Information

Melvin Young


Melvin Young, the son of a solicitor, was born in London on 20th May 1915. He attended Westminster School before going up to Trinity College, Oxford University, to study law in 1934.

In 1937 Young joined the Oxford University Air Squadron (OUAS). A keen rower, he represented Trinity College at the Henley Royal Regatta. Another member of the crew was Richard Hillary. Young was also in the winning crew that won the Oxford-Cambridge boat race in 1938.

In September 1938, Young joined the Royal Air Force and was commissioned as a Pilot Officer. Soon after the outbreak of the Second World War Young was promoted to the rank of Flying Officer. On 10th June 1940, Young joined 4 Group Bomber Command based in Driffield, Yorkshire.

On 13th August 1940, Young took part in his first bombing raid on Italy. He later recalled: "Flying across Germany we had been used to fighting it out, but in Italy we met no opposition. It seems that when the Italian anti-aircraft gunners heard us coming, they ran for the air raid shelters."

On 7th October 1940, Young's aircraft forced landed in the sea due to engine trouble. His rescue was reported in Life Magazine by the journalist William Allen White. "Their raft is a huge orange doughnut, and within its circle five men are squatting, one of them frantically waving a canvas paddle aloft. A minute more and they are abeam - hardly 50 yds away. As we sweep by they wave frantically."

Young was forced to land in the sea several times on operations,and he and his crew had to resort to the aircraft's inflatable life raft. He therefore acquired the nickname "Dinghy Young".

Promoted to Flight Lieutenant, Young took part in raids over Mannheim, Mulheim, Cologne, Bremen and Wilhelmshaven. In April 1941 Young was transferred to Wellesbourne Mountford near Stratford-upon-Avon, in order to be trained to fly the Wellington bomber.

In May 1941 he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. The citation in the London Gazette included the following: "This officer has carried out 28 bombing missions involving 230 hours flying as well as 6 convoy patrols on which some 40 hours were spent in the air. His operational flights include attacks on important targets in Germany and Italy. On two occasions he has been forced down on the sea, on one of which he was in the dinghy for 22 hours in an Atlantic gale. On both occasions his courage and inspired leadership, combined with a complete knowledge of dinghy drill, were largely responsible for the survival of his crews."

Promoted to the rank of squadron leader, Young joined the 205 Group of the Middle East Air Force. Based in Malta, the 205 group attempted to keep the Axis forces from invading Egypt and then the oilfields of the Middle East. On 18th September 1942, Young received a Bar to his Distinguished Flying Cross. The citation in the London Gazette included the following: "This officer participated in the first large scale attack on Naples, pressing home his attack, in the face of an intense barrage, with great determination. On another occasion, he bombed the Castel Benito aerodrome and then descended to 1,000 feet to machine gun dispersed aircraft by the light of flares released by other attacking aircraft. At least two aircraft on the ground were set on fire and a gun emplacement silenced."

On 10th August 1942, Melvin Young got married to Priscilla Rawson at Kent in Connecticut. While on leave in the United States he spent two weeks in Florida addressing members of the US Army Air Corps. The topic of his talks was: "Night Bombing Operations - Germany, Sicily, Libya".

Young was transferred to 617 Squadron. In February, 1943, the Royal Air Force decided to plan an attack on the five hydroelectric dams on which the Ruhr industrial area depended. Barnes Wallis advised the Royal Air Force to use the new bouncing bomb he had been developing at the National Physics Laboratory in Teddington.

Young was selected to take part in Operation Chastise (also known as Dambusters Raid). The targets were the three key dams near the Ruhr area, the Möhne, the Sorpe and the Eder Dam on the Eder River. It was hoped that the raid would result in the loss of hydroelectric power and the supply of water to nearby cities. The success of the operation involved precision bombing. The cylindrical bombs developed by Barnes Wallis had to be dropped from 60 feet to skip into the dam face and roll down it to explode at a depth that triggered a pressure fuse. The pilots had to judge the critical release point by using dual spotlights whose beams converged vertically at 60 feet.

The aircraft used were adapted Avro Lancasters. To reduce weight, much of the armour was removed, as was the mid-upper turret. The substantial bomb and its unusual shape meant that the bomb doors were removed and the bomb itself hung, in part, below the body of the aircraft. The crews practised over the Eyebrook Reservoir, the Derwent Reservoir and the Fleet Lagoon. The final test flights took place on 29th April 1943.

Operation Chastise began on the night of 15-16th May. The first wave of aircraft, led by Guy Gibson, would first attack the Möhne Dam. Young was the pilot of one of the nine aircraft involved in this bombing raid. The second group was to attack the Sorpe Dam whereas the third group was a mobile reserve and would take off two hours later, either attacking the main dams or bombing smaller dams at Schwelm, Ennepe and Diemel.

Two aircraft piloted by Les Munro and Geoff Rice were forced to return to base following technical problems. Robert Barlow and Vernon Byers were shot down and crashed into the Waddenzee, whereas Bill Astell came down somewhere over Roosendaal.

The first group of aircraft piloted by Melvin Young, Guy Gibson, John Hopgood, Mick Martin, David Shannon, Henry Maudslay, David Maltby and Les Knight arrived safely at their first target. Gibson bombed first but it failed to hit the Möhne Dam. During his run Hopgood aircraft was hit by flak and destroyed. Gibson now flew his aircraft across the dam to draw flak from Martin's run. Martin's aircraft was hit but he made a successful attack.

Young was the next man to go. Guy Gibson recorded that Young's bomb made "three good bounces and made contact (with the dam)." A huge column of water rose and a shock wave could be seen rippling through the lake. The dam was now beginning to break but it did not collapse immediately. David Maltby was now ordered to attack the dam. He later said that "the crown of the wall was already crumbling" and that he could see a "breach in the centre of the dam" before dropping his bomb. Gibson radioed back to headquarters that he could now see a great gap, some 150 metres long, in the dam and a torrent of water that looked "like stirred porridge in the moonlight."

Guy Gibson then led Melvin Young, David Shannon, Henry Maudslay and Les Knight to the Eder Dam. The topography of the surrounding hills made the approach difficult and the first aircraft, Shannon's, made several unsuccessful runs without dropping his bomb. Shannon later recalled: "The Eder was a bugger of a job. I was the first to go; I tried three times to get a spot on approach but was never satisfied. To get out of the valley after crossing the dam wall we had to put on full throttle and do a steep climbing turn to avoid a vast rock face. My exit with a 9000lb bomb revolting at 500rpm was bloody hairy."

Gibson ordered David Shannon to take a break and called up Henry Maudslay to have a go. After Maudslay had two unsuccessful runs, Shannon made another attempt and this time he released his bomb and it hit the target. Maudslay made another run but his bomb hit the top of the dam and the aircraft was caught in the blast.

Only Les Knight had a bomb left. His first run ended in failure but the next one resulted in the bomb hitting the dam. Guy Gibson later recalled: "We saw the tremendous earthquake which shook the base of the dam, and then, as if a gigantic hand had punched a hole through cardboard, the whole thing collapsed."

Joe McCarthy reached the Sorpe Dam alone. It was the most difficult to breach as it was a vast earth dam rather than the concrete structures of the Mohne and Eder dams. McCarthy's aircraft successfully dropped its bomb but it did little damage. Three of the reserve aircraft were directed to the Sorpe. However, they were unable to breach the dam.

Meanwhile, Guy Gibson, Melvin Young, David Shannon, and Les Knight were involved in a dangerous journey to get back to England. Henry Maudslay had started off earlier after his aircraft had been badly damaged while bombing the Eder Dam. However, he was shot down close to the German-Dutch border. At 02.58 gunners at Castricum-aan-Zee managed to hit Young's aircraft and it crashed into the sea.

On 20th May 1943 Guy Gibson wrote to Melvin's father: "It is possible your son was able to abandon his aircraft and land safely in enemy territory." A few days later Melvin Young's body was washed ashore and was buried near Bergen in Holland.

Somehow he always seemed to be in good form and was immensely popular with everyone. He enjoyed playing bridge and we used to have many a game together in the Mess while waiting to go up to Flights. He was also very intelligent and cultured, read a great deal and so was a very good and interesting conversationalist. So far as I can remember he was a good pilot, certainly above average, and threw himself heart and soul into training.

Many people have said what a welcome addition the American destroyers would be to our fleet. I am sure that no one is likely to give them a more hearty and grateful welcome than that given by my crew and myself one afternoon a couple of weeks ago, when, after drifting aimlessly about in a rubber dinghy off the coast of Ireland for a very long time we suddenly saw on the crest of a wave the funnels of a destroyer.

It happened like this: We had been detailed to escort a convoy and had met it inbound at about midday. Several hours later while we were still on patrol, the rear gunner reported a trace of smoke from the starboard engine. I could see very little myself; the oil and radiator temperatures were quite normal and I was not unduly worried. I decided, however, to return to base at once and the wireless operator reported to base that we were doing so. But almost immediately our trouble increased, the engine got very hot - and so did I - and it was only a matter of a very few minutes before we found ourselves cooling rather rapidly in the Atlantic.

Their raft is a huge orange doughnut, and within its circle five men are squatting, one of them frantically waving a canvas paddle aloft. As we sweep by they wave frantically and then sink dejectedly. But we are only manoeuvring to put our ship's bulk between the raft and the wind. In another two minutes we have turned and are coming back. Now our engines are off. We drift slowly toward them. Now they're just abeam. One fellow paddles frantically until the raft bumps the ship's side. Now our propellers boilingly backwater at the command and ropes go writhing down toward their grappling hands. A ship's ladder goes over our side.

But who are they? These staring, bleary-eyed men with salt-drenched blond hair, who sag weakly in the bobbing raft? "Germans!" guesses one of our crew. "We picked some of the blighters up last month. One of their aircraft came down."

"Nah, they aren't!" says another Cockney scornfully. "Look at the uniforms, will ye? They're no Jerries - that's our own RAF". And so it is. The water-soaked horizon blue of the RAF under the orange life jackets - orange because it is the color most vividly contrasting with the sea's blue-green. Numb hands are now reaching up for our ropes. It is much too rough to launch a boat.

One of the aviators rises wildly, unsteadily grapples at a rope, is too weak to wrap it around him, topples into the sea. Instantly a sailor goes over our rail, comes up behind the man with the loose-rolling head and wild eves just out of the water. He ties the rope under his arms and pushes him to the dangling ship's ladder. But he's too weak to manage the rungs with his cold hands and feet, so three sailors pull his sea-chilled body up and over the side. The others with a little help from our sailors mount the wooden rungs and reach the solid safety of steel deck, and are half led, half carried down to the cozy warmth of our wardroom.

This officer has carried out 28 bombing missions involving 230 hours flying as well as 6 convoy patrols on which some 40 hours were spent in the air. On both occasions his courage and inspired leadership, combined with a complete knowledge of dinghy drill, were largely responsible for the survival of his crews. He has always shown the greatest keenness to seek out and destroy his targets.

This officer participated in the first large scale attack on Naples, pressing home his attack, in the face of an intense barrage, with great determination. At least two aircraft on the ground were set on fire and a gun emplacement silenced.

On a further occasion, when returning to Malta from a raid on Tripoli, a stick of bombs burst on the aerodrome while Squadron Leader Young was landing his aircraft, setting fire to a bomb loaded aeroplane. Displaying great coolness, he completed his landing and avoided obstructions on the runway. He dispersed his aircraft, then took charge of the flare path and had it moved so that the remainder of the squadron were enabled to land safely. This officer has always shown the greatest courage and determination both in the air and on the ground. He has won the entire confidence of his crews.

The plan for the operation was that three waves of aircraft would be employed. The first wave of nine aircraft, led by Gibson, would attack the Mohne Dam, then the Eder followed by other targets as directed by wireless from 5 Group HQ if any weapons were still available. This wave would fly in three sections of three aircraft, about ten minutes apart, led by Guy Gibson, Melvin Young and Henry Maudslay. Melvin was to fly accompanied by David Maltby and David Shannon. The second wave would fly, by a different route to confuse enemy defences, to the Sorpe Darn. Indeed, because this route was slightly longer via the islands off north Holland, the second wave actually took off before the first wave. The third wave, also of five aircraft, was to set off later and act as a mobile reserve to be used against such dams as were still unbroken. In all nineteen Type 464 aircraft and their crews were available. The crews of Divall and Wilson had sickness and one aircraft could not be repaired from damage during training.

The Operational Executive Order required that the raid be flown at low level, not above 500 feet, except between Ahlen, the final waypoint, and the target where the leader of each section should climb to 1,000 feet ten miles from the target, presumably to ensure finding the target with certainty. For reasons of surprise, it would be desirable to fly as low as possible to reduce the chance of being seen by the German radar, and thus risk interception by fighters, and to minimize the time of exposure to anti-aircraft guns (flak). The 500 feet limit was an acceptance that it would be essential to identify turning points accurately and the section leaders would have felt particular responsibility to ensure that they kept to the route, which had been devised to avoid known flak locations as far as possible. After the raid Maltby and Shannon commented that Melvin had shown a tendency to fly higher than them, and they had used Aldis signal lamps to warn him to keep low. For his part he would have been feeling a great responsibility to lead his team accurately. It may also be that, with relatively little recent flying, on his first operation in a Lancaster and his first at all for nearly a year, and with a crew with little operational experience, he was more concerned about hitting obstacles on the ground than they were - he had never seen himself as "the fighter pilot type".

The hazards of low level operations over enemy, territory were such that Harris generally disapproved of using heavy bombers in this role. Operation Chastise was an exception, but the loss on the raid of several aircraft to flak and surface impact supports Harris's general view.

It is with deep regret that I write to confirm my telegram advising you that your son, Squadron Leader Henry Melvin Young D.F.C., is missing as a result of operations.

Squadron Leader Young was a great personal friend of mine and was himself largely responsible for the success of this operation. He was deputy leader of this raid and I watched him drop his load in exactly the right position with great precision. Afterwards we led the raid on the Eder dam and he and I flew on the return journey back to base. Somewhere, however, between the target and the enemy coast he ran into trouble and has not returned.

If as is possible your son was able to abandon his aircraft and land safely in enemy territory, news should reach you direct from the International Red Cross Committee within the next six weeks. Please accept my sincere sympathy during this anxious period of waiting.


Melvin attended Heritage High School and then went on to the University of Richmond [2] on a football scholarship, where he received a bachelor's degree in Chemistry. In 1991, he received a Master of Science degree in Materials Science Engineering from the University of Virginia.

His parents, Deems and Grace, reside in Lynchburg, Virginia and Melvin's recreational interests include photography, piano, reading, music, cycling, tennis, and snowboarding.

Melvin appeared as an elimination challenge guest judge in the 12th episode of Top Chef (season 7), [3] with his dogs in the seventh season of The Dog Whisperer, [4] and was the host of Child Genius (season 1 and 2). [5]

Melvin was a wide receiver on the University of Richmond football team from 1982–85. Melvin is first on the University of Richmond's career lists with 198 receptions for 2,669 yards (2,441 m), [6] and fourth on Richmond's career touchdown receptions list with 16. He was an AP honorable mention All-America selection in 1984 and 1985 and second team Apple Academic All-America in 1985.

A team captain during his senior season, Melvin had his best year in 1985, with 65 catches for 956 yards (874 m) and eight TDs. His top game was in 1984 against James Madison University, when he had 10 catches for 208 yards (190 m) and one touchdown.

Melvin caught at least one pass in every game he played as a Richmond Spider (39).

He was in the University of Richmond Athletic Hall of Fame Inductee Class of 1996–97 and selected for the All-UR Stadium Team in 2009, which commemorates the greatest Spiders to have played at the stadium in its 81-year history. [7]

Melvin was chosen by the Detroit Lions in the 11th round of the 1986 NFL Draft as a wide receiver. During training camp, he pulled a hamstring and was released from the team in late August. [8] [9] In October, he was added to the Canadian Football League's Toronto Argonauts' practice roster. [10]

He reported to the Dallas Cowboys the following spring but pulled a hamstring a second time, officially ending his professional football career. [8] [11]

Melvin began working in Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center in 1989. His responsibilities included using optical fiber sensors to measure strain, temperature, and chemical damage in both composite and metallic structures. In 1994, he was selected to lead the Vehicle Health Monitoring team for the cooperative NASA/ Lockheed Martin X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle program. In 1996, he co-designed and monitored construction of an optical nondestructive evaluation facility capable of producing in-line fiber optic sensors. [12]

Selected as an astronaut in June 1998, Melvin reported for training in August 1998. He has since been assigned to the Astronaut Office Space Station Operations Branch, and the Education Department at NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. As co-manager of NASA's Educator Astronaut Program, Melvin has traveled across the country, discussing space exploration with teachers and students, and promoting science, technology, engineering and mathematics. He next served in the Robotics Branch of the Astronaut Office. In October 2010, Melvin was named as associate administrator for the Office of Education. As associate administrator, Melvin was responsible for the development and implementation of NASA's education programs that inspire interest in science and technology and raise public awareness about NASA goals and missions. He retired from NASA in February 2014. [12]

Melvin flew two missions on the Space Shuttle Atlantis: as a mission specialist on STS-122, and as mission specialist 1 on STS-129.

STS-122 (February 7 to February 20, 2008) was the 24th shuttle mission to visit the International Space Station. Mission highlight was the delivery and installation of the European Space Agency's Columbus (ISS module). It took three spacewalks by crew members to prepare the Columbus Laboratory for its scientific work, and to replace an expended nitrogen tank on the Station's P-1 Truss. STS-122 was also a crew replacement mission, delivering Expedition-16 Flight Engineer, ESA Astronaut Léopold Eyharts, and returning home with Expedition-16 Flight Engineer, NASA Astronaut Daniel Tani. The STS-122 mission was accomplished in 12 days, 18 hours, 21 minutes and 40 seconds, and traveled 5,296,832 statute miles in 203 Earth orbits.

STS-129 (November 16 to November 29, 2009) was the 31st shuttle flight to the International Space Station. During the mission, the crew delivered two ExPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELC racks) to the International Space Station, about 30,000 pounds of replacement parts for systems that provide power to the station, keep it from overheating, and maintain proper orientation in space. The mission also featured three spacewalks. The STS-129 mission was completed in 10 days, 19 hours, 16 minutes and 13 seconds, traveling 4.5 million miles in 171 orbits, and returned to Earth bringing back with them NASA Astronaut, Nicole Stott, following her tour of duty aboard the space station.

Melvin has logged over 565 hours in space. [12]

After retiring from NASA, Leland actively holds several STEM lectures of his experience in space to a wide range of audiences, as well as his football career in the NFL. He is described as being one of the most inspiring and influential NASA astronauts of all time. During his NASA career, while he was doing an underwater training, he sustained and partially recovered from a serious ear injury where his doctors stated the possibility of him being deaf, a malady which affects his left ear. [13] Melvin has published two books Chasing Space: An Astronaut's Story of Grit, Grace, and Second Chances and Chasing Space: Young Reader's Edition. [14]

In his spare time he enjoys playing the piano, walking his two dogs, and is featured in several National Geographic Space documentaries and videos.


Live chat with authors including Louise O’Neill and Melvin Burgess #Gdnteentaboo

Discuss writing about sex, drugs and pushing boundaries (and they are still being pushed) in teen/Ya with a bunch of controversial authors including Melvin Burgess live on Twitter using #Gdnteentaboo! It’s happening this Sunday 15 May from 5-6pm on @GdnChildrensBks. So who’s going to be there? We have Louise O’Neill (@oneilllo), Melvin Burgess (@MelvinBurgess), Chris Vick (@chrisvickwriter), Non Pratt (@NonPratt), William Sutcliffe (@Will_Sutcliffe8), Raziel Reid (@razielreid), Katie Everson (@ksleverson). If you don’t tweet or can’t be there you can email your questions to [email protected], but make them short so we can tweet them! We’ll be live blogging the chat on the Guardian children’s books site.

You can chat to Louise O’Neill tonight on Twitter #Gdnteentaboo Photograph: Miki Barlok/Publicity image from publisher


Detroit (2017)

In researching the Detroit true story, we learned that the riots began around 3:15 a.m. in the early morning of Sunday July 23, 1967 and lasted five days, ending for the most part on July 27.

How closely does the Detroit movie stick to the real events?

How did the 1967 Detroit riots begin?

In the early morning hours of July 23, 1967, police raided an unlicensed after-hours drinking club in the office of the United Community League for Civic Action, a community civil rights group that backed local political candidates and helped to give the neighborhood a collective voice. The group's office was located on the upper floor of the empty Economy Printing building at 9125 12th Street. Police expected only a few patrons inside but found 82 African-Americans celebrating the return of two local soldiers from Vietnam. The Detroit police decided to arrest all those in attendance.

While the police were inside waiting to haul off the revelers, a crowd began to form in the street outside. The riot is said to have started when Walter Scott III, the son of the unlicensed club's owner, threw a bottle at a police officer (at least that's what Scott later claimed in a memoir). When the police left the scene, the crowd (now a mob) began looting a clothing store next door. It didn't take long for widespread looting to erupt throughout the neighborhood. Initially, the police force was too small and did little but watch. Since it was a Sunday, it took longer for Police Commissioner Ray Girardin to mobilize the Michigan National Guard, state police, and the Wayne County sheriffs. As a result, the first arrest didn't happen until 7 in the morning.

By mid-afternoon, a raging fire had broken out in a grocery store and the mob prevented firefighters from extinguishing it, causing it to spread uncontrollably. The looting had also spread, reaching other parts of Detroit.

What social conditions led to the riots?

Was Detroit's police force almost entirely white in 1967?

Yes. Fact-checking the Detroit movie revealed that the demographic makeup of the police force was not in line with the demographic makeup of the city. The police force was 95% white, while the city was 40% black. There were approximately 5,500 cops on the police force and only 100 were black. -CBS This Morning

How many people lost their lives during the Detroit riots?

During our investigation into the true story behind the Detroit movie, we discovered that a total of 43 people were killed during the Detroit riots, including the three young black men at the Algiers Motel, which is the focus of Kathryn Bigelow's movie. 33 of those killed during the riots were black and 10 were white. Approximately 1,189 people were injured and over 7,200 were arrested.

Is the movie based on the book The Algiers Motel Incident?

Was Will Poulter's character as racist in real life?

Will Poulter's character, the evil Philip Krauss, is largely fictional. He most closely correlates to 23-year-old Vice Patrolman David Senak in real life, but the connection is loose at best. Poulter's character is said to be a combination of a number of different officers from the Detroit Police Department who were present at the Algiers Motel that night. Because the three officers charged were found innocent in real life, their names were changed for the movie so as to not implicate them, even if the verdict is believed to have been biased.

Is the movie's dialogue accurate to the time period?

Not exactly. Screenwriter Mark Boal admits that he had to tweak the dialogue a bit to make it more appealing to today's audiences. "It couldn't live in the past," says Boal. "It had to strike a middle ground between period authenticity and contemporary relatability." Boal did say that, where possible, he took dialogue verbatim directly from documented accounts. -Vulture

What led to the Algiers Motel killings?

During the riots, civilian snipers and looters shooting at police and fireman had become a problem. In fact, just hours before the Algiers incident, Detroit police officer Jerome Olshove was shot and killed by a looter. A few days earlier, Newark police detective Frederick Toto was killed by a sniper. The police force was on edge. It was made worse by the fact that, over the course of the riots, 2,498 rifles and 38 handguns had been looted from local stores.

On the night of July 25-26, police were alerted to a sniper, gunman, or group of gunmen in the vicinity of the Algiers Motel at 8301 Woodward Avenue. Upon arriving, the police and National Guard claimed they heard a pistol go off inside the motel (they later found only a starter pistol that fired blanks). They rushed the building and it wasn't long before three young black men were dead, including Fred Temple, Aubrey Pollard and Carl Cooper.

Did Carl Cooper really fire a starter pistol inside the motel?

Were the two white women at the motel forcibly stripped naked by police?

Yes. However, in the movie only Juli Hysell is forcibly stripped, and it happens largely by accident when Officer Krauss is being too rough with her. Fact-checking Detroit confirms that after the occupants of the motel's annex were lined up and hit by officers who demanded to know who was supposedly sniping from the motel, the two 18-year-old girls, Juli Hysell and Karen Malloy, were stripped naked and verbally harassed. It is unclear why this was toned down for the film. -The Algiers Motel Incident

Did Detroit police officer Ronald August really take Aubrey Pollard into a room and execute him?

According to Officer Ronald August, he took Aubrey Pollard into a room and Pollard pushed his shotgun away before trying to grab the gun. August testified that he shot Pollard in self-defense, describing it as "justifiable homicide." However, Guardsman Ted Thomas testified that he heard no words or signs of a struggle between Officer August and Pollard before seeing "a flash of clothing, heard a shotgun blast and saw Pollard's body fall."

Whatever happened to Karen Malloy, the other 18-year-old girl at the Algiers Motel?

Julie Hysell says that she lost touch with her friend Karen Malloy after the Algiers Motel killings. "Karen came home, changed her name," Hysell told Variety magazine. "I saw her about a year later at a mall, and she looked at me, and you'd have thought she saw the Ghost of Christmas Past. She ran out of that mall." During our research, we found no updates on what became of Karen.

Was defense lawyer Norman Lippitt really as sleazy as John Krasinski's character is in the movie?

No. This is one reason why Lippitt's name was changed for the Detroit movie. John Krasinski's character, Attorney Auerback, is largely fictional. Lippitt says that as a criminal defense attorney, it was his job to represent people charged with being involved in crimes. "Am I a soulless person?" he asks. "Well, criminal defense lawyers do this every day!" -NPR

Was the jury really all white?

Yes. Detroit was mostly white back then. Since it was a capital murder case, Defense Attorney Norman Lippitt had 20 peremptory challenges to the makeup of the jury. "I can throw 20 people off the jury before I have to accept the jury," says Lippitt. "And I can do it without a reason. The likelihood of an all-black jury in Detroit in those days was zero. It would have still been a majority-white jury." -NPR

Did the police really try to blame security guard Melvin Dismukes for the Algiers Motel killings?

Like in the movie, Melvin says that he went to the police station to share his side of the story, but he got everything turned around on him and was charged with first-degree murder. In the end, the police tried to pin a felonious assault charge on Melvin in connection with the beating of two of the motel's occupants, Michael Clark and James Sortor, in the first-floor hallway. Melvin had been guarding a store across the street from the Algiers before he entered the motel to help. According to Melvin, he tried to play peacemaker. "I just hoped to calm the situation down that was going on in the lobby," says Melvin. "I wanted to help people stay alive, so I did my best to do what I thought would protect them." He was the first to be tried and was acquitted of the charge. It took only 13 minutes for the all-white jury to come back with a verdict of not guilty.

How does the real Melvin Dismukes feel about the Detroit movie?

Did the judge in the trial really only present the jury with two options, first-degree murder or acquittal?

Yes. Judge William Beer (pictured below) told the all-white jury that their options were to either convict Ronald August of first-degree murder or acquit him, never instructing them that verdicts of second-degree murder or manslaughter were options too. Judge Beer later made the news when it was exposed that he had been living a double life for over 30 years. While married to his wife Dora, with whom he had three children, he impregnated his 19-year-old secretary Barbara and secretly married her. The lie continued and he had a total of nine children with Barbara. Dora divorced him when his secret was exposed. -Detroit Free Press

Is it true that no officers were ever convicted for the Algiers Motel killings?

Yes. Three officers and one private security guard faced charges, but they were found innocent in the killings, which, during the trial, were mainly determined to be due to "self-defense" and "justifiable homicide." Defense attorney Norman Lippitt admits that in addition to arguing self-defense, it also helped that the jury was all white and that the prosecutor made a couple key blunders during the proceedings.

One of those blunders was attempting to fire a starter pistol in the courtroom to prove that the police couldn't have heard it from outside the motel (the noise that supposedly gave them probable cause to go inside). The demonstration backfired because the courtroom had excellent acoustics due to a high ceiling. The starter pistol sounded like a canon.

What was the extent of the property destruction from the Detroit riots?

A total of 2,509 businesses were burned or looted and 412 buildings were damaged so badly that they had to be demolished. 388 families were displaced or rendered completely homeless. In all, the riots resulted in an estimated $40 million to $45 million in property damage.

Did rioters loot and burn black-owned businesses too?

Yes. Many black-owned businesses were not spared. Rioters largely acted indiscriminately, and some businesses were only spared because employees took up arms and sat outside the entrances.

Was the movie shot in Detroit?

The Detroit movie was mostly shot in Boston, with only a small number of scenes actually filmed in Detroit. Director Kathryn Bigelow wanted to shoot the film in Detroit, but Michigan no longer offered the same tax breaks of other cities.

Further investigate the Detroit movie true story by watching the Detroit riots documentary below that features an interview with the real Melvin Dismukes, the security guard portrayed by John Boyega in the Kathryn Bigelow movie.


Contents

Neil Young [19] was born on November 12, 1945, in Toronto, Canada. [20] [21] His father, Scott Alexander Young (1918–2005), was a journalist and sportswriter who also wrote fiction. [22] His mother, Edna Blow Ragland "Rassy" Young (1918–1990) was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution. [23] Although Canadian, his mother had American and French ancestry. [24] Young's parents married in 1940 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, and moved to Toronto shortly there after where their first son, Robert "Bob" Young, was born in 1942.

Shortly after Young's birth in 1945, the family moved to rural Omemee, Ontario, which Young later described fondly as a "sleepy little place". [25] Young suffered from polio in 1952 during the last major outbreak of the disease in Ontario [26] After his recovery, the Young family vacationed in Florida. During that period, Young briefly attended Faulkner Elementary School in New Smyrna Beach, Florida. In 1952, upon returning to Canada, Young moved from Omemee to Pickering (1956), lived for a year in Winnipeg (where he would later return to), before relocating to Toronto (1957–1960). While in Toronto, Young briefly attended Lawrence Park Collegiate Institute as a freshman in 1959. [27] It is rumoured that he was expelled for riding a motorcycle down the hall of the school. [28]

Young became interested in popular music he heard on the radio. [29] When Young was twelve, his father, who had had several extramarital affairs, left his mother. His mother asked for a divorce, which was granted in 1960. [30] Young went to live with his mother, who had moved back to Winnipeg, while his brother Bob stayed with his father in Toronto. [31]

During the mid-1950s, Young listened to rock 'n roll, rockabilly, doo-wop, R&B, country, and western pop. He idolized Elvis Presley and later referred to him in a number of his songs. [32] Other early musical influences included Link Wray, [33] Jimmy Gilmer and the Fireballs, The Ventures, Cliff Richard and the Shadows, [34] Chuck Berry, Hank Marvin, Little Richard, Fats Domino, The Chantels, The Monotones, Ronnie Self, the Fleetwoods, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny Cash, Roy Orbison and Gogi Grant. [35] Young first began to play music himself on a plastic ukulele, before, as he would later relate, going on to "a better ukulele to a banjo ukulele to a baritone ukulele – everything but a guitar." [36]

Early career (1963–1966) Edit

Young and his mother settled into the working-class area of Fort Rouge, Winnipeg, where the shy, dry-humoured youth enrolled at Earl Grey Junior High School. It was there that he formed his first band, the Jades, and met Ken Koblun. While attending Kelvin High School in Winnipeg, he played in several instrumental rock bands, eventually dropping out of school in favour of a musical career. [37] Young's first stable band was The Squires, with Ken Koblun, Jeff Wuckert and Bill Edmondson on drums, who had a local hit called "The Sultan". Over a three-year period the bands played hundreds of shows at community centres, dance halls, clubs and schools in Winnipeg and other parts of Manitoba. The band also played in Fort William (now part of the city of Thunder Bay, Ontario), where they recorded a series of demos produced by a local producer, Ray Dee, whom Young called "the original Briggs". [38] While playing at The Flamingo, Young met Stephen Stills, whose band the company was playing the same venue, and they became friends. [39] The Squires primarily performed in Winnipeg and rural Manitoba in towns such as Selkirk, Neepawa, Brandon and Giroux (near Steinbach), with a few shows in northern Ontario. [40]

After leaving the Squires, Young worked folk clubs in Winnipeg, where he first met Joni Mitchell. [41] Mitchell recalls Young as having been highly influenced by Bob Dylan at the time. [42] Here he wrote some of his earliest and most enduring folk songs such as "Sugar Mountain", about lost youth. Mitchell wrote "The Circle Game" in response. [43] The Winnipeg band The Guess Who (with Randy Bachman as lead guitarist) had a Canadian Top 40 hit with Young's "Flying on the Ground is Wrong", which was Young's first major success as a songwriter. [44]

In 1965, Young toured Canada as a solo artist. In 1966, while in Toronto, he joined the Rick James-fronted Mynah Birds. The band managed to secure a record deal with the Motown label, but as their first album was being recorded, James was arrested for being AWOL from the Navy Reserve. [45] After the Mynah Birds disbanded, Young and the bass player Bruce Palmer decided to pawn the group's musical equipment and buy a Pontiac hearse, which they used to relocate to Los Angeles. [46] Young admitted in a 2009 interview that he was in the United States illegally until he received a "green card" (permanent residency permit) in 1970. [47]

Buffalo Springfield (1966–1968) Edit

Once they reached Los Angeles, Young and Palmer met up with Stephen Stills and Richie Furay after a chance encounter in traffic on Sunset Boulevard. [46] Along with Dewey Martin, they formed Buffalo Springfield. A mixture of folk, country, psychedelia, and rock, lent a hard edge by the twin lead guitars of Stills and Young, made Buffalo Springfield a critical success, and their first record Buffalo Springfield (1966) sold well after Stills' topical song "For What It's Worth" became a hit, aided by Young's melodic harmonics played on electric guitar. According to Rolling Stone, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and other sources, Buffalo Springfield helped create the genres of folk rock and country rock. [48]

Distrust of their management, as well as the arrest and deportation of Palmer, worsened the already strained relations among the group members and led to Buffalo Springfield's demise. A second album, Buffalo Springfield Again, was released in late 1967, but two of Young's three contributions were solo tracks recorded apart from the rest of the group.

From that album, "Mr. Soul" was the only Young song of the three that all five members of the group performed together. "Broken Arrow" features snippets of sound from other sources, including opening the song with a soundbite of Dewey Martin singing "Mr. Soul" and closing it with the thumping of a heartbeat. "Expecting to Fly" featured a string arrangement that Young's co-producer for the track, Jack Nitzsche, dubbed "symphonic pop". [ citation needed ]

In May 1968, the band split up for good, but to fulfill a contractual obligation, a final studio album, Last Time Around, was released. The album was primarily composed of recordings made earlier that year. Young contributed the songs "On the Way Home" and "I Am a Child", singing lead on the latter. In 1997, the band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Young did not appear at the ceremony. The three surviving members, Furay, Stills, and Young, appeared together as Buffalo Springfield at Young's annual Bridge School Benefit on October 23–24, 2010, and at Bonnaroo in the summer of 2011.

Young also played as a studio session guitarist for some 1968 recordings by The Monkees which appeared on the Head and Instant Replay albums. [49]

Going solo, Crazy Horse (1968–1969) Edit

After the break-up of Buffalo Springfield, Young signed a solo deal with Reprise Records, home of his colleague and friend Joni Mitchell, with whom he shared a manager, Elliot Roberts, who managed Young until his death in 2019. Young and Roberts immediately began work on Young's first solo record, Neil Young (January 22, 1969), [50] which received mixed reviews. In a 1970 interview, [51] Young deprecated the album as being "overdubbed rather than played." The album contains songs that remain a staple of his live shows, including "The Loner."

For his next album, Young recruited three musicians from a band called The Rockets: Danny Whitten on guitar, Billy Talbot on bass guitar, and Ralph Molina on drums. These three took the name Crazy Horse (after the historical figure of the same name), and Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere (May 1969), is credited to "Neil Young with Crazy Horse." Recorded in just two weeks, the album includes "Cinnamon Girl", "Cowgirl in the Sand", and "Down by the River." Young reportedly wrote all three songs in bed on the same day while nursing a high fever of 103 °F (39 °C). [52]

Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young (1969–1970) Edit

Shortly after the release of Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere, Young reunited with Stephen Stills by joining Crosby, Stills & Nash, who had already released one album Crosby, Stills & Nash as a trio in May 1969. Young was originally offered a position as a sideman, but agreed to join only if he received full membership, and the group – winners of the 1969 "Best New Artist" Grammy Award – was renamed Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young. [53] The quartet debuted in Chicago on August 16, 1969, and later performed at the famous Woodstock Festival, during which Young skipped the majority of the acoustic set and refused to be filmed during the electric set, even telling the cameramen: "One of you fuckin' guys comes near me and I'm gonna fuckin' hit you with my guitar". [54] During the making of their first album, Déjà Vu (March 11, 1970), the musicians frequently argued, particularly Young and Stills, who both fought for control. Stills continued throughout their lifelong relationship to criticize Young, saying that he "wanted to play folk music in a rock band." [55] Despite the tension, Young's tenure with CSN&Y coincided with the band's most creative and successful period, and greatly contributed to his subsequent success as a solo artist.

Young wrote "Ohio" following the Kent State massacre on May 4, 1970. The song was quickly recorded by CSN&Y and immediately released as a single, even though CSN&Y's "Teach Your Children" was still climbing the singles charts.

After the Gold Rush, acoustic tour and Harvest (1970–1972) Edit

Later in the year, Young released his third solo album, After the Gold Rush (August 31, 1970), which featured, among others, Nils Lofgren, Stephen Stills, and CSNY bassist Greg Reeves. Young also recorded some tracks with Crazy Horse, but dismissed them early in the sessions. The eventual recording was less amplified than Everybody Knows This is Nowhere, with a wider range of sounds. Young's newfound fame with CSNY made the album his commercial breakthrough as a solo artist, and it contains some of his best known work, including "Tell Me Why" and "Don't Let It Bring You Down", the country-influenced singles "Only Love Can Break Your Heart" and "When You Dance I Can Really Love", and the title track, "After the Gold Rush", played on piano, with dream-like lyrics that ran a gamut of subjects from drugs and interpersonal relationships to environmental concerns. Young's bitter condemnation of racism in the heavy blues-rock song "Southern Man" (along with a later song entitled "Alabama") was also controversial with southerners in an era of desegregation, prompting Lynyrd Skynyrd to decry Young by name in the lyrics to their hit "Sweet Home Alabama." However, Young said he was a fan of Skynyrd's music, and the band's front man Ronnie Van Zant was later photographed wearing a Tonight's the Night T-shirt on the cover of an album.

In the autumn of 1970, Young began a solo acoustic tour of North America, during which he played a variety of his Buffalo Springfield and CSNY songs on guitar and piano, along with material from his solo albums and a number of new songs. Some songs premiered by Young on the tour, like "Journey through the Past", would never find a home on a studio album, while other songs, like "See the Sky About to Rain", would only be released in coming years. With CSNY splitting up and Crazy Horse having signed their own record deal, Young's tour, now entitled "Journey Through the Past", continued into early 1971, and its focus shifted more to newer songs he had been writing he famously remarked that having written so many, he could not think of anything to do but play them. Many gigs were sold out, including concerts at Carnegie Hall and a pair of acclaimed hometown shows at Toronto's Massey Hall, which were taped for a planned live album. The shows became legendary among Young fans, and the recordings were officially released nearly 40 years later as an official bootleg in Young's Archive series.

Near the end of his tour, Young performed one of the new acoustic songs on the Johnny Cash TV show. "The Needle and the Damage Done", a somber lament on the pain caused by heroin addiction, had been inspired in part by Crazy Horse member Danny Whitten, who eventually died while battling his drug problems. [56] [57] While in Nashville for the Cash taping, Young accepted the invitation of Quadrafonic Sound Studios owner Elliot Mazer to record tracks there with a group of country-music session musicians who were pulled together at the last minute. Making a connection with them, he christened them The Stray Gators, and began playing with them. Befitting the immediacy of the project, Linda Ronstadt and James Taylor were brought in from the Cash taping to do background vocals. Against the advice of his producer David Briggs, he scrapped plans for the imminent release [58] of the live acoustic recording in favour of a studio album consisting of the Nashville sessions, electric-guitar oriented sessions recorded later in his barn, and two recordings made with the London Symphony Orchestra at Barking (credited as Barking Town Hall and now the Broadway Theatre) during March 1971. [59] The result was Young's fourth album, Harvest (February 14, 1972). The only remnant left of the original live concept was the album's live acoustic performance of "Needle and the Damage Done."

After his success with CSNY, Young purchased a ranch in the rural hills above Woodside and Redwood City in Northern California ("Broken Arrow Ranch", where he lived until his divorce in 2014. [60] ). He wrote the song "Old Man" in honor of the land's longtime caretaker, Louis Avila. The song "A Man Needs a Maid" was inspired by his relationship with actress Carrie Snodgress. "Heart of Gold" was released as the first single from Harvest, the only No. 1 hit in his career. "Old Man" was also popular.

The album's recording had been almost accidental. Its mainstream success caught Young off guard, and his first instinct was to back away from stardom. In the Decade (1977) compilation, Young chose to include his greatest hits from the period, but his handwritten liner notes famously described "Heart of Gold" as the song that "put me in the middle of the road. Traveling there soon became a bore, so I headed for the ditch. A rougher ride but I saw more interesting people there."

The "Ditch" Trilogy and personal struggles (1972–1974) Edit

Although a new tour with The Stray Gators (now augmented by Danny Whitten) had been planned to follow up on the success of Harvest, it became apparent during rehearsals that Whitten could not function due to drug abuse. On November 18, 1972, shortly after he was fired from the tour preparations, Whitten was found dead of an apparent alcohol/diazepam overdose. Young described the incident to Rolling Stone ' s Cameron Crowe in 1975: [47] "[We] were rehearsing with him and he just couldn't cut it. He couldn't remember anything. He was too out of it. Too far gone. I had to tell him to go back to L.A. 'It's not happening, man. You're not together enough.' He just said, 'I've got nowhere else to go, man. How am I gonna tell my friends?' And he split. That night the coroner called me from L.A. and told me he'd OD'd. That blew my mind. I loved Danny. I felt responsible. And from there, I had to go right out on this huge tour of huge arenas. I was very nervous and . insecure."

On the tour, Young struggled with his voice and the performance of drummer Kenny Buttrey, a noted Nashville session musician who was unaccustomed to performing in the hard rock milieu Buttrey was eventually replaced by former CSNY drummer Johnny Barbata, while David Crosby and Graham Nash contributed rhythm guitar and backing vocals to the final dates of the tour. The album assembled in the aftermath of this incident, Time Fades Away (October 15, 1973), has often been described by Young as "[his] least favorite record", and was not officially released on CD until 2017 (as part of Young's Official Release Series). Nevertheless, Young and his band tried several new musical approaches in this period. Time Fades Away, for instance, was recorded live, although it was an album of new material, an approach Young would repeat with more success later on. Time was the first of three consecutive commercial failures which would later become known collectively to fans as the "Ditch Trilogy", as contrasted with the more middle-of-the-road pop of Harvest. [61] These subsequent albums were seen as more challenging expressions of Young's inner conflicts on achieving success, expressing both the specific struggles of his friends and himself, and the decaying idealism of his generation in America at the time.

In the second half of 1973, Young formed The Santa Monica Flyers, with Crazy Horse's rhythm section augmented by Nils Lofgren on guitar and piano and Harvest/Time Fades Away veteran Ben Keith on pedal steel guitar. Deeply affected by the drug-induced deaths of Whitten and roadie Bruce Berry, Young recorded an album specifically inspired by the incidents, Tonight's the Night (June 20, 1975). The album's dark tone and rawness led Reprise to delay its release and Young had to pressure them for two years before they would do so. [62] While his record company was stalling, Young recorded another album, On the Beach (July 16, 1974), which presented a more melodic, acoustic sound at times, including a recording of the older song "See the Sky About to Rain", but dealt with similarly dark themes such as the collapse of 1960s folk ideals, the downside of success and the underbelly of the Californian lifestyle. Like Time Fades Away, it sold poorly but eventually became a critical favorite, presenting some of Young's most original work. A review of the 2003 re-release on CD of On the Beach described the music as "mesmerizing, harrowing, lucid, and bleary". [63]

After completing On the Beach, Young reunited with Harvest producer Elliot Mazer to record another acoustic album, Homegrown. Most of the songs were written after Young's break-up with Carrie Snodgress, and thus the tone of the album was somewhat dark. Though Homegrown was reportedly entirely complete, Young decided, not for the first or last time in his career, to drop it and release something else instead, in this case, Tonight's the Night, at the suggestion of Band bassist Rick Danko. [64] Young further explained his move by saying: "It was a little too personal . it scared me". [64] Most of the songs from Homegrown were later incorporated into other Young albums while the original album was not released until 2020. Tonight's the Night, when finally released in 1975, sold poorly, as had the previous albums of the "ditch" trilogy, and received mixed reviews at the time, but is now regarded as a landmark album. In Young's own opinion, it was the closest he ever came to art. [65]

Reunions, retrospectives and Rust Never Sleeps (1974–1979) Edit

Young reunited with Crosby, Stills, and Nash after a four-year hiatus in the summer of 1974 for a concert tour which was partially recorded highlights were ultimately released in 2014 as CSNY 1974. It was one of the first ever stadium tours, and the largest tour in which Young has participated to date. [66]

In 1975, Young reformed Crazy Horse with Frank Sampedro on guitar as his backup band for his eighth album, Zuma (November 10, 1975). Many of the songs dealt with the theme of failed relationships "Cortez the Killer", a retelling of the Spanish conquest of Mexico from the viewpoint of the Aztecs, may also be heard as an allegory of love lost. Zuma ' s closing track, "Through My Sails", was the only released fragment from aborted sessions with Crosby, Stills and Nash for another group album.

In 1976, Young reunited with Stephen Stills for the album Long May You Run (September 20, 1976), credited to The Stills-Young Band the follow-up tour was ended midway through by Young, who sent Stills a telegram that read: "Funny how some things that start spontaneously end that way. Eat a peach, Neil." [67]

In 1976, Young performed with Bob Dylan, Joni Mitchell, and numerous other rock musicians in the high-profile all-star concert The Last Waltz, the final performance by The Band. The release of Martin Scorsese's movie of the concert was delayed while Scorsese unwillingly re-edited it to obscure the lump of cocaine that was clearly visible hanging from Young's nose during his performance of "Helpless". [68] American Stars 'n Bars (June 13, 1977) contained two songs originally recorded for the Homegrown album, "Homegrown" and "Star of Bethlehem", as well as newer material, including the future concert staple "Like a Hurricane". Performers on the record included Linda Ronstadt, Emmylou Harris and Young protégé Nicolette Larson along with Crazy Horse. In 1977, Young also released the compilation Decade, a personally selected set of songs spanning every aspect of his work, including a handful of previously unreleased songs. The record included less commercial album tracks alongside radio hits.

Comes a Time (October 2, 1978), Young's first entirely new solo recording since the mid-1970s, marked a return to the commercially accessible, Nashville-inspired sound of Harvest while also featuring contributions from Larson and Crazy Horse. The album also marked a return to his folk roots, as exemplified by a cover of Ian Tyson's "Four Strong Winds", a song Young associated with his childhood in Canada. Another of the album's songs, "Lotta Love", was also recorded by Larson, with her version reaching No. 8 on the Billboard Hot 100 in February 1979. In 1978, much of the filming was done for Young's film Human Highway, which took its name from a song featured on Comes a Time. Over four years, Young would spend US$3,000,000 of his own money on production (US$11,903,571 in 2020 dollars [69] ). This also marked the beginning of his brief collaboration with the art punk band Devo, whose members appeared in the film. [70]

Young set out in 1978 on the lengthy Rust Never Sleeps tour, in which he played a wealth of new material. Each concert was divided into a solo acoustic set and an electric set with Crazy Horse. The electric sets, featuring an abrasive style of playing, were influenced by the punk rock zeitgeist of the late 1970s and provided a stark contrast from Comes a Time. [71] Two new songs, the acoustic "My My, Hey Hey (Out of the Blue)" and electric "Hey Hey, My My (Into the Black)" were the centerpiece of the new material. During the filming of Human Highway, Young had collaborated with Devo on a cacophonous version of "Hey Hey, My My" at the Different Fur studio in San Francisco and would later introduce the song to Crazy Horse. [72] The lyric "It's better to burn out than to fade away" was widely quoted by his peers and by critics. [72] The album has also widely been considered a precursor of grunge music and many grunge artists have said they were inspired by Young's distorted guitars on the B side to this album. Young also compared the rise of Johnny Rotten with that of the recently deceased "King" Elvis Presley, who himself had once been disparaged as a dangerous influence only to later become an icon. Rotten returned the favour by playing one of Young's songs, "Revolution Blues" from On the Beach, on a London radio show, an early sign of Young's eventual embrace by a number of punk-influenced alternative musicians. [73]

Young's two accompanying albums Rust Never Sleeps (July 2, 1979 new material culled from live recordings, but featuring studio overdubs) and Live Rust (November 19, 1979 a genuine concert recording featuring old and new material) captured the two sides of the concerts, with solo acoustic songs on side A, and fierce, uptempo, electric songs on side B. A movie version of the concerts, also called Rust Never Sleeps (1979), was directed by Young under the pseudonym "Bernard Shakey". Young worked with rock artist Jim Evans to create the poster art for the film, using the Star Wars Jawas as a theme. Young's work since Harvest had alternated between being rejected by mass audiences and being seen as backward-looking by critics, sometimes both at once, and now he was suddenly viewed as relevant by a new generation, who began to discover his earlier work. Readers and critics of Rolling Stone voted him Artist of the Year for 1979 (along with The Who), selected Rust Never Sleeps as Album of the Year, and voted him Male Vocalist of the Year as well. [74] The Village Voice named Rust Never Sleeps as the year's winner in the Pazz & Jop Poll, a survey of nationwide critics, and honored Young as the Artist of the Decade. The Warner Music Vision release on VHS of Rust Never Sleeps in 1987 had a running time of 116 minutes, and although fully manufactured in Germany, was initially imported from there by the markets throughout Europe.

Experimental years (1980–1988) Edit

At the start of the decade, distracted by medical concerns relating to the cerebral palsy of his son, Ben, Young had little time to spend on writing and recording. [75] After providing the incidental music to a 1980 biographical film of Hunter S. Thompson entitled Where the Buffalo Roam, Young released Hawks & Doves (November 3, 1980), a short record pieced together from sessions going back to 1974. [75]

1981's Re·ac·tor, an electric album recorded with Crazy Horse, also included material from the 1970s. [76] Young did not tour in support of either album in total, he played only one show, a set at the 1980 Bread and Roses Festival in Berkeley, [77] between the end of his 1978 tour with Crazy Horse and the start of his tour with the Trans Band in mid-1982. [ citation needed ]

The 1982 album Trans, which incorporated vocoders, synthesizers, and electronic beats, was Young's first for the new label Geffen Records (distributed at the time by Warner Bros. Records, whose parent Warner Music Group owns most of Young's solo and band catalogue) and represented a distinct stylistic departure. Young later revealed that an inspiration for the album was the theme of technology and communication with Ben, who could not speak. [79] An extensive tour preceded the release of the album, and was documented by the video Neil Young in Berlin, which saw release in 1986. MTV played the video for "Sample and Hold" in light rotation. The entire song contained "robot vocals" by Young and Nils Lofgren. [ citation needed ] The song "After Berlin" as seen in that video, was the only time Neil Young has ever performed the song.

Young's next album, 1983's Everybody's Rockin', included several rockabilly covers and clocked in at less than twenty-five minutes in length. Young was backed by the Shocking Pinks for the supporting US tour. Trans (1982) had already drawn the ire of label head David Geffen for its lack of commercial appeal, and with Everybody's Rockin ' following only seven months later, Geffen Records sued Young for making music "unrepresentative" of himself. [80] The album was also notable as the first for which Young made commercial music videos – Tim Pope directed the videos for "Wonderin'" and "Cry, Cry, Cry". Also premiered in 1983, though little seen, was the long-gestating Human Highway. Co-directed and co-written by Young, the eclectic comedy starred Young, Dean Stockwell, Russ Tamblyn, Dennis Hopper, David Blue, Sally Kirkland, Charlotte Stewart and members of Devo. [ citation needed ]

The first year without a Neil Young album since the start of Young's musical career with Buffalo Springfield in 1966 was in 1984. Young's lack of productivity was largely due to the ongoing legal battle with Geffen, although he was also frustrated that the label had rejected his 1982 country album Old Ways. [81] It was also the year when Young's third child was born, a girl named Amber Jean. Later diagnosed with inherited epilepsy but otherwise healthy, Amber Jean was Neil and Pegi's second child together. [ citation needed ]

Young spent most of 1984 and all of 1985 touring for Old Ways (August 12, 1985) with his country band, the International Harvesters. The album was finally released in an altered form midway through 1985. Young also appeared at that year's Live Aid concert in Philadelphia, collaborating with Crosby, Stills and Nash for the quartet's first performance for a paying audience in over ten years. [ citation needed ]

Young's last two albums for Geffen were more conventional in the genre, although they incorporated production techniques like synthesizers and echoing drums that were previously uncommon in Young's music. Young recorded 1986's Landing on Water without Crazy Horse but reunited with the band for the subsequent year-long tour and final Geffen album, Life, which emerged in 1987. Young's album sales dwindled steadily throughout the eighties today Life remains his all-time-least successful studio album, with an estimated four hundred thousand sales worldwide. [82]

Switching back to his old label Reprise Records, Young continued to tour relentlessly, assembling a new blues band called The Bluenotes in mid-1987 (a legal dispute with musician Harold Melvin forced the eventual rechristening of the band as Ten Men Working midway through the tour). The addition of a brass section provided a new jazzier sound, and the title track of 1988's This Note's For You became Young's first hit single of the decade. Accompanied by a video that parodied corporate rock, the pretensions of advertising, and Michael Jackson, the song was initially unofficially banned by MTV for mentioning the brand names of some of their sponsors. Young wrote an open letter, "What does the M in MTV stand for: music or money?" Despite this, the video was eventually named best video of the year by the network in 1989. [83] By comparison, the major music cable network of Young's home nation, Muchmusic, ran the video immediately. [ citation needed ]

Young reunited with Crosby, Stills, and Nash to record the 1988 album American Dream and play two benefit concerts late in the year, but the group did not embark upon a full tour. The album was only the second-ever studio record for the quartet. [ citation needed ]

Return to prominence (1989–1999) Edit

Young's 1989 single "Rockin' in the Free World", which hit No. 2 on the US mainstream-rock charts, and accompanying the album, Freedom, rocketed him back into the popular consciousness after a decade of sometimes-difficult genre experiments. The album's lyrics were often overtly political "Rockin' in the Free World" deals with homelessness, terrorism, and environmental degradation, implicitly criticizing the government policies of President George H.W. Bush. [84]

The use of heavy feedback and distortion on several Freedom tracks was reminiscent of the Rust Never Sleeps (1979) album and foreshadowed the imminent rise of grunge. The rising stars of the subgenre, including Nirvana's Kurt Cobain and Pearl Jam's Eddie Vedder, frequently cited Young as a major influence, contributing to his popular revival. A tribute album called The Bridge: A Tribute to Neil Young was released in 1989, featuring covers by a range of alternative and grunge acts, including Sonic Youth, Nick Cave, Soul Asylum, Dinosaur Jr, and the Pixies.

Young's 1990 album Ragged Glory, recorded with Crazy Horse in a barn on his Northern California ranch, continued this distortion-heavy aesthetic. Young toured for the album with Orange County, California country-punk band Social Distortion and Sonic Youth as support, much to the consternation of many of his old fans. [85] Weld, a two-disc live album documenting the tour, was released in 1991. [85] Sonic Youth's influence was evident on Arc, a 35-minute collage of feedback and distortion spliced together at the suggestion of Thurston Moore and originally packaged with some versions of Weld. [85]

1992's Harvest Moon marked an abrupt return (prompted by Young's hyperacusis in the aftermath of the Weld tour) to the country and folk-rock stylings of Harvest and reunited him with some of the musicians from that album, including the core members of the Stray Gators and singers Linda Ronstadt and James Taylor. The title track was a minor hit, and the record was well received by critics, winning the Juno Award for Album of the Year in 1994. Young also contributed to lifelong friend Randy Bachman's nostalgic 1992 tune "Prairie Town", and garnered a 1993 Academy Award nomination for his song "Philadelphia", from the soundtrack of the Jonathan Demme movie of the same name. An MTV Unplugged performance and album emerged in 1993. Later that year, Young collaborated with Booker T. and the M.G.s for a summer tour of Europe and North America, with Blues Traveler, Soundgarden, and Pearl Jam also on the bill. Some European shows ended with a rendition of "Rockin' in the Free World" played with Pearl Jam, foreshadowing their eventual full-scale collaboration two years later.

In 1994, Young again collaborated with Crazy Horse for Sleeps with Angels, a record whose dark, somber mood was influenced by Kurt Cobain's death earlier that year: the title track in particular dealt with Cobain's life and death, without mentioning him by name. Cobain had quoted Young's lyric "It's better to burn out than fade away" (a line from "My My, Hey Hey") in his suicide note. Young had reportedly made repeated attempts to contact Cobain prior to his death. [86] Young and Pearl Jam performed "Act of Love" at an abortion rights benefit along with Crazy Horse, and were present at a Rock and Roll Hall of Fame dinner, sparking interest in a collaboration between the two. [87] Still enamored with the grunge scene, Young reconnected with Pearl Jam in 1995 for the live-in-the-studio album Mirror Ball and a tour of Europe with the band and producer Brendan O'Brien backing Young. 1995 also marked Young's induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, where he was inducted by Eddie Vedder.

Young has consistently demonstrated the unbridled passion of an artist who understands that self-renewal is the only way to avoid burning out. For this reason, he has remained one of the most significant artists of the rock and roll era.

In 1995, Young and his manager Elliot Roberts founded a record label, Vapor Records. [90] It has released recordings by Tegan and Sara, Spoon, Jonathan Richman, Vic Chesnutt, Everest, Pegi Young, Jets Overhead, and Young himself, among others. [90]

Young's next collaborative partner was filmmaker Jim Jarmusch, who asked Young to compose a soundtrack to his 1995 black-and-white western film Dead Man. Young's instrumental soundtrack was improvised while he watched the film alone in a studio. The death of longtime mentor, friend, and producer David Briggs in late 1995 prompted Young to reconnect with Crazy Horse the following year for the album and tour Broken Arrow. A Jarmusch-directed concert film and live album of the tour, Year of the Horse, emerged in 1997. From 1996 to 1997 Young and Crazy Horse toured extensively throughout Europe and North America, including a stint as part of the H.O.R.D.E. Festival's sixth annual tour.

In 1998, Young renewed his collaboration with the rock band Phish, sharing the stage at the annual Farm Aid concert and then at Young's Bridge School Benefit, where he joined headliners Phish for renditions of "Helpless" and "I Shall Be Released". [91] Phish declined Young's later invitation to be his backing band on his 1999 North American tour.

The decade ended with the release in late 1999 of Looking Forward, another reunion with Crosby, Stills, and Nash. The subsequent tour of the United States and Canada with the reformed quartet earned US$42.1 million, making it the eighth largest grossing tour of 2000.

Continued activism and brush with death (2000s) Edit

Neil Young continued to release new material at a rapid pace through the first decade of the new millennium. The studio album Silver & Gold and live album Road Rock Vol. 1 were released in 2000 and were both accompanied by live concert films. His 2001 single "Let's Roll" was a tribute to the victims of the September 11 attacks, and the effective action taken by the passengers and crew on Flight 93 in particular. [92] At the "America: A Tribute to Heroes" benefit concert for the victims of the attacks, Young performed John Lennon's "Imagine" and accompanied Eddie Vedder and Mike McCready on "Long Road", a Pearl Jam song that was written with Young during the Mirrorball sessions. "Let's Roll" was included on 2002's Are You Passionate?, an album mostly composed of mellow love songs dedicated to Young's wife, Pegi, backed by Booker T. & the M.G.s. [ citation needed ]

In 2003, Young released Greendale, a concept album recorded with Crazy Horse members Billy Talbot and Ralph Molina. The songs loosely revolved around the murder of a police officer in a small town in California and its effects on the town's inhabitants. [93] Under the pseudonym "Bernard Shakey", Young directed an accompanying film of the same name, featuring actors lip-synching to the music from the album. He toured extensively with the Greendale material throughout 2003 and 2004, first with a solo, acoustic version in Europe, then with a full-cast stage show in North America, Japan, and Australia. Young began using biodiesel on the 2004 Greendale tour, powering his trucks and tour buses with the fuel. "Our Greendale tour is now ozone friendly", he said. "I plan to continue to use this government approved and regulated fuel exclusively from now on to prove that it is possible to deliver the goods anywhere in North America without using foreign oil, while being environmentally responsible." [94] Young spent the latter portion of 2004 giving a series of intimate acoustic concerts in various cities with his wife, who is a trained vocalist and guitar player. [ citation needed ]

In March 2005, while working on the Prairie Wind album in Nashville, Young was diagnosed with a brain aneurysm. He was treated successfully with a minimally invasive neuroradiological procedure, performed in a New York hospital on March 29, [95] but two days afterwards he passed out on a New York street from bleeding from the femoral artery, which radiologists had used to access the aneurysm. [96] The complication forced Young to cancel his scheduled appearance at the Juno Awards telecast in Winnipeg, but within months he was back on stage, appearing at the close of the Live 8 concert in Barrie, Ontario, on July 2. During the performance, he debuted a new song, a soft hymn called "When God Made Me". Young's brush with death influenced Prairie Wind ' s themes of retrospection and mortality. [97] The album's live premiere in Nashville was recorded by filmmaker Jonathan Demme in the 2006 film Neil Young: Heart of Gold. [ citation needed ]

Young's renewed activism manifested itself in the 2006 album Living with War, which like the much earlier song "Ohio", was recorded and released in less than a month as a direct result of current events. [98] In early 2006, three years after the U.S. invasion of Iraq, the sectarian war and casualties there were escalating. While doing errands on a visit to his daughter, Young had seen a newspaper photo of wounded U.S. veterans on a transport plane to Germany, and noticing that the same paper devoted little actual coverage to the story, he was unable to get the image out of his head, realizing the suffering caused to families by the war had not truly registered to him and most Americans who were not directly affected by it. Young cried, and immediately got his guitar out and began to write multiple songs at once. Within a few days he had completed work and assembled a band. He later said he had restrained himself for a long time from writing any protest songs, waiting for someone younger, with a different perspective, but no one seemed to be saying anything. [ citation needed ]

Most of the album's songs rebuked the Bush administration's policy of war by examining its human costs to soldiers, their loved ones, and civilians, but Young also included a few songs on other themes, and an outright protest titled, "Let's Impeach the President", [99] in which he stated that Bush had lied to lead the country into war. Young's lyrics in another song named Illinois Senator Barack Obama, who had not declared any intention to run for president at the time and was widely unexpected to be able to win either the Democratic Party nomination or a general election, as potentially a replacement for Bush. That summer, Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young reunited for the supporting "Freedom of Speech Tour '06", in which they played Young's new protest songs alongside the group's older material, meeting with both enthusiasm and anger from different fans, some of whom were supportive of Bush politically. CSNY Déjà Vu, a concert film of the tour directed by Young himself, was released in 2008, along with an accompanying live album. [ citation needed ]

While Young had never been a stranger to eco-friendly lyrics, themes of environmentalist spirituality and activism became increasingly prominent in his work throughout the 1990s and 2000s, especially on Greendale (2003) [100] and Living with War (2006). [101] The trend continued on 2007's Chrome Dreams II, with lyrics exploring Young's personal eco-spirituality. [102] Also in 2007, Young accepted an invitation to participate in Goin' Home: A Tribute to Fats Domino, contributing his version of "Walking to New Orleans". [ citation needed ]

Young remains on the board of directors of Farm Aid, an organization he co-founded with Willie Nelson and John Mellencamp in 1985. According to its website, it is the longest running concert benefit series in the U.S. and it has raised $43 million since its first benefit concert in 1985. Each year, Young co-hosts and performs with well-known guest performers who include Dave Matthews and producers who include Evelyn Shriver and Mark Rothbaum, at the Farm Aid annual benefit concerts to raise funds and provide grants to family farms and prevent foreclosures, provide a crisis hotline, and create and promote home grown farm food in the United States. [103]

In 2008, Young revealed his latest project, the production of a hybrid-engine 1959 Lincoln called LincVolt. [104] A new album loosely based on the Lincvolt project, Fork in the Road, was released on April 7, 2009. [105] The album, partly composed of love songs to the car, also commented on the economic crisis, with one narrator attacking the Wall Street bailouts enacted in late 2008. Unfortunately, the car caught fire in November 2010, in a California warehouse, and along the way it burned an estimated US$850,000 worth of Young's rock and roll memorabilia collection. Initial reports suggest the fire might have been triggered by an error in the vehicle's plug-in charging system. Young blamed the fire on human error and said he and his team were committed to rebuilding the car. "The wall charging system was not completely tested and had never been left unattended. A mistake was made. It was not the fault of the car", he said. [ citation needed ]

A Jonathan Demme concert film from a 2007 concert at the Tower Theater in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, called the Neil Young Trunk Show premiered on March 21, 2009, at the South by Southwest (SXSW) Film Conference and Festival in Austin, Texas. It was featured at the Cannes Film Festival on May 17, 2009, and was released in the U.S. on March 19, 2010, [106] to critical acclaim. [107] [108] [109] Young guested on the album Potato Hole, released on April 21, 2009, by Memphis organ player Booker T. Jones, of Booker T. & the MGs fame. Young plays guitar on nine of the album's ten instrumental tracks, alongside Drive-By Truckers, who already had three guitar players, giving some songs on the album a total of five guitar tracks. Jones contributed guitars on a couple of tracks. [ citation needed ]

In 2009, Young headlined the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival, and Glastonbury Festival in Pilton, England, [110] at Hard Rock Calling in London (where he was joined onstage by Paul McCartney for a rendition of "A Day in the Life") and, after years of unsuccessful booking attempts, the Isle of Wight Festival [111] in addition to performances at the Big Day Out festival in New Zealand and Australia and the Primavera Sound Festival in Barcelona. [ citation needed ]

Young has been a vocal opponent of the proposed Keystone XL oil pipeline, which would run from Alberta to Texas. When discussing the environmental impact on the oilsands of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Young asserted that the area now resembles the Japanese city of Hiroshima in the aftermath of the atomic bomb attack of World War II. [112] Young has referred to issues surrounding the proposed use of oil pipelines as "scabs on our lives". [112] In an effort to become more involved, Young has worked directly with the Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation to draw attention to this issue, performing benefit concerts and speaking publicly on the subject. In 2014, he played four shows in Canada dedicated to the Honor the Treaties [113] movement, raising money for the Athabasca Chipewyan legal defence fund. [114] In 2015, he and Willie Nelson held a festival in Neligh, Nebraska, called Harvest the Hope, raising awareness of the impact of oilsands and oil pipelines on Native Americans and family farmers. Both received honours from leaders of the Rosebud, Oglala Lakota, Ponca and Omaha nations, and were invested with sacred buffalo robes. [115]

Young participated in the Blue Dot Tour, which was organized and fronted by environmental activist David Suzuki, and toured all 10 Canadian provinces alongside other Canadian artists including the Barenaked Ladies, Feist, and Robert Bateman. The intent of Young's participation in this tour was to raise awareness of the environmental damage caused by the exploitation of oilsands. Young has argued that the amount of CO2 released as a byproduct of oilsand oil extraction is equivalent to the amount released by the total number of cars in Canada each day. [116] Young has faced criticism by representatives from within the Canadian petroleum industry, who have argued that his statements are irresponsible. [112] Young's opposition to the construction of oil pipelines has influenced his music as well. His song, "Who's Going to Stand Up?" was written to protest this issue, and features the lyric "Ban fossil fuel and draw the line / Before we build one more pipeline". [112]

In addition to directly criticizing members of the oil industry, Young has also focused blame on the actions of the Canadian government for ignoring the environmental impacts of climate change. He referred to Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper as "an embarrassment to many Canadians . [and] a very poor imitation of the George Bush administration in the United States". [116] Young has also been critical of Barack Obama's government for failing to uphold the promises made regarding environmental policies during his election campaign. [116]

Young recorded "A Rock Star Bucks a Coffee Shop" in response to Starbucks' possible involvement with Monsanto and use of genetically-modified food. [117] [118] The song was included on his concept album called The Monsanto Years. [119]

2010s Edit

On January 22, 2010, Young performed "Long May You Run" on the final episode of The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien. On the same night, he and Dave Matthews performed the Hank Williams song "Alone and Forsaken", for the Hope for Haiti Now: A Global Benefit for Earthquake Relief charity telethon, in response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Young also performed "Long May You Run" at the closing ceremony of the 2010 Olympic winter games in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. In May 2010, it was revealed Young had begun working on a new studio album produced by Daniel Lanois. This was announced by David Crosby, who said that the album "will be a very heartfelt record. I expect it will be a very special record." [120] On May 18, 2010, Young embarked upon a North American solo tour to promote his then upcoming album, Le Noise, playing a mix of older songs and new material. Although billed as a solo acoustic tour, Young also played some songs on electric guitars, including Old Black. [121] Young continued his Twisted Road tour with a short East Coast venture during spring 2011. Young also contributed vocals to the Elton John–Leon Russell album The Union, singing the second stanza on the track "Gone to Shiloh" and providing backing vocals. [ citation needed ]

In September 2011, Jonathan Demme's third documentary film on the singer songwriter, Neil Young Journeys, premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival. [122] Like Demme's earlier work with Young, most of the film consists of a simply filmed live performance, in this case, Young's homecoming show in May 2011 at Toronto's Massey Hall, four decades after he first played at the iconic venue. Playing old songs, as well as new ones from Le Noise, Young performs solo on both electric and acoustic instruments. His performance is a counterpoint to Demme's footage of Young's return to Omemee, Ontario, the small town near Toronto where he grew up, which has now become physically unrecognizable, though he vividly recalls events from his childhood there. [ citation needed ]

On January 22, 2012, the Master Class at the Slamdance Festival featured Coffee with Neil Young & Jonathan Demme discussing their film Neil Young Journeys. Young said that he had been recording with Crazy Horse, completing one album and working on another. [123]

Neil Young and Crazy Horse performed a version of the Beatles' "I Saw Her Standing There" for Paul McCartney's MusiCares Person of the Year dinner on February 10, 2012, in Hollywood. [124]

Neil Young with Crazy Horse released the album Americana on June 5, 2012. It was Young's first collaboration with Crazy Horse since the Greendale album and tour in 2003 and 2004. The record is a tribute to unofficial national anthems that jumps from an uncensored version of "This Land Is Your Land" to "Clementine" and includes a version of "God Save the Queen", which Young grew up singing every day in school in Canada. [125] Americana is Neil Young's first album composed entirely of cover songs. The album debuted at number four on the Billboard 200, making it Young's highest-charting album in the US since Harvest. [126] On June 5, 2012, American Songwriter also reported that Neil Young & Crazy Horse would be launching their first tour in eight years in support of the album. [127]

In 2012, Young toured with Crazy Horse prior to the release of their second album of 2012, Psychedelic Pill, which was released in late October. [ citation needed ]

On August 25, 2012, Young was mistakenly reported dead by NBCNews.com, the day when astronaut Neil Armstrong died. [128]

On September 25, 2012, Young's autobiography Waging Heavy Peace: A Hippie Dream was released to critical and commercial acclaim. [129] Reviewing the book for the New York Times, Janet Maslin reported that Young chose to write his memoirs in 2012 for two reasons. For one, he needed to take a break from stage performances for health reasons but continue to generate income. For another, he feared the onset of dementia, considering his father's medical history and his own present condition. Maslin gives the book a higher than average grade, describing it as frank but quirky and without pathos as it delves into his relationships and his experience in parenting a child with disabilities as well as his artistic and commercial activities and associations. [130]

In November 2013, Young performed at the annual fundraiser for the Silverlake Conservatory of Music. Following the Red Hot Chili Peppers, he played an acoustic set to a crowd who had paid a minimum of $2,000 a seat to attend the benefit in the famous Paramour Mansion overlooking downtown Los Angeles. [131]

The album A Letter Home was released on April 19, 2014, through Jack White's record label, and his second memoir, entitled Special Deluxe, was tentatively scheduled for a late 2014 release. [ needs update ] He appeared with Jack White on The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon on May 12, 2014. [132]

The 2014 debut solo album by Chrissie Hynde, entitled Stockholm, featured Young on guitar on the track "Down the Wrong Way". [133]

Young released his thirty-fifth studio album, Storytone on November 4, 2014. The first song released from the album, "Who's Gonna Stand Up?", was released in three different versions on September 25, 2014. [134]

Storytone was followed in 2015 by his concept album The Monsanto Years. [135] The Monsanto Years is an album themed both in support of sustainable farming, and to protest the biotechnology company Monsanto. [136] Young achieves this protest in a series of lyrical sentiments against genetically modified food production. He created this album in collaboration with Willie Nelson's sons, Lukas and Micah, and is also backed by Lukas's fellow band members from Promise of the Real. [137] Additionally, Young released a film in tandem to the album, (also entitled "The Monsanto Years"), that documents the album's recording, and can be streamed online. [138] In August 2019, The Guardian reported Young, among other environmental activists, was being spied on by the firm. [139]

In summer 2015, Young undertook a North America tour titled the Rebel Content Tour. The tour began on July 5, 2015, at the Summerfest in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and ended on July 24, 2015, at the Wayhome Festival in Oro-Medonte, Ontario. Lukas Nelson & Promise of the Real were special guests for the tour. [140] [141] [142] [ needs update ] After a show on September 19, 2015, in Chicago, Illinois, the tour started over on October 1, 2015, in Missoula, Montana, and ended on October 25, 2015, in Mountain View, California. [ needs update ]

In October 2016, Young performed at Desert Trip in Indio, California, [143] [144] and announced his thirty-seventh studio album, Peace Trail, recorded with drummer Jim Keltner and bass guitarist Paul Bushnell, [145] which was released that December.

On September 8, 2017, Young released Hitchhiker, a studio LP recorded on August 11, 1976, at Indigo Studios in Malibu. The album features ten songs that Young recorded accompanied by acoustic guitar or piano. [146] While different versions of most of the songs have been previously released, the new album will include two never-before-released songs: "Hawaii" and "Give Me Strength", which Young has occasionally performed live. [147]

On July 4, 2017, Young released the song "Children of Destiny" which would appear on his next album. On November 3, 2017, Young released "Already Great" a song from The Visitor, an album he recorded with Promise of the Real and released on December 1, 2017. [148]

On December 1, 2017, Young performed live in Omemee, Ontario, Canada, a town he had lived in as a boy. [149]

On March 23, 2018, Young released a soundtrack album for the Daryl Hannah film Paradox. The album is labeled as "Special Release Series, Volume 10." [ citation needed ]

On Record Store Day, April 21, 2018, Warner Records released a two-vinyl LP special edition of Roxy: Tonight's the Night Live, a double live album of a show that Young performed in September 1973 at the Roxy in West Hollywood, with the Santa Monica Flyers. The album is labeled as "Volume 05" in Young's Performance Series. [150]

On October 19, 2018, Young released a live version of his song "Campaigner", an excerpt from a forthcoming archival live album titled Songs for Judy, which features solo performances recorded during a November 1976 tour with Crazy Horse. It will be the first release from his new label Shakey Pictures Records. [151] [152] [153]

In November 2018, shortly after his home had been destroyed by the California wildfire, Young criticised President Donald Trump's stance on climate change. [154]

In December 2018, Young criticised the promoters of a London show for selecting Barclays Bank as a sponsor. Young objected to the bank's association with fossil fuels. Young explained that he was trying to rectify the situation by finding a different sponsor. [155]

Young revived Crazy Horse for a series of low-profile theater gigs beginning May 1, 2018 in Fresno, California.

In April 2019, the band began recording "at least 11 new songs, all written recently" for a new album titled Colorado.

On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Neil Young among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. [156]

On August 19, 2019, Neil Young and Crazy Horse announced the forthcoming release later in August 2019 of the new song "Rainbow of Colors", the first single from the album Colorado, Young's first new record with the band in seven years, since 2012's Psychedelic Pill. Young, multi-instrumentalist Nils Lofgren, bassist Billy Talbot and drummer Ralph Molina recorded the new album with Neil's co-producer, John Hanlon, in spring 2019. The 10 new songs are ranging from around 3 minutes to over 13 minutes. Colorado was released on October 25, 2019 [157] [158] on Reprise Records. On August 30, 2019, Young unveiled "Milky Way", the first song from Colorado, a love ballad Young had performed several times at concerts over the past few months – both solo acoustic and with Promise of the Real. [159]

2020s Edit

In February 2020, Young wrote an "open letter" to President Donald Trump: ‘You Are a Disgrace to My Country’. [160] [161] In April 2020, he announced that he was working on a new archival album titled Road of Plenty, which will consist of music made with Crazy Horse during a 1986 US tour and tracks recorded in 1989 while rehearsing for their Saturday Night Live appearance. [162]

On May 7, 2020, it was announced that Neil Young would release on June 19, 2020, his 1975 long lost unreleased album Homegrown, a long-awaited album he described as "the missing link between Harvest, Comes A Time, Old Ways and Harvest Moon". The original release date of April 17 had to be delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [163]

On August 4, 2020, Young filed a copyright infringement lawsuit against the Trump campaign for the use of Young's music at Trump's campaign rallies. [164]

On August 14, 2020, Young announced that he would "soon" release a new EP entitled The Times. Young shared the news via his video for his new song "Lookin' for a Leader" [nb 1] , stating: "I invite the President to play this song at his next rally. A song about the feelings many of us have about America today, it's part of The Times, an EP coming soon from Reprise Records—my home since 1968." [165] [166]

In December 2020, Rolling Stone magazine released a Special Edition marking Young's 75th birthday, called "The Ultimate Guide to His Music & Legend", plus his 100 greatest songs. In a December 2020 Letters To The Editor article on the NYA website, Neil Young revealed that he is currently working on a new solo album, possibly for a 2021 release. The only thing Neil had mentioned about the album so far is, "I've been waiting a long time." [167] In January 2021, it was reported that Young had sold the rights to his back catalogue to a British investment company. Hipgnosis Songs Fund had bought a 50 per cent stake in Young's catalogue, amounting to 1,800 songs from his Buffalo Springfield days, through the Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young era and on to his solo career with the Crazy Horse backing band. Financial details were not disclosed but the value was estimated to be at least $150m. [168] [169]

As far back as 1988, Young spoke in interviews of his efforts to compile his unreleased material and to remaster his existing catalogue. The collection was eventually titled the Neil Young Archives Series. The first installment, titled The Archives Vol. 1 1963–1972, was originally planned for a 2007 release but was delayed, and released on June 2, 2009. [ citation needed ]

Three performances from the Performance Series of the archives were released individually before The Archives Vol. 1. Live at the Fillmore East, a selection of songs from a 1970 gig with Crazy Horse, was released in 2006. Live at Massey Hall 1971, a solo acoustic set from Toronto's Massey Hall, saw release in 2007. Sugar Mountain – Live at Canterbury House 1968, an early solo performance and, chronologically, the first disc in the performance series, emerged late in 2008. [ citation needed ]

In an interview in 2008, Young discussed Toast, an album originally recorded with Crazy Horse in San Francisco in 2000 but never released. [170] The album will be part of the Special Edition Series of the Archives. No release date currently exists for Toast. The album A Treasure, with live tracks from a 1984–85 tour with the International Harvesters, during a time when he was being sued by Geffen Records, was released in June 2011. [ citation needed ]

On July 14, 2009, Young's first four solo albums were reissued as remastered HDCD discs and digital downloads as discs 1–4 of the Original Release Series of the Archives. [171]

As of 2019, Neil Young has launched a subscription website and application where all of his music is available to stream in high resolution audio. The Neil Young Archives also include his newspaper, The Times-Contrarian, The Hearse Theater, and photos and memorabilia throughout his career. [172]

Homes and residency Edit

Young's family was from Manitoba, where both his parents were born and married. Young himself was born in Toronto, Ontario, and lived there at various times in his early life (1945, 1957, 1959–1960, 1966 to 1967), as well as Omemee (1945 to 1952) and Pickering, Ontario (1956) before settling with his mother in Winnipeg, Manitoba (1958, 1960–1966), where his music career began and which he considers his "hometown". [173] Young has been outside Canada since 1967. After becoming successful, he bought properties in California, United States. He currently holds dual citizenship for Canada and the United States. [174] [175]

Young had a home in Malibu, California, which burned to the ground in the 2018 Woolsey Fire. [176]

Young owns Broken Arrow Ranch, a property of about 1,000 acres [177] near La Honda, California, that he purchased in 1970 for US$350,000 (US$2,332,434 in 2020 dollars) [69] the property was subsequently expanded to thousands of acres. [178] [179]

Young announced in 2019 that his application for United States citizenship had been held up because of his use of marijuana, but the issue was resolved and he became a United States citizen. [18]

Relationships and family Edit

Young married his first wife, restaurant owner Susan Acevedo, in December 1968. They were together until October 1970, when she filed for divorce. [180]

From late 1970 to 1975, Young was in a relationship with actress Carrie Snodgress. The song "A Man Needs a Maid" from Harvest is inspired by his seeing her in the film Diary of a Mad Housewife. They met soon afterward and she moved in with him on his ranch in northern California. They have a son, Zeke, who was born September 8, 1972. He has been diagnosed with cerebral palsy. [181] [182]

Young met future wife Pegi Young ( née Morton) in 1974 when she was working as a waitress at a diner near his ranch, a story he tells in the 1992 song "Unknown Legend". They married in August 1978 [183] and had two children together, Ben and Amber. Ben has been diagnosed with cerebral palsy, [182] and Amber has been diagnosed with epilepsy. [182] The couple were musical collaborators and co-founded the Bridge School in 1986. [184] [185] On July 29, 2014, Young filed for divorce after 36 years of marriage. [60] Pegi died on January 1, 2019. [186]

Young has been in a relationship with actress and director Daryl Hannah since 2014. [187] Young and Hannah were reported to have wed on August 25, 2018 in Atascadero, California. [188] Young confirmed his marriage to Hannah in a video released on October 31, 2018. [189]

Young has been widely reported to be the godfather of actress Amber Tamblyn [190] in a 2009 interview with Parade, Tamblyn explained that "godfather" was "just a loose term" for Young, Dennis Hopper, and Dean Stockwell, three famous friends of her father, who were always around the house when she was growing up, and who were important influences on her life. [191]

Charity work Edit

Young is an environmentalist [192] and outspoken advocate for the welfare of small farmers, having co-founded in 1985 the benefit concert Farm Aid. He worked on LincVolt, the conversion of his 1959 Lincoln Continental to hybrid electric technology as an environmentalist statement. [193] [194] In 1986, Young helped found The Bridge School, [195] an educational organization for children with severe verbal and physical disabilities, and its annual supporting Bridge School Benefit concerts, together with his former wife Pegi Young. [196] The last concerts were held in October 2016. On June 14, 2017, Neil and Pegi Young announced that the Bridge School Concerts would no longer continue.

Young is a member of the Canadian charity Artists Against Racism. [197]

Young was part owner of Lionel, LLC, a company that makes toy trains and model railroad accessories. [198] In 2008 Lionel emerged from bankruptcy and his shares of the company were wiped out. He was instrumental in the design of the Lionel Legacy control system for model trains, [198] and remains on the board of directors of Lionel. [2] He has been named as co-inventor on seven US patents related to model trains. [199]

Young has long held that the digital audio formats in which most people download music are deeply flawed, and do not provide the rich, warm sound of analog recordings. He claims to be acutely aware of the difference, and compares it with taking a shower in tiny ice cubes versus ordinary water. [200] Young and his company PonoMusic developed Pono, a music download service and dedicated music player focusing on "high-quality" uncompressed digital audio. [201] It was designed to compete against MP3 and other formats. Pono promised to present songs "as they first sound during studio recording". [202] [203] [204] The service and the sale of the player were launched in October 2014. [205] [206] In April 2017 it was announced that Pono was discontinued after the company that was running the store, Omnifone, was purchased by Apple in 2016 and almost immediately shut down. Alternative plans were later abandoned.

Guitars Edit

In 2003, Rolling Stone listed Young as eighty-third in its ranking of "The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time" (although in a more recent version of the list, he has been moved up to seventeenth place), describing him as a "restless experimenter . who transform[s] the most obvious music into something revelatory". [207] Young is a collector of second-hand guitars, but in recording and performing, he uses frequently just a few instruments, as is explained by his longtime guitar technician Larry Cragg in the film Neil Young: Heart of Gold. They include:

  • 1953 Gibson Les Paul Goldtop. Nicknamed "Old Black", this is Young's primary electric guitar and is featured on Rust Never Sleeps (1979) and other albums. Old Black got its name from an amateur paintjob applied to the originally gold body of the instrument, some time before Young acquired the guitar in the late 1960s. In 1972, a mini humbucker pick-up from a Gibson Firebird was installed in the lead/treble position. This pick-up, severely microphonic, is considered a crucial component of Young's sound. A Bigsby vibrato tailpiece was installed as early as 1969, and can be heard during the opening of "Cowgirl in the Sand" from Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere. [citation needed] . His primary steel-string acoustic guitar. It was one of four instruments bought by Stephen Stills for himself and his bandmates in CSNY to celebrate their first full concert at the Greek Theater in 1969. [citation needed]
  • Martin D-28. Nicknamed "Hank" after its previous owner, Hank Williams. Hank Williams, Jr., had traded it for some shotguns it went through a succession of other owners until it was located by Young's longtime friend Grant Boatwright. The guitar was purchased by Young from Tut Taylor. Young has toured with it for over 30 years. A story about the guitar and the song it inspired, "This Old Guitar", can be seen about 50 minutes into the film Neil Young: Heart of Gold. [citation needed]
  • Vintage Martin D-18: Young used an old D-18 throughout his early days performing in coffee houses in Canada and on some early Buffalo Springfield work, before he received the D-45 from Stills. It can also be seen on unreleased footage from the Woodstock documentary, particularly on an acoustic duet of the Buffalo Springfield track "Mr. Soul" with Stills. [citation needed]

Other notable (or odd) instruments played by Young include:

    12-string, used in the first half of Rust Never Sleeps (1979). [citation needed]
  • 1927 Gibson Mastertone, a six-string banjo guitar, a banjo body tuned like a guitar, used on many recordings and played by James Taylor on "Old Man". [citation needed] (Chet Atkins model). Before Young bought Old Black, this was his primary electric guitar during his Buffalo Springfield days. [citation needed] . Young purchased a late 1950s model near the end of the Buffalo Springfield era in 1969 he bought a stereo version of the same vintage guitar from Stephen Stills, and this instrument is featured prominently during Young's early 1970s period, and can be heard on tracks like "Ohio", "Southern Man", "Alabama", "Words (Between the Lines of Age)", and "L.A.". It was Young's primary electric guitar during the Harvest (1972) era, since Young's deteriorating back condition (eventually fixed with surgery) made playing the much heavier Les Paul difficult. [208] This particular White Falcon is the stereo 6137, in which the signal from the three bass strings is separated from the signal from the three treble strings. Young typically plays this guitar in this stereo mode, sending the separate signals to two different amps, a Fender Deluxe and either a Fender Tremolux or a low-powered Tweed Fender Twin. The separation of the signals is most prominently heard on the Harvest (1972) song "Words". [citation needed] , on the Time Fades Away tour. [citation needed] , on the Tonight's the Night (1975) album and tour. [citation needed]
  • Guild M-20, seen in the film Neil Young Journeys. [citation needed]

Harmonicas Edit

Young plays Hohner Marine Band harmonicas and is often seen using a harmonica holder [ citation needed ] . [209]

Reed organ Edit

Young owns a restored Estey reed organ, serial number 167272, dating from 1885, which he frequently plays in concert. [210]

Crystallophone Edit

Young owns a glass harmonica which was used in the recording of "I Do" on the 2019 album Colorado. [211]

Amplification Edit

Young uses various vintage Fender Tweed Deluxe amplifiers. His preferred amplifier for electric guitar is the Fender Deluxe, specifically a Tweed-era model from 1959. He purchased his first vintage Deluxe in 1967 for US$50 (US$388 in 2020 dollars [69] ) from Sol Betnun Music on Larchmont in Hollywood and has since acquired nearly 450 different examples, all from the same era, but he maintains that it is the original model that sounds superior and is crucial to his trademark sound. [212]

The Tweed Deluxe is almost always used in conjunction with a late-1950s Magnatone 280 (similar to the amplifier used by Lonnie Mack and Buddy Holly). The Magnatone and the Deluxe are paired together in a most unusual manner: the external speaker jack from the Deluxe sends the amped signal through a volume potentiometer and directly into the input of the Magnatone. The Magnatone is notable for its true pitch-bending vibrato capabilities, which can be heard as an electric piano amplifier on "See the Sky About to Rain". A notable and unique accessory to Young's Deluxe is the Whizzer, a device created specifically for Young by Rick Davis, which physically changes the amplifier's settings to pre-set combinations. This device is connected to footswitches operable by Young onstage in the manner of an effects pedal. Tom Wheeler's book Soul of Tone highlights the device on page 182/183. [213]

  • Neil Young (1968)
  • Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere with Crazy Horse (1969)
  • After the Gold Rush (1970)
  • Harvest (1972)
  • Time Fades Away (1973, live)
  • On the Beach (1974)
  • Tonight's the Night (1975)
  • Zuma with Crazy Horse (1975)
  • Long May You Run with Stephen Stills (1976)
  • American Stars 'n Bars (1977)
  • Comes a Time (1978)
  • Rust Never Sleeps with Crazy Horse (1979, live)
  • Hawks & Doves (1980)
  • Re·ac·tor with Crazy Horse (1981)
  • Trans (1982)
  • Everybody's Rockin' with the Shocking Pinks (1983)
  • Old Ways (1985)
  • Landing on Water (1986)
  • Life with Crazy Horse (1987, live)
  • This Note's for You with The Bluenotes (1988)
  • Freedom (1989)
  • Ragged Glory with Crazy Horse (1990)
  • Harvest Moon (1992)
  • Sleeps with Angels with Crazy Horse (1994)
  • Mirror Ball with Pearl Jam (1995)
  • Broken Arrow with Crazy Horse (1996)
  • Silver & Gold (2000)
  • Are You Passionate? with Booker T. & the M.G.'s (2002)
  • Greendale with Crazy Horse (2003)
  • Prairie Wind (2005)
  • Living with War (2006)
  • Living with War: "In the Beginning" (2006)
  • Chrome Dreams II (2007)
  • Fork in the Road (2009)
  • Le Noise (2010)
  • Americana with Crazy Horse (2012)
  • Psychedelic Pill with Crazy Horse (2012)
  • A Letter Home (2014)
  • Storytone (2014)
  • The Monsanto Years with Promise of the Real (2015)
  • Peace Trail (2016)
  • Hitchhiker recorded 1976 (2017)
  • The Visitor with Promise of the Real (2017)
  • Colorado with Crazy Horse (2019)
  • Homegrown recorded 1974–75 (2020)

As one of the original founders of Farm Aid (1985–), he remains an active member of the board of directors. For one weekend each October, in Mountain View, California, Young and his ex-wife have hosted the Bridge School Concerts, which have been drawing international talent and sell-out crowds for nearly two decades with some of the biggest names in rock having performed at the event including Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, Bruce Springsteen, David Bowie, The Who, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails, Tom Waits, Thom Yorke of Radiohead, R.E.M., Foo Fighters, Metallica, Pearl Jam, Sonic Youth, The Smashing Pumpkins, Paul McCartney and Dave Matthews. He announced in June 2017, however, that he would no longer host the concerts. [214] The concerts are a benefit for the Bridge School, which develops and uses advanced technologies to aid in the instruction of children with disabilities. Young's involvement stemmed at least partially from the fact that both of his sons have cerebral palsy and his daughter, like Young himself, has epilepsy.

Young was nominated for an Oscar in 1994 for his song "Philadelphia" from the film Philadelphia. Bruce Springsteen won the award for his song "Streets of Philadelphia" from the same film. In his acceptance speech, Springsteen said that "the award really deserved to be shared by the other nominee's song". That same night, Tom Hanks, when accepting the Oscar for Best Actor, gave credit for his inspiration to Young's song.

Young has twice received honorary doctorates. He received an honorary doctorate of music from Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Ontario, in 1992, and an honorary doctorate of humane letters from San Francisco State University in 2006. The latter honour was shared with his wife Pegi for their creation of the Bridge School. In 2006, Young was given Manitoba's highest civilian honour when he was appointed to the Order of Manitoba. In 2009, he was appointed to Canada's second highest civilian order, the Order of Canada.

Rolling Stone magazine in 2000, ranked Young thirty-fourth in its list of the 100 greatest artists of all time, [215] and in 2003, included five of his albums in its list of 500 greatest albums of all time. [216] In 2000, Young was inducted into Canada's Walk of Fame. [217] In 2006, when Paste magazine compiled a "Greatest Living Songwriters" list, Young was ranked second behind Bob Dylan. (While Young and Dylan have occasionally played together in concert, they have never collaborated on a song together or played on each other's records.) He ranked thirty-ninth on VH1's 100 Greatest Artist of Hard Rock that same year. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame explained that while Young has "avoided sticking to one style for very long, the unifying factors throughout Young's peripatetic musical journey have been his unmistakable voice, his raw and expressive guitar playing, and his consummate songwriting skill." [88]

Young's political outspokenness and social awareness influenced artists such as Blind Melon, Phish, Pearl Jam, and Nirvana. Young is referred to as "the Godfather of Grunge" because of the influence he had on Kurt Cobain and Eddie Vedder and the entire grunge movement. Vedder inducted Young into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995, citing him as a huge influence. Young is cited as being a significant influence on the experimental rock group Sonic Youth, and Thom Yorke of Radiohead. Yorke recounted of first hearing Young after sending a demo tape into a magazine when he was 16, who favourably compared his singing voice to Young's. Unaware of Young at that time, he bought After the Gold Rush (1970), and "immediately fell in love" with his work, calling it "extraordinary". [218] Yorke later covered the title track in concert. Dave Matthews lists Young as one of his favourite songwriters and most important inspirations and covers his songs on occasion. The British indie band The Bluetones named their number one debut album after the song "Expecting to Fly" (written by Young when still with Buffalo Springfield) and have covered the song while touring. Young also inspired the singer-songwriter Noel Gallagher of Oasis, who covered "Hey Hey, My My (Into the Black)" on the live album Familiar to Millions (2000).

The Australian rock group Powderfinger named themselves after Young's song "Powderfinger" from Rust Never Sleeps (1979). The members of the Constantines have occasionally played Neil Young tribute shows under the name Horsey Craze. [219] While in Winnipeg on November 2, 2008, during the Canadian leg of his tour, Bob Dylan visited Young's former home in River Heights, where Young spent his teenage years. Dylan was interested in seeing the room where some of Young's first songs were composed.

Jason Bond, an East Carolina University biologist, discovered a new species of trapdoor spider in 2007 and named it Myrmekiaphila neilyoungi after Young, [220] his favourite singer. [221]


'I Fit In Right Here': A History Buff Leads Walking Tours Of Black Indianapolis

"This is like my favorite mural in the city!" exclaimed Sampson Levingston, admiring the black-and-white portraits of great Indianapolis jazzmen adorning the side of a downtown music store.

A hardcore history buff, Levingston decided to bring people together — during the height of protests over Black Lives Matter last summer — by leading outdoor walking tours of traditionally African American neighborhoods. His company, Through 2 Eyes, takes schoolkids, church groups, tourists and curious locals around Irvington, Martindale-Brightwood and other areas rich in local Black history.

Sampson Levingston, of Through2Eyes, runs walking tours focusing on Indianapolis' Black neighborhoods and history. Neda Ulaby/NPR hide caption

Sampson Levingston, of Through2Eyes, runs walking tours focusing on Indianapolis' Black neighborhoods and history.

Levingston loves his hometown, but he's aware of nicknames like "Indiana No Place" and "Naptown."

"People thought it was that boring," Levingston allowed during a recent tour of the Indiana Avenue district. "People would actually come downtown and shoot pigeons off light poles."

But Indiana Avenue was once a thriving hub of Black commerce and entertainment. The area was gutted by an interstate in the 1960s and '70s. Hundreds of historic buildings were destroyed, according to local news. But you can still see the former world headquarters of Madam C.J. Walker, said to be the first female self-made millionaire, who made and sold Black hair care products. And Indiana Avenue was rich in nightclubs frequented by the likes of J.J. Johnson, Wes Montgomery and Freddie Hubbard. (Levingston's Spotify list is right here. And Indiana Avenue itself was immortalized by musician Larry Ridley in this song.)

"You look through history books and you don't see too many Black people, so you're like, 'Where do I fit in?'" Levingston mused. "Then you learn about the Avenue and you're like – I fit in right here."

I’ll walk this city til my legs fall off!! This was Walk & Talk 83! Best job in the world because I made it up! pic.twitter.com/2fY43HZYWY

&mdash Through2Eyes Indiana (@Through2Eyes) April 23, 2021

Levingston, a 26-year-old former NCAA Division I athlete, has always been a nerd when it comes to digging up stories of Indianapolis buildings and byways. He hangs out in archives for fun. But Levingston did not major in history. He was a wide receiver at Indiana State, and captain of his football team. "I took all the history electives I could," he says. "I'd even miss practice sometimes to sneak in another history elective."

Majoring in marketing helped Levingston learn how to spread the world about his walking tours. (He has an active Facebook page.) His Indiana Avenue tour included stops at the historic site of the Senate Avenue Y, once the country's largest Black YMCA. It was home to vital progressive community organizing in the 1920s, when the Ku Klux Klan were a dominant force in local politics. Then there's the grand, red brick Bethel AME Church near downtown's canal. It's a former stop on the Underground Railroad. And then, the city's brightly painted Black Lives Matter Mural, where the names of police violence victims are inscribed within each letter.

"Michael Taylor's name actually appears on this mural four different times," Levingston says. That name is heavy with more recent history. Back in 1987, the 16-year-old Taylor was picked up on suspicion of car theft. He was shot in the head and killed while in the back of a police squad car. He was handcuffed at the time. Police claimed the teenager died by suicide.

In 1996, the city paid Taylor's mother millions of dollars in restitution. Part of this Indiana Avenue tour includes visiting Nancy Taylor. She does not talk about losing her son. Instead, from her flower-filled front yard, Taylor shares memories from her childhood.


Melvin Gordon: I try to help young players like Danny Woodhead helped me

Broncos veteran running back Melvin Gordon says he’s eager to help rookie running back Javonte Williams this season, paying forward the help that Danny Woodhead once gave Gordon.

The Chargers drafted Gordon in the first round in 2015, which meant Woodhead, who was heading into his third season with the Chargers, had one more player potentially taking his job away. But Gordon says Woodhead went out of his way to help him adjust to the NFL, and Gordon always knew he’d do the same for young players down the road.

“When I came in I had Danny Woodhead,” Gordon told NFL Media. “I came in the first round, and not once did I ask Danny a question and he said no. I could ask Danny anything. ‘This is how you do it. This is how I watch film, this is how I study film, this is how I take notes. These are my notes.’ That was dope because not every guy is like that. He could’ve said, ‘You’re coming in to take my job? Why would I help you?’ He was never that way, so I told myself as a young guy, regardless of who they bring in I’m going to take them under my wing and I’m going to teach them.”

The Broncos took Williams in the second round this year, which may be an indication that the 28-year-old Gordon is not part of Denver’s long-term plans. But if that’s the case, Gordon will take it like a professional. Woodhead showed him that’s the way it’s done.


The Father of Modern Libraries Was a Serial Sexual Harasser

Adelaide Hasse was used to professional challenges. As a young woman, she struggled to be taken seriously by mostly male executive boards. She created a groundbreaking new way to classify government documents𠅊nd was disappointed when a male colleague claimed the credit. But armed with a new job at the New York Public Library, a better salary, and an ambitious new project, she finally felt optimistic about her career.

To pull off her newest plan, she𠆝 need support, so she approached the leading voice in her field, Melvil Dewey, a man whose innovations made him a household name. He suggested they meet privately about her new project. Encouraged, she made her way to Albany, New York—only to find that he had arranged what amounted to a weekend-long date. It’s unclear what happened next, but Hasse departed hastily after being taken for a long drive by Dewey, and later spoke to colleagues about how offensive his behavior had been.

The story sounds like it could involve a Harvey Weinstein or Matt Lauer, but it didn’t. It took place in 1905, more than a century before the #metoo movement that exposed the sexual misconduct of America’s most powerful men. And the man in question was Melvil Dewey, the library pioneer whose decimal system of classification is still used in libraries today𠅊 “protean genius” who raised himself from a poor farmer’s son to an icon during his lifetime.

Dewey is remembered today as aninnovator who ushered American librarianship into the modern age. He helped invent the modern library, shaping everything from its organizational methods to its look to the roles of the librarians who were their stewards. But his pattern of sexual harassment was so egregious that women like Hasse dared to speak out against it, at a time when women were harshly judged for reporting sexual harassment. So many came forward that he was kicked out of the profession’s most prestigious association after an industry cruise in Alaska turned dangerous for women.

Books on a college library bookshelf. (Credit: Kickstand/Getty Images)

The pattern of abuse cost Dewey money and his professional reputation𠅊nd was brought to light by women whose careers he could make or break. And it was so pervasive that for decades, librarians risked their livelihoods to expose his behavior.

𠇏or many years women librarians have been the special prey of Mr. Dewey in a series of outrages against decency,” argued Los Angeles Public Library head librarian Tessa Kelso, one of Dewey’s most outspoken critics, in a 1924 letter. Yet his behavior was often dismissed by male colleagues, including Dewey’s son, Godfrey, as mere 𠇍isregard of conventions and indifference to appearances.”

During the late 19th and early 20th century, Dewey translated a career in library supplies to a position as one of the world’s most influential librarians. As editor of The Library Journal, a cofounder of the American Library Association, head librarian of Columbia University and the New York State Librarian, he wielded considerable influence in the library profession. But he also garnered hatred and was largely ostracized from the profession he helped found for harassing women.

Ironically, many women owed Dewey their ability to work in the library field at all. Dewey insisted onadmitting women to the male-only graduate program in librarianship at Columbia College, and lost his job in part due to that decision. Dewey knew the modern libraries he needed would require cheap, eager labor𠅊nd the generation’s few professional women, who were determined to prove themselves in a male-dominated world, were the perfect fit.

But though Dewey championed women in library science, he also seemed to think that harassment came along with the job𠅊nd his obsession with female students’ sexuality was so overt that rumors circulated he asked them to submit their bust measurements along with their applications. (He didn’t.) He surrounded himself with librarians—often spinsters𠅊ndinsisted on entertaining them in private. And observerswatched him repeatedly squeeze and hug his two live-in assistants𠅋oth women.

Low Library at Columbia University, New York, where Dewey was a head librarian. (Credit: Geo. P. Hall & Son/The New York Historical Society/Getty Images)

In 1905, Dewey took a cruise to Alaska with several members of the American Library Association. Its purpose was to unwind after a long ALA conference and plan the future of the newly founded American Library Institute. But for some of the women on board, it was no vacation. Dewey’s sexual misconduct was serious enough for four women to accuse Dewey of harassment.

Dewey was ultimately forced out of the American Library Association, an organization he had cofounded𠅊 rare public consequence for one of the era’s many harassing men. Though Hasse was given the chance to testify against Dewey, she—perhaps scared to endanger the career she had fought so hard for�lined to do so.

As for Dewey, heclaimed that “I have been very unconventional𠉪s men [are] always who frankly show and speak of their liking of women.” However, he stopped short of calling his behavior harassment.

It’s stillunclear exactly what Dewey’s offensive behavior consisted of𠅊nd because of the mores of the time, it’s not surprising that women were either afraid to come forward or hesitated to write down their specific accusations. But his behavior was so bad that he was characterized, in his words, as 𠇊 hopeless scamp that no self-respecting librarian [would] dare be in the same county with.”

Fifteen years after he left the ALA, Dewey was accused of inappropriate behavior with other female librarians. Tessa Kelso, a prominent Los Angeles librarian, helped organize a group of women to privately testify against Dewey. During thatinvestigation, it surfaced that Dewey had supposedly harassed his own daughter-in-law to the extent that she moved out of his house. Dewey denied the accusations,claiming that Kelso and the other women were “old maids” who wanted to ruin his career, and the investigation was eventually dropped.

In 1930, more sexual harassment allegations surfaced when Dewey’s former stenographer accused him of assaulting her, including kissing her against her will in a taxi. Though Dewey initially dismissed the allegations asblackmail, the 78-year-old eventually paid $2,147—the equivalent of over $30,000 in 2017 dollars—to hush up the case.

Like many other powerful harassers, Dewey’s pattern of sexual abuse has been noted, but often portrayed as a side note to his life. He’s referred toas “one strange guy”or 𠇌ompulsive,” but his misconduct is usually written off as secondary to his outsized contributions to the library profession.

Dewey’s pattern of harassment demonstrated his dismissal of the very women he claimed to want in the profession. His innovations helped make librarianship possible𠅋ut we may never find out how many women’s careers he ended or hindered in his quest for sexual power.


How Bob Melvin has been perfect fit with A's

OAKLAND -- Adam Rosales had a premonition. The vibe as he sat on the black leather chair inside Bob Melvin’s office was all too familiar to the previous three times he’d been sent down to the Minor Leagues. Sure enough, the A’s skipper delivered the dreaded news. For the fourth time in the span of 10 months, Rosales was being optioned to Triple-A Sacramento.

Known for his scrappy and energetic play on the field, Rosales is reserved off it. He was never one to speak out in protest. But this time, he felt like he had to say something.

Rosales nervously tapped his fingers along his hips as he waited for Melvin to finish explaining the logistics of the move. He stood up once the discussion was over, still contemplating whether he should voice his opinion. Heading towards the door to the A’s clubhouse inside the Coliseum, Rosales decided to venture out of his comfort zone. He stopped just before grabbing the door handle and turned back around to face Melvin.

“BoMel,” Rosales said, referring to Melvin using his oft-used nickname. “I wish you guys had more confidence in me.”

Without hesitating, Melvin countered: “Rosey, before we can have more confidence in you, you gotta have more confidence in yourself.”

Rosales was stunned. This wasn’t the normal coach speak he was anticipating. The typical cliches that managers will often throw out to deflect the heat. Instead, Melvin, who wasn’t even a full season into his tenure as Oakland’s manager, had kept it real.

“He really shot me straight,” Rosales said, recalling that interaction that took place June 16, 2012. “That opened my eyes. I feel like most managers would have been like, ‘Hey, it’s not my decision.’ But he truly cared about me enough to tell me how it really was and what he really saw. Just had that mutual respect. That stood out to me.”

Wednesday marked the 10-year anniversary of Melvin taking over as manager of the A’s. Replacing Bob Geren at the time, the task was unenviable -- guide a club that hadn’t reached the postseason in a half-decade out of obscurity. Six playoff appearances, two Manager of the Year Awards and over 800 wins later, Melvin is enjoying a run as the longest-tenured active manager in the game.

10 years ago today, we hired the man who is now the winningest manager in Oakland A’s history. pic.twitter.com/O6HLhIQPOg

&mdash Oakland A's (@Athletics) June 9, 2021

Last week, Melvin -- who as a 10-year-old kid from Menlo Park sat 15 rows behind the Coliseum’s visiting dugout for Game 3 of the 1972 World Series to cheer the A’s to victory against the Reds -- surpassed Hall of Famer Tony La Russa’s record for most wins all time by a manager in Oakland history. Legendary Connie Mack, who guided the Philadelphia Athletics from 1901-1950, holds the franchise record for wins (3,582).

This impressive longevity has been cultivated by relationships Melvin has formed with his players. Instances where Melvin has opened a player’s eyes with his blunt honesty, like that exchange with Rosales in 2012, have been a trademark of his managerial style. Even with heavy player turnover, Melvin’s transparency has resonated with each group that has come through Oakland. His understated approach to managing has also served as a buoy inside the A’s clubhouse.

Melvin's exceptional communication skills extend to his interactions with the A's front office as well. From executive vice president of baseball operations Billy Beane down to general manager David Forst and assistant GMs Billy Owens and Dan Feinstein, Melvin is united with the group to form a partnership that remains in constant dialogue regarding roster decisions.

"Bob is an absolute treasure," Owens said. "He has this unique ability to make you feel important, regardless of your stature in the room. His relationship with everyone in the front office is seamless. He listens and considers every piece of information while being able to decipher, analyze and come to a conclusion. He’s not going to always agree, but he’ll consider all of the votes.

“When we first hired Bob, my phone blew up with players he had before being effusive in their praise. They couldn’t say enough good things. After experiencing him first-hand, I can echo how awesome he truly is.”

One of the rare times during the Melvin Era in which an internal conflict reached the public came in 2015. Josh Reddick, an emerging star on the A’s clubs that reached the postseason each year from 2012-14, was upset with his limited playing time against left-handed pitchers and voiced his displeasure in an interview with a local Bay Area radio station. After talking it out with Melvin one day later, the two were back on the same page.

“Bob was one of the better people to handle that for me,” Reddick said. “He was a great mediator to voice my opinion. That was pretty fantastic of how he handled that for me, on a personal level.”

Melvin’s ability to quell similar quandaries remains a quality that sticks out with this current group of A’s.

Chad Pinder, a second-round pick by Oakland in the 2013 Draft, breezed through the A’s Minor League system playing on an everyday basis at either second base or shortstop. But since his arrival to the Majors in 2016, he’s become a utility man who has played seven positions, with most of his starts coming on days that the club is facing a tough lefty starter.

Pinder would be justified in advocating for a steady everyday job at one position. It’s all he’d done in his professional career prior to getting called up. However, he receives a clear understanding of how he can make an impact, even in an unorthodox situation in terms of playing time, from Melvin’s upfront and clear communication before each season.

“With a lot of uncertainty with my role, he tells me as it is and how it’s going to be. What I’ve got to do,” Pinder said. “That’s all you can ask for out of a manager -- not to be held in the dark about things. He’s very honest about what I have to do. Very open and transparent. That’s something I really respect about him and am grateful for.”

Players like Pinder, Matt Chapman and Matt Olson have played under only Melvin so far in their big league career, but they realize how rare it is to have always had manager of Melvin’s caliber.

“Talking to other guys who have played for BoMel and gone to other teams, you just see and understand how good of a manager he is and how lucky all of us are,” Chapman said. “He was never too hard on us when we were young. He gave us the opportunity to continue to work and grow. He was patient with us in 2017, when a lot of us young guys came up. I think he’s always believed in us.

“I owe a lot of the success that I’ve had to BoMel for giving me the opportunity and believing. He shows up every day and is always there for the guys. He treats everybody the same, whether it’s a young guy or a vet.”

Shortstop Marcus Semien played under Melvin for six seasons before joining the Blue Jays as a free agent this offseason. Before his first game back in Oakland last month, Semien called Melvin “a father figure” and “the best manager in the game.”

Mitch Moreland had heard the rave reviews about Melvin from afar. He knew a little bit about the manager from head-to-head American League West battles over the last decade while a member of the Rangers. Once he signed with the A’s in February and arrived in Mesa, Ariz., for Spring Training, he quickly understood why Melvin had received such heavy praise. It was warranted.

“I got the same vibe from the guys when I got here in spring. He’s good, man,” Moreland said. “He makes all the right calls and the right moves. He communicates well with the guys and keeps it light and fun. It just seems like he’s always a step ahead. Just playing against him, that’s what I saw all those years. Being able to play under him has been a treat and a privilege.”

There’s more to Melvin’s success than just being honest and understated, though. He’s also a brilliant in-game strategist. How else could you explain the A’s ability to consistently compete with and often overcome AL West juggernauts? Whether it was the powerhouse Rangers clubs of the early 2010s or the star-studded Astros teams in the past few years, Melvin takes his group of lesser-known players and finds a way to even the playing field.

“I think he’s a wizard,” Reddick said. “He crafts all kinds of crazy lineups and finds different ways to win with different players that may not be the biggest superstars in baseball. That’s how it’s been for probably the last nine years in that organization.

“He’s handled it perfectly and has years of experience from being a bench coach and manager in different organizations. He knows how to impact every part of the game in any given moment. He does the perfect job for those guys over there.”

Going through his 18th season as a manager in an illustrious career that features nearly 1,300 wins and three Manager of the Year Awards -- his first came in 2007 as manager of the D-backs -- the only box left for Melvin to check off is a World Series title. That’s a big motivating factor for these current A’s, who are positioned well for another postseason appearance as they currently sit atop the AL West standings in first place.

Regardless of how many titles or wins he finishes with, though, Melvin has clearly left a lasting impact on his players. Don’t be surprised if you see some of the A’s of the last decade become managers one day and employ some of Melvin’s managerial qualities. There’s already one in the A’s organization with Rosales, who just this year was named manager of the Arizona A’s in the Arizona Rookie League.

“The couple of things I take from him is how you treat your players with that respect and transparency,” Rosales said. “You think like an airplane pilot or captain of the ship. If there’s any kind of panic or emotion that is hard to read, it’s going to be confusing. He’s even-keeled. He’s level-headed, because he slows the game down for himself and for the entire team.

“He reached out to every individual on the team and truly wanted to have a cohesive unit. He wanted to bring that culture in. That transparency. That open-door policy. That communication is everything.”


Summary and Conclusions

The idea that one of the outcomes of human evolution is a very prolonged period of adolescent growth and delayed maturity is old, and is consistent with life-history theory, comparative primatology, and the hominin fossil record. We suggest in addition that emerging adulthood is a life-history stage that is part of the foundation the high productivity of human beings: our metabolic potential exceeds the metabolic requirements of survival and this excess is first used to support growth and brain maturation before being allocated to reproduction. We contend that the duration of human maturation has been underestimated, and that an additional 4𠄶-year pre-adult period, which (following Arnett) we call emerging adulthood, should be included in human life history. Recent imaging studies have shown that brain development continues throughout emerging adulthood maturation of the neocortical association areas, notably the frontal lobes, extends into the mid-twenties, and is still incomplete long after the end of puberty and linear body growth. There is now abundant evidence that the frequency of behavioral disturbances of adolescence, such as unplanned sexual activity, risk-taking, impulsivity, depression, and delinquency, declines after adolescence despite persistent high levels of gonadal hormones. The most likely explanation for the transient nature of these behavioral disturbances of adolescence is continuing myelination of the frontal cortex and other brain regions that are involved in the executive control of impulses and emotions.

Adolescence is often delayed in foraging societies, resembling our human environments of evolutionary adaptedness. Since the women in these societies have late menarche and are subsequently subfertile, the age of these young women at the time of first birth is 19 years and their husbands are generally several years older. These young parents are strongly supported by older family members, who supply needed food and advice. The mastering of subsistence skills takes many years and an individual generally becomes proficient in these skills in their fourth decade. These realities highlight the adaptive advantages of a post-adolescent or emerging adulthood phase of human maturation, which requires substantial brain maturation and learning.

Secular trends indicate that the duration of pre-adolescent growth and development has shortened over the past two centuries and a further decoupling between pubertal/hormonal maturation and brain maturation has occurred in adolescents in developed societies. The nutritional and social conditions which drive this trend have been previously discussed and reviewed (2). While the mental maturation of adolescents and emerging adults in developed societies is as slow or slower than that of those in predeveloped societies, the onset of puberty in the developed societies now occurs at a younger age than that in the predeveloped societies. Many people in advanced developed states have increasingly recognized the need for prolonged period of education and support beyond adolescence. Others in contrast, especially those in the developing world where traditional structural support systems have collapsed, are often not able to provide the experience of a protected emerging adulthood to their children, leading the United Nations to identify youth, defined as 15� years of age, as a demographic group at risk and a special target for intervention (11). The period of emerging adulthood has an evolutionary context and a prolonged maturational underpinning, and we present evidence that supports the idea that emerging adults require protection because they are still both learning and maturing. Yet, A literature review and hypotheses of that sort are based on associations. The prolonged dependency and frequent confusion of emerging adults in modern societies is not solely attributable to the complexity of our societies, but also to the fact that they are, intrinsically and physiologically, not yet adults.


Watch the video: Никита братан c; Melvin Young (December 2021).