Lysimachus Timeline

Lysimachus Timeline

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  • c. 361 BCE - 281 BCE

  • 328 BCE

    Lysimachus becomes one of Alexander's bodyguards.

  • 323 BCE

  • 321 BCE

    Lysimachus marries Antipater's daughter Nicaea.

  • c. 320 BCE

    Ephesos renamed Arsineia by Lysimachus following Alexander the Great's death.

  • 309 BCE

    Lysimachus founds the city of Lysimachia to secure the Dardanelles.

  • 305 BCE

    Lysimachus assumes the title of king.

  • 301 BCE

  • c. 300 BCE

    Lysimachus marries Arsinoe II, the daughter of Ptolemy I.

  • 292 BCE

    Lysimachus is captured by Dromichaites, the king of Getae and forced to surrender Trans-Danubian territories.

  • 284 BCE

    Lysimachus drives Pyrrhus out of Macedon.

  • 281 BCE

    Lysimachus is defeated by Seleucus I Nicator at Corupedium.

Attalid dynasty

The Attalid dynasty ( / ˈ æ t əl ɪ d / Koinē Greek: Δυναστεία των Ατταλιδών , romanized: Dynasteía ton Attalidón) was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great.

Attalid dynasty
CountryKingdom of Pergamon
Current regionWestern Asia Minor
Place of originPaphlagonia
Final rulerAttalus III
Final headEumenes III
Deposition133 BC ( 133 BC )

The kingdom was a rump state that had been left after the collapse of the Lysimachian Empire. One of Lysimachus' lieutenants, Philetaerus, took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father and expanded the city into a kingdom.

Lysimachus of Alexandria°

LYSIMACHUS OF ALEXANDRIA° (of uncertain date), author of several mythographical works and a book on Egypt. In addition to the scurrilous versions of the Exodus given by *Manetho and ʬhaeremon , Josephus adds the account of Lysimachus, who, he says, "surpasses both in the incredibility of his fictions" (Apion, 1:304�). According to Lysimachus' version, in the reign of Bocchoris (perhaps a corruption of bekhor, in allusion to the plague of the first-born during which the Jews left Egypt), king of Egypt, the Jews (see also *Tacitus , Historiae, 5:3), afflicted with leprosy and scurvy, took refuge in the temples. A dearth ensued throughout Egypt, and an oracle of Ammon informed the king that the failure of the crops could be averted only by purging the temples of impure persons, driving them out into the wilderness and drowning those afflicted with leprosy. After the lepers had been drowned, the others, numbering 110,600 were exposed in the desert to perish. A certain Moses, however, advised them to proceed until they reached inhabited country, instructing them to show goodwill to no man, to offer not the best but the worst advice, and to overthrow any temples which they found. When they came to the country now called Judea, they built a town called Hierosyla ("town of temple-robbers"). At a later date they altered the name to avoid reproach and called the city Hierosolyma. Josephus attempts to refute the account, not by offering other evidence, but by showing its intrinsic improbability.


A. Gudeman, in: Pauly-Wissowa, 27 (1928), 32� Reinach, Textes, 117� Schuerer, Gesch, 3 (1909 4 ), 535f.

Sources: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.

Lysimachus of Telmessos

Lysimachus of Telmessos (Greek: Λυσίμαχου του Τελμησσόυ, flourished 3rd century BC), also known as Lysimachus II was a Greek Prince from Asia Minor who served as a Ptolemaic Client King under the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt.

Family Background

Lysimachus was the first-born son and heir of Ptolemy I Epigone by an unnamed Greek aristocratic mother and had a younger brother called Epigonos of Telmessos. Lysimachus’ father Ptolemy, was a Greek Prince who through marriage and adoption was to be the first intended heir of the Pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Lysimachus through his father, was a relation to three of the Diadochi of the Greek King Alexander the Great: Lysimachus, Ptolemy I Soter and the powerful Regent Antipater.

Lysimachus was the namesake of two people in his father’s family: his paternal grandfather, Thessalian Lysimachus who was King of Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedonia and his late paternal uncle of the same name, Lysimachus. He had a paternal cousin also called, Lysimachus of Egypt one of the sons born to Ptolemy II from his first wife, Lysimachus’ paternal aunt Arsinoe I.

His paternal grandmother was Arsinoe II, a Ptolemaic Greek Macedonian Princess who married his paternal grandmother as his third wife who later married her full-blooded brother Ptolemy II Philadelphus as her third husband and through marriage became Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Arsinoe II was a daughter born to Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice I of Egypt. Ptolemy I was the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt and Berenice I was the great-niece of the powerful Regent Antipater, through her maternal grandfather Cassander, the brother of Antipater.

Lysimachus was born at an unknown date either in his father’s co-regency of the Ptolemaic Kingdom with Ptolemy II in Alexandria Egypt which was from 267 BC until 259 BC or when his father was the first Ptolemaic Client King of Telmessos in Lycia. His father ruled Telmessos from late 259 BC until his death in February 240 BC. Little is known on his early life prior to succeeding his father.

Lysimachus probably succeeded his father, not so long after the death of his father and after his father was honored by a decree from Ptolemy III Euergetes. When his father was honored by Ptolemy III in his decree to Telmessos, Lysimachus had a Greek Macedonian friend honored called Aristeas Kleandrou, who was given privileges in the Telmessian decree in accordance from a request in a letter that he had written. Lysimachus was the third ruler from the Lysimachid dynasty, which is also known as the Ptolemaic/Lysimachid dynasty in Lycia to rule the city. He was a contemporary to the rule of his paternal first cousin Ptolemy III Euergetes who ruled from 246 BC till 222 BC and one of the sons and heir of Ptolemy III, Ptolemy IV Philopator who ruled from 222 BC till 204 BC. He ruled as the second Ptolemaic Client King of Telmessos from 240 BC until he died in 206 BC.

According to surviving inscriptions at Telmessos, Lysimachus didn’t seem to have a royal title nor it is clear his relationship with the Pharaohs in Alexandria, however it seems that Lysimachus recognised the rule of Ptolemy III’s authority in Alexandria. It seems likely that Lysimachus had his relative autonomy from Ptolemaic control increased. As Ptolemaic power declined rapidly and dramatically outside of Egypt after the death of Ptolemy III in 222 BC, probably Lysimachus and his family had the motive and opportunity for divorcing themselves from Ptolemaic suzerainty. At an unknown date during his reign, Lysimachus and his family were enjoying excellent cordial relations with the Seleucid monarch Antiochus III the Great. Antiochus III reigned from 222 BC until 187 BC, was an enemy of the Ptolemies who was at the time expanding Seleucid power in Asia Minor. When Lysimachus died, he was succeeded by Ptolemy II of Telmessos, his son and successor by an unnamed Greek woman.

Marcus Julius Alexander

Marcus Julius Alexander (16 - 44 CE), the son of Alexander the Alabarch and brother of Tiberius Julius Alexander, was a distinguished and wealthy Alexandrian Jewish merchant.

Ancestry and Family

Marcus was born and raised in Alexandria, Egypt. Marcus was born as the second son to Alexander the Alabarch, a wealthy Jewish aristocrat, and his older brother was Tiberius Julius Alexander. His paternal uncle was the exegete and philosopher Philo.

He came from an aristocratic family who lived in Alexandria for generations. His ancestors and family were contemporaries to the rule of the Ptolemaic dynasty and the rule of the Seleucid Empire. Marcus came from a family who were noble, honourable and wealthy. It was either his paternal grandfather or paternal great grandfather who was granted Roman citizenship from Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar. His ancestors and family had social ties and connections to the Priesthood in Judea Hasmonean Dynasty Herodian Dynasty and Julio-Claudian dynasty in Rome.

Marcus along with his family were contemporaries to the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the lives of The Apostles of Jesus. Marcus along with his brother received a thorough education. They were educated in the Egyptian, Jewish, Greek and Roman cultures, particularly in the traditions of Judaism, the study of the Old Testament and in Greek Philosophy.

Marcus’ father and Herodian King Agrippa I were long time friends. Agrippa I as an elegant way to give something back to Alexander the Alabarch, who supported Agrippa I in the past, arranged for his daughter princess Berenice to marry Marcus. In 41, Marcus married Berenice as her first husband. This marriage shows that there were good relations between Marcus’ family and the Herodian Dynasty.

Unfortunately, this marriage was short lived as Marcus died before August 44. Marcus had no children with Berenice. Berenice’s father later arranged for her to marry her paternal uncle Herod of Chalcis in 44.


Macedonian from Pella (late sources wrongly allege Thessalian origins), was prominent in the entourage of Alexander the Great, achieving the rank of Bodyguard by 328. At Babylon (323) he received Thrace as his province, establishing himself with some difficulty against the Thracian dynast, Seuthes (322). He consolidated his power in the eastern coastal districts, suppressing a revolt among the Black Sea cities (313) and founding Lysimacheia in the Chersonese as a bulwark against the Odrysian monarchy (309). Though he assumed royal titulature (306/5), he made no mark in the wars of the Successors until in 302 he invaded Asia Minor and fought the delaying campaign against Antigonus the One-eyed which enabled Seleucus I to bring up his army for the decisive battle of Ipsus (301). His reward was the lands of Asia Minor north of the Taurus, the source of immense wealth, which he husbanded with legendary tight-fistedness and a degree of fiscal rapacity. These new reserves (Pergamum alone held 9,000 talents) supported his impressive coinage and allowed him to consolidate in Europe, where he extended his boundaries north until he was captured by the Getic king, Dromichaetes, and forced to surrender his Transdanubian acquisitions (292). In 287 he joined Pyrrhus in expelling Demetrius the Besieger from Macedon and two years later occupied the entire kingdom. His writ now ran from the Epirote borders to the Taurus, but dynastic intrigue proved his nemesis, when he killed his heir, Agathocles, at the instigation of his second wife, Arsinoë II, and alienated his nobility (283). Seleucus was invited to intervene and again invaded Asia Minor. The decisive battle at Corupedium (c.January 281) cost Lysimachus his life. Asia passed to the Seleucids while Macedonia dissolved into anarchy.

Lysimachus Timeline - History


Smyrna was the second city to receive a letter from the apostle John in the book of Revelation. Acts 19:10 suggests that the church there was founded during Paul’s third missionary journey. Due to the fact that the port city of Izmir houses the second largest population in Turkey today, the site of ancient Smyrna has been little excavated. Excepting the agora, theater, and sections of the Roman aqueduct, little remains of the ancient city.


Smyrna sat 35 miles (56 km) north of Ephesus, built near the ruins of an ancient Greek colony destroyed in the 7th century BC. Lysimachus, one of Alexander the Great’s generals, rebuilt Smyrna as a new Hellenistic city in the 3rd century BC. The city was later established as a Roman commercial center with a port on the Aegean Sea. Scholars believe the city grew to about 100,000 by the time of the apostles Paul and John.

The Agora

This 2nd century AD agora, midway between the acropolis and the harbor, was partially excavated by German and Turkish archaeologists from 1932–41. Porticoes lined the north and west sides of the agora, and an altar to Zeus sat in the center.

Agora First Level Arches

The letter in Revelation 2:8-11 is filled with the affection and joy that comes from triumph over hardship and persecution. The church faced strong Jewish opposition in Smyrna. There was a considerable number of Jews in the city from pre-New Testament times through the Ottoman period. Even today, various synagogues are located throughout the modern city.

Agora Lion Statue

When John said that some will be thrown into prison, he knew that Roman imprisonment was frequently a prelude to execution. He encouraged the believers to be faithful even unto death. In this persecution, John’s own apprentice, Polycarp, was martyred here in AD 155. An example of John’s warning and exhortation, he refused to blaspheme the Lord’s name and was subsequently burned alive.

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Related Websites

Ancient Smyrna (Drive Thru History). A brief exploration of the site’s history and a discussion of the letter to Smyrna in Revelation.

Smyrna (Pilgrim Tours). A collection of entries on Smyrna from various Bible dictionaries.

Izmir (All About Turkey). This page is most interesting for its information about Izmir’s more recent history. It also has many links to related pages.

Smyrna (Livius). An article with a timeline of the site and many interesting photos.

Izmir ( Describes the history and legends associated with Smyrna, accompanied by a few small pictures.

Izmir – Birth Place of Homer (Focus Multimedia). Offers a brief cultural and historical glance at the city where Homer is believed to have lived. Internal links direct the reader to articles on related subjects.

Turkey & Seven Churches of Revelation Photo Album (ArcImaging, Rex Weissler). Offers quite a few large pictures from a tour of Turkey. Go to “I” section (for Izmir) or click on the appropriate “tour” link at the top of the page.

Alternative Version of Hanukkah Story

Contemporary knowledge of the Maccabees is based on Jewish sources—and, of course, victors write history in their own way. Modern scholars have a slightly different perspective on the story, based not on the book First Maccabbees but instead on the book Second Maccabbees.

Rather than battling the Seleucid Empire, they suggest, the Maccabees and their followers were battling against the Hellenized Jews. From this perspective, Antiochus IV was actually intervening in a Jewish civil war on the side of Hellenists (who had always been a majority group and political force in the Seleucid Empire. While this perspective provides a very different historical slant, it has no impact on the way in which Jews around the world celebrate the Hanukkah holiday.

Lysimachus Timeline - History

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

li-sim'-a-kus (Lusimachos):
(1) The son of Ptolemy, of Jerusalem, is named (Additions to Esther 11:1) as the interpreter (translator of the Rest of Esther into Greek).
(2) Brother of Menelaus, a Greek name said by Josephus (Ant., XII, v, 1) to have been assumed by Onias, the high priest in the hellenizing days of Antiochus Epiphanes, as the Jewish name Jesus was changed to Jason. When Menelaus was summoned to Antioch (2 Macc 4:29) on a charge of malversation, he left Lysimachus as his deputy in the priesthood at Jerusalem. Lysimachus robbed the temple and caused an insurrection in which he met his death beside the treasury (2 Macc 4:42). The name of Lysimachus does not appear in the narrative of these events given by Josephus
J. Hutchison Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Definition for 'lysimachus'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". - ISBE 1915.

Copyright Information
© International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE)

Ptolemaic Dynasty

The road to kingship over Egypt was not easy for Ptolemy. However, he successfully established his authority in 305 BC. This started the Ptolemaic Dynasty, which lasted until 204 BC according to the Biblical Timeline with World History. Despite this, his family ruled Egypt for almost 300 years with the famous Cleopatra VII as the last queen of Egypt in 30 BC. All of them were Macedonians, and all male rulers used the name Ptolemy (with variations such as Philadelphos, Eurgetes, etc.) while the female rulers used either Arsinoe, Berenice, or Cleopatra as their names.

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Alexander the Great in Babylon threw his large empire into chaos when he died without an heir. Although he had an unborn child by his wife Roxana, his empire, which spanned from Greece to the borders of India, were divided among his trusted generals (diadochi): Seleucus I over Asia, Cassander over Macedonia and Greece, Lysimachus over Trace and Asia Minor, and Ptolemy I over Egypt.

Before Ptolemy ruled Egypt, Alexander first appointed the unpopular Cleomenes of Naucratis as governor of Egypt. Perdiccas, upon Alexander’s death, stood as regent for Philip III (Alexander’s half-brother who had mild learning difficulties). Perdiccas appointed Ptolemy as governor over Egypt instead. When Perdiccas sent Alexander’s remains from Babylon to Macedonia, Ptolemy prevented its return. He then diverted Alexander’s remains to Egypt as a way to legitimize his rule. This made Perdiccas angry, and he raised an army to invade Egypt. He was was unsuccessful in this quest after he was killed by his own officers.

It was the practice of the Ptolemaic dynasty to marry within their own family as it was the tradition of the native Egyptian pharaohs. It started with Ptolemy II (Philadelphos) who married his sister Arsinoe II. This practice continued until Cleopatra VII’s reign. The Macedonian rulers used the Egyptian religion and culture to legitimize their rule over the territory. They allowed the native Egyptians freedom to worship their own gods and styled themselves as gods after the Egyptian practice. Their queens were even proclaimed as goddesses after their death.

What made the Ptolemaic dynasty unique was that they allowed women to rule either alone or as coregent with their husbands. They also gave lands to Greek and Macedonian veterans so they could settle in Egypt. Many of them married native Egyptians, but they set themselves apart by using the Greek language, laws, and culture. The Ptolemies even refused to learn the Egyptian language which made them unpopular with the people.

The native Egyptians were not influential during this period, and the country was plagued with rebellions against the Macedonian rulers. The Ptolemies also dealt with conflicts within their own family. This started between Ptolemy VIII and Ptolemy VI and spilled over to mother and daughter who were both named Cleopatra. Finally, a civil war broke out between Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra II.

The Ptolemaic dynasty continued to rule Egypt until it became a Roman province in 30 BC. The last monarch from the Ptolemaic dynasty was Cleopatra VII, who died from a bite from an asp after Octavian (Augustus) defeated her and her lover, Mark Antony.

References [ edit ]

Primary sources [ edit ]

Secondary sources [ edit ]

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Philip V., king of Macedonia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 21 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • The Oxford Classical Dictionary (1964)
  • The Oxford History of the Classical World (1995)
  • The Oxford Who's Who in the Classical World (2000)
  • Shipley, Graham (2008). "Approaching the Macedonian Peloponnese" (PDF) . Ausonius études. Bordeaux/Paris: Ausonius/De Boccard. 21: 53–68 . Retrieved 5 July 2010 .
  • [permanent dead link]

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