATIONS: ALS - Autograph Letter Signed AM - Autograph Manuscript TD - Typed Document TDS - Typed Document Signed TEL - Telegram TL - Typed Letter TLS - Typed Letter Signed TM - Typed Manuscript TMS - Typed manuscript Signed Mss - Manuscript


Watch the video: Building of Clay Kaserne in Garlstedt Germany (December 2021).