Information

Kailua IX-71 - History


Kailua

A bay off the coast of Hawaii.

(IX-71: dp. 1,411; 1. 189'9"; b. 30'; dr. 15'9"; s. 9.8 k; cpl. 61; a. 13", 4.50 cal. mg., 2 dct.)

Kailua (IX-71), formerly Dickenson, was launched in 1923 by the Sun Shipbuilding & Drydock Co_ Chester, Pa.; acquired by the Navy 19 May 1942 on a bare-boat basis and commissioned 5 May 1943, Lt. C. R. Bower in command.

Kailua departed Pearl Harbor 15 May 1943 to join the Service Force of the 7th Fleet. Upon her arrival at Pago Pago, Samoa, 25 May, she immediately commenced operations as an auxiliary in the Pacific islands. During June she arrived Milne Bay, New Guinea, and for the next year remained there laying cables, ASW nets, and buoys. Kailua arrived Pearl Harbor 4 July 1944 and performed similar services there for the rest of the war. Kailua decommissioned at Pearl Harbor 29 October 1945 and was later sunk intentionally.


Kailua IX-71 - History

In the Hawaiian language Kailua means "two seas," or "two currents," a contraction of the words kai (meaning sea or sea water) and ʻelua (meaning two) it is so named because of the two lagoons in the district or the two currents which run through Kailua Bay.

Kailua is located in Windward Oahu in the judicial district and the ahupua'a named Ko'olaupoko. It is located 12 miles northeast of Honolulu - over Nu'uanu Pali, tallest mountain peak in the Ko'olau mountain range.

The town is a typical suburb spawned by post-war development Kaiwanui Marsh, and Enchanted Lake. The Kailua Chamber of Commerce supports the communities within the triangle from Marine Corp Base Hawaii to the edge of Kaneohe to the outskirts of Waimanalo. Many small businesses and community organizations support this unique town with its beautiful, protected beaches, and improved highways bringing thousands home from their workplaces in Honolulu.

"I remember one day, I saw Jason Lee, Jamie Lee Curtis, Adam Sandler, Famous Amos, Michelle Pfeifer and some of the cast of Lost all in the same day, just around down doing normal things. No one bothers them, the are treated like normal people. I think that is why they love it here."
Kailua Resident

Many people come from all over the world to visit Kailua's picturesque beaches, great restaurants and wonderful people. Its tight nit community, laid back vibe and uncrowded beaches is what appeals to people like President Obama, and many other celebrities who make Kailua home. Celebrities enjoy a town you can hang out in, where the residents leave them alone. It isn't uncommon to have celebrity encounters in Kailua.

The "sense of place" shopping and dining experiences you have today are the result of cooperation between the City & County of Honolulu, local businesses and community volunteers in the renovation of our malls, buildings and streets.

There is still more is to come. Stroll around our town and enjoy the ambiance of our revitalized Kailua Town.

Natural Features

Kailua is a place of much natural beauty. The most significant features of Kailua are the bay, the mountains, and the wetlands. Kailua Bay is a magnificent place symbolizing the regional quality of the community. Kailua Beach and nearby Lanikai have been on the "Worlds Best Beach" lists by several publishers for many years.

Wai Nui (the big water) Marsh, a natural wetland, provides habitat for many species of wildlife. The marsh was a center of life for early Kailuans. Here is where they farmed, managed their fishponds and prayed to their gods. A huge saltwater wetland, it's peacefulness can be enjoyed on the hiking/biking pathway that wraps around its edge.

Mount Olomana towers over every neighborhood in Kailua. It's three peaks are it's significant feature and a challenge for the hardiest hikers.


The History and Growth of Kailua

It’s easy to understand why early Hawaiians settled in the windward Oahu district of Kailua. The ahupua‘a was blessed with fertile, stream-fed lands, cooling breezes, two natural ponds – Kaelepulu and Kawainui – and a plentiful source of food from pristine Kailua Bay. Scientific evidence has found that humans first occupied the Kailua area as early as 500 AD. However, it wasn’t until around 1200 that widespread cultivation took root here, with Hawaiians growing taro as well as bananas, sweet potato and other native crops in a vast network of terraced parcels that extended into the foothills and valleys of the Koolau Mountains.

Kailua’s bountiful resources and pleasant climate made it an attractive home for high chiefs and, later, a welcome stop for Hawaiian royalty as they traveled around the island. Life in Kailua revolved around fishing and agriculture into the early 20th century, although by the mid-1800s, the dominance of taro farming gave way to rice cultivation as Hawaii’s growing sugar industry brought Chinese immigrant workers to the Islands. When the workers’ contracts expired, many moved to Kailua and took up rice farming and milling. At one time there were as many as five rice mills in the district. By 1910, rice cultivation had waned as market demand declined.

A change in immigration laws stopped the flow of Chinese laborers to Hawaii, and Hawaii’s rice exports faced competition from growers in Texas and California. Dairy farms had begun to replace Kailua’s rice farms and became more widespread as the population grew. Also by the early 1900s, Kailua was seeing the first signs of commerce, including three Chinese-owned grocery stores located in the Maunawili area, followed by a poi factory, blacksmith, barbershop, tailor shop and other small businesses. Traveling vendors, selling housewares and sundries as well as perishables, made frequent visits to the Windward side.

Around the same time, Kaneohe Ranch Company, founded in 1893 and later acquired by James B. Castle and his son Harold Kainalu Long Castle, was accumulating large tracts of land in Windward Oahu for its ranching activities, owning some 12,000 acres from Kailua to Kaneohe. Considered one of the founding families of ‘modern’ Kailua, the Castles were the dominant land-owners in the region, holding an estimated 80 percent of the property in Kailua by the time World War II broke out.


HURL and NOAA team discover intact ‘ghost ship’ off Hawaii

Sitting upright, its solitary mast still standing and the ship’s wheel still in place, the hulk of the former cable ship Dickenson, later the USS Kailua, was found on the seabed last year on a maritime heritage submersible mission with the UH Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory’s (HURL) Terry Kerby and Drs. James Delgado and Hans Van Tilburg of the maritime heritage program in NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries.

“It is always a thrill when you are closing in on a large sonar target with the Pisces submersible and you don’t know what big piece of history is going to come looming out of the dark,” said Kerby, HURL submersible pilot. “One of our first views of the USS Kailua was the classic helms wheel on the fantail. The ship was surprisingly intact for a vessel that was sunk with a torpedo. The upper deck structures from the bow to the stern were well-preserved and showed no sign of torpedo damage.”

Launched in Chester, Pennsylvania in early 1923 for the Commercial Pacific Cable Company, Dickenson was a vital part of a global network of submarine cable that carried telecommunications around the world.

When the cable reached Hawaii for the first time in 1901, it was a major step in establishing not only a key link in the network, but also in connecting the islands to the rest of the world with near-instant communication. Dickenson arrived in Hawaii and started work in July of that year. Repairing cable and carrying supplies, Dickenson served the remote stations at Midway and Fanning Island from 1923 until 1941.

“From her interisland service to her role in Pacific communications and then World War II, Dickenson today is like a museum exhibit resting in the darkness, reminding us of these specific elements of Pacific history,” said Van Tilburg.

Dickenson was also famously chartered by Cable and Wireless Ltd., the British telecommunications company also operating in the Pacific, to evacuate company employees from Fanning Island, a destination well known to Dickenson’s crew as they regularly steamed to provision and supply the C. & W. station there. With Britain at war with Germany and its Axis partners, it was feared the station would be a target, as the company’s stations had also been targets for German raiders in World War I. Dickenson arrived at Pearl Harbor with the Fanning evacuees on the morning of December 7, 1941, sailing into a port at war. Some of the evacuees on Dickenson noticed a submarine following their ship, only to see it disappear as U.S. forces attacked the sub and drove it off.

The coming of war had implications for Midway, Dickenson’s regular port-of-call, and Dickenson. The cable service from Midway out into the Pacific was soon inoperable, and remained so throughout the war. Midway’s role as a hub in trans-Pacific communications was effectively over, and a new strategic role, which had been evident in U.S. desires from the beginning of American involvement with the atoll, now assumed prominence. The famous battle of Midway, off the atoll’s shores in 1942 underscored that new role. Dickenson, now chartered by the U.S. Navy, entered service as USS Kailua (IX-71) to service cable and submarine nets in the South Pacific until it returned to Pearl Harbor at the end of the war. No longer needed by the Navy or the Commercial Cable Company, the former USS Kailua was sunk as a target by submarine torpedo fire on February 7, 1946. The exact location was not recorded, and the final resting place of the ship had remained a mystery.

“Seeing the ship come into view, we were all amazed at its level of preservation – and by the fact that everything was more or less in place. The identification of the wreck was easy, not only because of its unique form, but also because the Navy’s identification number of IX-71 was still painted on the bow,” said Delgado, director of the Maritime Heritage Program.

Detailed analysis of sonar surveys of the sea floor off Oahu by Steve Price and Terry Kerby of HURL has found a number of significant, previously uncharted wrecks that remained unidentified until encountered by HURL’s Pisces submersibles. These have included the Japanese midget submarine sunk in the opening hour of the attack on Pearl Harbor, and the massive aircraft carrier submarines I-400 and I-401.

The USS Kailua wreck is considered an historic site. “We plan to nominate the wreck to the National Register of Historic Places,” noted Delgado. “This unique American ship, vital in its role in keeping global telecommunications open in the first part of the 20th century, is also linked to historically significant Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, now part of Papahanaumokukea Marine National Monument in the National Marine Sanctuary System. Wrecks such as this remind us of special places in the ocean, like the monument, that connect all of us to them as refuges, sanctuaries and museums beneath the sea.”


Research team discovers intact 'ghost ship' off the coast of Oahu

Researchers from the University of Hawai&lsquoi at Mānoa and NOAA&rsquos Office of National Marine Sanctuaries today announced the discovery of an intact &ldquoghost ship&rdquo in 2,000 feet of water nearly 20 miles off the coast of Oʻahu. Sitting upright, its solitary mast still standing and the ship&rsquos wheel still in place, the hulk of the former cable ship Dickenson, later the USS Kailua, was found on the seabed last year on a maritime heritage submersible mission. On the mission were the Hawai&lsquoi Undersea Research Laboratory&rsquos (HURL's) Terry Kerby, and Drs. James Delgado and Hans Van Tilburg of the maritime heritage program in NOAA&rsquos Office of National Marine Sanctuaries.

&ldquoIt is always a thrill when you are closing in on a large sonar target with the Pisces submersible and you don&rsquot know what big piece of history is going to come looming out of the dark,&rdquo said Kerby, HURL submersible pilot. &ldquoOne of our first views of the USS Kailua was the classic helms wheel on the fantail. The ship was surprisingly intact for a vessel that was sunk with a torpedo. The upper deck structures from the bow to the stern were well-preserved and showed no sign of torpedo damage.&rdquo

Launched in Chester, Pennsylvania, in early 1923 for the Commercial Pacific Cable Co., Dickenson was a vital part of a global network of submarine cable that carried telecommunications around the world. When the cable reached Hawai&lsquoi for the first time in 1901, it was a major step in establishing not only a key link in the network, but also in connecting the islands to the rest of the world with near-instant communication. Dickenson arrived in Hawai&lsquoi and started work in July of that year. Repairing cable and carrying supplies, Dickenson served the remote stations at Midway and Fanning Island from 1923 until 1941.

&ldquoFrom her interisland service to her role in Pacific communications and then World War II, Dickenson today is like a museum exhibit resting in the darkness, reminding us of these specific elements of Pacific history,&rdquo said Van Tilburg.

Dickenson was also famously chartered by Cable and Wireless Ltd., the British telecommunications company also operating in the Pacific, to evacuate company employees from Fanning Island, a destination well known to Dickenson&rsquos crew as they regularly steamed to provision and supply the C.&W. station there. With Britain at war with Germany and its Axis partners, it was feared the station would be a target, as the company&rsquos stations had also been targets for German raiders in World War I. Dickenson arrived at Pearl Harbor with the Fanning evacuees on the morning of December 7, 1941, sailing into a port at war. Some of the evacuees on Dickenson noticed a submarine following their ship, only to see it disappear as U.S. forces attacked the sub and drove it off.

The coming of war had implications for Midway, Dickenson&rsquos regular port-of-call, and Dickenson. The cable service from Midway out into the Pacific was soon inoperable, and remained so throughout the war. Midway&rsquos role as a hub in trans-Pacific communications was effectively over, and a new strategic role, which had been evident in U.S. desires from the beginning of American involvement with the atoll, now assumed prominence. The famous battle of Midway, off the atoll&rsquos shores in 1942, underscored that new role. Dickenson, now chartered by the U.S. Navy, entered service as USS Kailua (IX-71) to service cable and submarine nets in the South Pacific until it returned to Pearl Harbor at the end of the war. No longer needed by the Navy or the Commercial Cable Co., the former USS Kailua was sunk as a target by submarine torpedo fire on February 7, 1946. The exact location was not recorded, and the final resting place of the ship had remained a mystery.

&ldquoSeeing the ship come into view, we were all amazed at its level of preservation &ndash and by the fact that everything was more or less in place. The identification of the wreck was easy, not only because of its unique form, but also because the Navy&rsquos identification number of IX-71 was still painted on the bow,&rdquo said Delgado, director of the Maritime Heritage Program.

Detailed analysis of sonar surveys of the sea floor off Oʻahu by Kerby and Steve Price of HURL has found a number of significant, previously uncharted wrecks that remained unidentified until encountered by HURL&rsquos Pisces submersibles. These have included the Japanese midget submarine sunk in the opening hour of the attack on Pearl Harbor, and the massive aircraft carrier submarines I-400 and I-401.

The USS Kailua wreck is considered an historic site. &ldquoWe plan to nominate the wreck to the National Register of Historic Places,&rdquo noted Delgado. &ldquoThis unique American ship, vital in its role in keeping global telecommunications open in the first part of the 20 th century, is also linked to historically significant Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, now part of Papahanaumokukea Marine National Monument in the National Marine Sanctuary System. Wrecks such as this remind us of special places in the ocean, like the monument, that connect all of us to them as refuges, sanctuaries and museums beneath the sea.&rdquo

There are no plans for a return to the site or any recovery the wreck is owned by the U.S. Government and is protected as federal property.

About HURL:
The Hawai&lsquoi Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) specializes in providing scientists with the tools and expertise they need to investigate the undersea environment, including submersibles, remotely operated vehicles, and other cutting edge technologies. This Center, within the School of Ocean and Earth Sciences and Technology (SOEST) at the University of Hawai&lsquoi, is partly funded through a cooperative agreement from NOAA that began in 1980.

About NOAA:
NOAA&rsquos mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and to conserve and manage our coastal and marine resources. Join us on Facebook, Twitter and our other social media channels.

NOAA&rsquos Office of Ocean Exploration and Research operates, manages and maintains the cutting-edge ocean exploration systems on the vessel and ashore.

NOAA&rsquos Office of National Marine Sanctuaries serves as trustee for a system of 14 marine protected areas, encompassing more than 170,000 square miles of America&rsquos ocean and Great Lakes waters. Through active research, management, and public engagement, national marine sanctuaries sustain healthy environments that are the foundation for thriving communities and stable economies. Follow Sanctuaries on Facebook and on Twitter @sanctuaries.


Kailua IX-71 - History

Researchers from the University of Hawai'i (UH) and NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries today announced the discovery of an intact "ghost ship" in 2,000 feet of water nearly 20 miles off the coast of Oahu - the former cable ship Dickenson, later the USS Kailua.

Launched in Chester, Pennsylvania in early 1923 for the Commercial Pacific Cable Company, Dickenson was part of a global network of submarine cable that carried telecommunications around the world. Repairing cable and carrying supplies, Dickenson served the remote stations at Midway and Fanning Island from 1923 until 1941. it arrived in Pearl Harbor with evacuees from Fanning Island on December 7th, during the Japanese attack that brought America into World War II.

It was found sitting upright, its solitary mast still standing and the ship's wheel still in place, on the seabed last year during a maritime heritage submersible mission with the UH Hawai'i Undersea Research Laboratory's (HURL) Terry Kerby and Drs. James Delgado and Hans Van Tilburg of the maritime heritage program in NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries.

USS Kailua was found surprisingly intact, including the ship's wheel, for a vessel that was sunk with a torpedo. It survived World War II,, but couldn't survive obsolescence. Credit: UH HURL/ NOAA

"It is always a thrill when you are closing in on a large sonar target with the Pisces submersible and you don't know what big piece of history is going to come looming out of the dark," said Kerby, HURL submersible pilot. "One of our first views of the USS Kailua was the classic helms wheel on the fantail. The ship was surprisingly intact for a vessel that was sunk with a torpedo. The upper deck structures from the bow to the stern were well-preserved and showed no sign of torpedo damage."

"From her interisland service to her role in Pacific communications and then World War II, Dickenson today is like a museum exhibit resting in the darkness, reminding us of these specific elements of Pacific history," said Van Tilburg.

The USS Kailua, 1943. Credit: Naval History and Heritage Command

Dickenson was used to evacuate company employees from Fanning Island. With Britain at war with Germany and its Axis partners, it was feared the station would be a target, as the company's stations had also been targets for German raiders in World War I. Dickenson arrived at Pearl Harbor with the Fanning evacuees on the morning of December 7, 1941, sailing into a port at war. Some of the evacuees on Dickenson noticed a submarine following their ship, only to see it disappear as U.S. forces attacked the sub and drove it off.

The coming of war had implications for Midway, Dickenson's regular port-of-call, and Dickenson. The cable service from Midway out into the Pacific was soon inoperable, and remained so throughout the war.

Midway's role as a hub in trans-Pacific communications was effectively over, and a new strategic role, which had been evident in U.S. desires from the beginning of American involvement with the atoll, now assumed prominence. The famous battle of Midway, off the atoll's shores in 1942 underscored that new role. Dickenson, now chartered by the U.S. Navy, entered service as USS Kailua (IX-71) to service cable and submarine nets in the South Pacific until it returned to Pearl Harbor at the end of the war.

No longer needed by the Navy or the Commercial Cable Company, the former USS Kailua was sunk as a target by submarine torpedo on February 7, 1946. The exact location was not recorded, and the final resting place of the ship had remained a mystery.

"Seeing the ship come into view, we were all amazed at its level of preservation - and by the fact that everything was more or less in place. The identification of the wreck was easy, not only because of its unique form, but also because the Navy's identification number of IX-71 was still painted on the bow," said Delgado, director of the Maritime Heritage Program.

Detailed analysis of sonar surveys of the sea floor off Oahu by Steve Price and Terry Kerby of HURL has found a number of significant, previously uncharted wrecks that remained unidentified until encountered by HURL's Pisces submersibles. These have included the Japanese midget submarine sunk in the opening hour of the attack on Pearl Harbor, and the massive aircraft carrier submarines I-400 and I-401.

The USS Kailua wreck is considered an historic site. "We plan to nominate the wreck to the National Register of Historic Places," noted Delgado. "This unique American ship, vital in its role in keeping global telecommunications open in the first part of the 20th century, is also linked to historically significant Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, now part of Papahanaumokukea Marine National Monument in the National Marine Sanctuary System. Wrecks such as this remind us of special places in the ocean, like the monument, that connect all of us to them as refuges, sanctuaries and museums beneath the sea."

There are no plans for a return to the site or any recovery the wreck owned by the U.S. Government and is protected as Federal Property.

his dislodged engine room telegraph lies off the starboard bow of the USS Kailua. Credit: UH HURL


History

Kailua, “two waters” was known to be a favorite residence of some of Oahu’s 15 th Century chiefs. In the 1780’s a chief from the island of Maui came to Oahu and settled in Kailua. He later fought and killed the Oahu chief. During the time he ruled, Kailua was the capitol of Oahu.

King Kamehameha III Queen Kalama

During the reign of King Kamehameha III, the lands of the kingdom were divided in the Great Mahele. Kalama Beach Club got its name from Queen Kalama (Kalama Hakaleleponi Kapakuhaili: 1817–1870), the Queen consort of King Kamehameha III (1814-1854). She owned a great portion of Kailua.

The Kalama tract, encompassing the area from the Kaneohe side of Ainoni Street to Kaneohe side of Makawao Street, and from the mauka (mountain) side of North Kalaheo to the mauka side of North Kainalu, was established in 1925. The tract was made up of 184 lots, which originally sold for between $1500 and $2500. The property owners were eligible to become members of the Kalama Beach Club once the Club House was completed in 1928. The Club House was designed by the firm of Rothwell, Kangeter & Lester, Architects & Engineers.

Original blueprint of Kalama Beach Clubhouse from 1927

The developer, Harold K.L. Castle (1886—1967) and Armstrong, Ltd., donated the Beach Club property and provided the funding for the design and construction of the Club House. The Club was meant to provide access to the beach for lot owners and as a place to gather. The original 184 lots were 20,000 square feet and each property owner received a certificate for a one-share interest in the Kalama Community Trust. Most lots have been subdivided so that there are now approximately 346 parcels with owners that are potential members of the Club.

In addition to the property and Club House, Mr. Castle created a trust so that the property is legally held in title in the names of three trustees. An Executive Committee, also established by the Trust document, assists the Trustees in managing the property, sets the rules and policies for use of the Club and is charged with maintaining the property.

During World War II, the club was taken over by the military for use as sort of an officers club.

In 2015 the Kalama Beach Club was placed on the Registry of Hawai’i Historic places.


Research team discovers intact ‘ghost ship’ off the coast of Oahu

Researchers from the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa and NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries today announced the discovery of an intact “ghost ship” in 2,000 feet of water nearly 20 miles off the coast of Oʻahu. Sitting upright, its solitary mast still standing and the ship’s wheel still in place, the hulk of the former cable ship Dickenson, later the USS Kailua, was found on the seabed last year on a maritime heritage submersible mission. On the mission were the Hawai‘i Undersea Research Laboratory’s (HURL’s) Terry Kerby, and Drs. James Delgado and Hans Van Tilburg of the maritime heritage program in NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries.

“It is always a thrill when you are closing in on a large sonar target with thePisces submersible and you don’t know what big piece of history is going to come looming out of the dark,” said Kerby, HURL submersible pilot. “One of our first views of the USS Kailua was the classic helms wheel on the fantail. The ship was surprisingly intact for a vessel that was sunk with a torpedo. The upper deck structures from the bow to the stern were well-preserved and showed no sign of torpedo damage.”

Launched in Chester, Pennsylvania, in early 1923 for the Commercial Pacific Cable Co., Dickenson was a vital part of a global network of submarine cable that carried telecommunications around the world. When the cable reached Hawai‘i for the first time in 1901, it was a major step in establishing not only a key link in the network, but also in connecting the islands to the rest of the world with near-instant communication. Dickenson arrived in Hawai‘i and started work in July of that year. Repairing cable and carrying supplies,Dickenson served the remote stations at Midway and Fanning Island from 1923 until 1941.

“From her interisland service to her role in Pacific communications and then World War II, Dickenson today is like a museum exhibit resting in the darkness, reminding us of these specific elements of Pacific history,” said Van Tilburg.

Dickenson was also famously chartered by Cable and Wireless Ltd., the British telecommunications company also operating in the Pacific, to evacuate company employees from Fanning Island, a destination well known to Dickenson’s crew as they regularly steamed to provision and supply the C.&W. station there. With Britain at war with Germany and its Axis partners, it was feared the station would be a target, as the company’s stations had also been targets for German raiders in World War I. Dickenson arrived at Pearl Harbor with the Fanning evacuees on the morning of December 7, 1941, sailing into a port at war. Some of the evacuees on Dickenson noticed a submarine following their ship, only to see it disappear as U.S. forces attacked the sub and drove it off.

The coming of war had implications for Midway, Dickenson’s regular port-of-call, and Dickenson. The cable service from Midway out into the Pacific was soon inoperable, and remained so throughout the war. Midway’s role as a hub in trans-Pacific communications was effectively over, and a new strategic role, which had been evident in U.S. desires from the beginning of American involvement with the atoll, now assumed prominence. The famous battle of Midway, off the atoll’s shores in 1942, underscored that new role. Dickenson, now chartered by the U.S. Navy, entered service as USS Kailua (IX-71) to service cable and submarine nets in the South Pacific until it returned to Pearl Harbor at the end of the war. No longer needed by the Navy or the Commercial Cable Co., the former USS Kailua was sunk as a target by submarine torpedo fire on February 7, 1946. The exact location was not recorded, and the final resting place of the ship had remained a mystery.

“Seeing the ship come into view, we were all amazed at its level of preservation – and by the fact that everything was more or less in place. The identification of the wreck was easy, not only because of its unique form, but also because the Navy’s identification number of IX-71 was still painted on the bow,” said Delgado, director of the Maritime Heritage Program.

Detailed analysis of sonar surveys of the sea floor off Oʻahu by Kerby and Steve Price of HURL has found a number of significant, previously uncharted wrecks that remained unidentified until encountered by HURL’s Pisces submersibles. These have included the Japanese midget submarine sunk in the opening hour of the attack on Pearl Harbor, and the massive aircraft carrier submarines I-400 and I-401.

The USS Kailua wreck is considered an historic site. “We plan to nominate the wreck to the National Register of Historic Places,” noted Delgado. “This unique American ship, vital in its role in keeping global telecommunications open in the first part of the 20 th century, is also linked to historically significant Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, now part of Papahanaumokukea Marine National Monument in the National Marine Sanctuary System. Wrecks such as this remind us of special places in the ocean, like the monument, that connect all of us to them as refuges, sanctuaries and museums beneath the sea.”

There are no plans for a return to the site or any recovery the wreck is owned by the U.S. Government and is protected as federal property.

About HURL:
The Hawai‘i Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) specializes in providing scientists with the tools and expertise they need to investigate the undersea environment, including submersibles, remotely operated vehicles, and other cutting edge technologies. This Center, within the School of Ocean and Earth Sciences and Technology (SOEST) at the University of Hawai‘i, is partly funded through a cooperative agreement from NOAA that began in 1980.

About NOAA:
NOAA’s mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth’s environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and to conserve and manage our coastal and marine resources. Join us on Facebook, Twitter and our other social media channels.

NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration and Research operates, manages and maintains the cutting-edge ocean exploration systems on the vessel and ashore.

NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries serves as trustee for a system of 14 marine protected areas, encompassing more than 170,000 square miles of America’s ocean and Great Lakes waters. Through active research, management, and public engagement, national marine sanctuaries sustain healthy environments that are the foundation for thriving communities and stable economies. Follow Sanctuaries on Facebook and on Twitter @sanctuaries.


Dio Cassius , Roman History, Volume IX : Books 71-80

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), ca. 150– 235 CE , was born at Nicaea in Bithynia in Asia Minor. On the death of his father (Roman governor of Cilicia) he went in 180 to Rome, entered the Senate, and under the emperor Commodus was an advocate. He held high offices, becoming a close friend of several emperors. He was made governor of Pergamum and Smyrna consul in 220 proconsul of Africa governor of Dalmatia and then of Pannonia and consul again in 229.

Of the eighty books of Dio's great work Roman History, covering the era from the legendary landing of Aeneas in Italy to the reign of Alexander Severus (222–235 CE ), we possess Books 36–60 (36 and 55–60 have gaps), which cover the years 68 BCE –47 CE . The missing portions are partly supplied, for the earlier gaps by Zonaras, who relies closely on Dio, and for some later gaps (Book 35 onwards) by John Xiphilinus (of the eleventh century). There are also many excerpts. The facilities for research afforded by Dio's official duties and his own industry make him a very vital source for Roman history of the last years of the republic and the first four emperors.


Archaeologists exploring the ocean depths just off the coast of Oahu have discovered, intact, the sunken vessel that carried out a gripping rescue mission on December 7, 1941 — sailing into Pearl Harbor as the infamous attack unfolded, carrying British evacuees to safety — all with a Japanese submarine close on its tail.

Researchers from the University of Hawai’i and NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries made the find while surveying waters about 32 kilometers off the coast, using sonar equipment and three-person submersibles.

The ship, originally built as the C.S. Dickenson and later commissioned as the U.S.S. Kailua, was in “remarkable” condition, the archaeologists said.

“Seeing the ship come into view, we were all amazed at its level of preservation — and by the fact that everything was more or less in place,” said Dr. James Delgado, director of NOAA’s Maritime Heritage Program, in a statement.

“The identification of the wreck was easy, not only because of its unique form, but also because the Navy’s identification number of IX-71 was still painted on the bow.” Many features of the sunken USS Kailua, including the ship’s wheel, are in a “remarkable” state of preservation, archaeologists said. (Courtesy UH HURL/ NOAA) [Read about another recent maritime discovery: “Shipwrecks Discovered in Nautical ‘Graveyard’ at San Francisco’s Golden Gate“]

Launched in 1923 for the Commercial Pacific Cable Company, the Dickenson spent most of its years taking part in the gargantuan feat of engineering that linked the islands of the Pacific by underwater communications cable, making repairs and ferrying equipment to stations on distant atolls like Midway and Fanning Island.

With the advent of war in the Pacific, the Dickenson was chartered by the U.S. Navy in May 1942 and re-commissioned as the Kailua IX-71.

It was put to work laying cables and maintaining anti-submarine nets in New Guinea and Oahu.

The Kailua survived the war without damage, only to be decommissioned in the fall of 1945 and then intentionally sunk, as a target in a torpedo range, in February 1946.

“One of our first views of the USS Kailua was the classic helms wheel on the fantail,” said Hawaii’s Terry Kerby, who piloted the submersible that made the find.

“The ship was surprisingly intact for a vessel that was sunk with a torpedo. The upper deck structures from the bow to the stern were well-preserved and showed no sign of torpedo damage.”

Despite its long war service, it was the emergency rescue mission that the Dickenson conducted in December 1941 that gained fame for the vessel.

As tensions mounted all around the Pacific, British officials began to fear for the safety of civilian workers who staffed the communications station at Fanning Island, now known as Tabuaeran.

Though just a private communications ship, the Dickenson was chartered to collect the evacuees and take them to Hawaii.

On Dec. 7, 1941, it sailed into Pearl Harbor as the attack began, and evacuees on deck reported seeing a Japanese “midget submarine” tailing the ship as it neared the port, before U.S. ships ran it off. The Commercial Pacific Cable Company’s cable-laying ship Dickenson, built in 1923.

Nari Strange, a Briton whose family was aboard the ship, recalled: “The crew and passengers on the Dickenson were watching the events, wondering if the U.S. Air Force was being too enthusiastic in their bombing practices, and they were quite annoyed initially.

“It was then realised that the planes were Japanese, but the little ship made it to a wharf, and I have a record of how the usual formalities were abandoned in order to get the crew and passengers safely ashore. ”

Dr. Hans Van Tilburg of the National Maritime Heritage Program said the vessel’s service before, during, and after the war make it a uniquely important artifact from the early 20th century.

“From her interisland service to her role in Pacific communications and then World War II, Dickenson today is like a museum exhibit resting in the darkness, reminding us of these specific elements of Pacific history,” he said.

The engine room telegraph lies off the starboard bow of the USS Kailua, found more than 600 meters below the ocean’s surface. (Courtesy UH HURL)

There are no plans to recover or further study the ship, the team said. Instead, scientists are undertaking an effort to have its resting place commemorated as a historic site. [See another unusual find in Hawaii: “Monster Surf Exposes Rare Petroglyphs in Hawaii“]

“We plan to nominate the wreck to the National Register of Historic Places,” Delgado said.

“This unique American ship, vital in its role in keeping global telecommunications open in the first part of the 20th century, is also linked to historically significant Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. …

“Wrecks such as this remind us of special places in the ocean, like the monument, that connect all of us to them as refuges, sanctuaries and museums beneath the sea.”


Watch the video: Kailua twin island (January 2022).